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  • 1.
    Aagerup, Ulf
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Intermediate Luxury Fashion: Brand Building via Fat Discrimination2016In: 11th Global Brand Conference / [ed] Stuart Roper, Saltaire, UK: Greenleaf Publishing , 2016, p. 23-28Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate if intermediate luxury fashion brands discriminate overweight and obese consumers.

    Design/methodology/approach: 1,454 intermediate luxury garments were tallied and measured in-store in London. The physical sizes of the garments were matched to the body sizes of the population, and a gap analysis was carried out in order to determine whether the supply of clothes match the relative importance of each market segment.

    Findings: While previous research shows that mass-market fashion companies do not discriminate overweight and obese consumers, intermediate luxury garments come in very small sizes compared to the individuals that make up the population.

    Research limitations/implications: The findings show that purveyors of intermediate luxury fashion limit assortments of garments so they avoid fat typical user imagery.

    Practical implications: Companies that market products that are sensitive to the typical user imagery can optimize their brands by limiting undesirable customer types access to their brands, provided that 1) they have the financial strength to reject customers whose image would be detrimental to the brand, 2) the companies are active in an industry in which people would tolerate customer rejection, and 3) they sell a product that actually can be denied undesirable customers.

    Social implications: The study shows that fat consumers are relegated to mass-market fashion but are excluded from intermediate luxury fashion. This constitutes a social inequality.

    Originality/value: The result of this study provides quantitative evidence that companies control assortments to exclude undesirable typical user imagery. It also delineates under which conditions they do it. This adds to the theory of user imagery.

  • 2.
    Aagerup, Ulf
    Department of Business Administration School of Business, Economics and Law University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The Impact of User Weight on Brands and Business Practices in Mass Market Fashion2010Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Overweight people claim to be mistreated by the fashion industry. If they were, it would be in line with branding theory supporting the idea of rejecting fat consumers to improve user imagery for fashion brands. However, fashion companies do not confess to such practices.

    To shed some light on the subject, I have conducted two studies.

    The first attempts to illustrate what effect, if any, user imagery has on fashion brands. It is an experiment designed to show how the weight of users affects consumers’ perceptions of mass market fashion brands. The findings show that consumers’ impressions of mass market fashion brands are significantly affected by the weight of its users. The effect of male user imagery is ambiguous. For women’s fashion on the other hand, slender users are to be preferred.

    In the second study I examine what effects these effects have on assortments. I compare the sizes of mass market clothes to the body sizes of the population. No evidence of discrimination of overweight or obese consumers was found -quite the contrary.

    The reasons for these unexpected findings may be explained by the requirements a brand must fulfil to make management of the customer base for user imagery purposes viable. The brand must be sensitive to user imagery; a requirement that mass market fashion fulfils. However, it must also be feasible for a company to exclude customers, and while garment sizes can be restricted to achieve this, the high volume sales strategy of mass market fashion apparently cannot.

  • 3.
    Aagerup, Ulf
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL). School of Business, Economics, and Law, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    The influence of real women in advertising on mass market fashion brand perception2011In: Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, ISSN 1361-2026, E-ISSN 1758-7433, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 486-502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate how the weight of ideal users affects the perception of mass market fashion brands. Design/methodology/approach: An experiment was carried out in which 640 university students replied to a web survey, rating the brand personality of jeans and shirts according to Aaker's Big Five construct. The garments were worn by thin, overweight, and obese models. Findings: The findings show that consumers' impressions of mass market fashion brands are significantly affected by the weight of ideal users. Slender models lead to the most positive brand perception followed by obese models. Overweight user imagery is for pure fashion brand building the least attractive kind. Research limitations/implications: A limitation of this study is the use of convenient student samples. Consequently, the generalization of the results beyond this convenience sample may be limited. It is further possible, even probable, that high fashion would suffer more from the negative imagery of overweight and obese users than mass market fashion. It would therefore be interesting to replicate this experiment using clothes of higher fashion grade and price. Practical implications: The demonstrated effects of user imagery support the industry practice of slim ideal female imagery. Social implications: The results inform the debate over skinny models vs real women in advertising. Originality/value: Previous research regarding the effectiveness of real women in advertising has been inconclusive. This paper demonstrates not only that model weight affects consumers' brand perception, but also how. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 4.
    Aagerup, Ulf
    Department of Business Administration School of Business, Economics and Law University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    To sell or not to sell: overweight users’ effect on fashion assortmentsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Overweight people claim to be mistreated by the fashion industry. Fashion companies disagree. Despite the controversy, actual research has been scarce. This study compares the sizes of clothes the four leading mass marketing fashion retailers in Sweden offer to the body sizes of the population. Although branding theory would support the idea of rejecting fat consumers to improve user imagery for fashion brands, such practices were not evident. The main contribution of this paper is that it provides the first quantified empirical evidence on the theory of typical user imagery.

    In the discussion, it is posited that although mass market fashion brands should be susceptible to negative user imagery related to overweight and obese users, the companies avoid such problems by making garments that are not directly attributable to a specific brand, thus mitigating the negative effect of overweight and obese user imagery. 

  • 5.
    Aagerup, Ulf
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    To sell or not to sell: Overweight users’ effect on fashion assortments2010In: Journal of Brand Management, ISSN 1350-231X, E-ISSN 1479-1803, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 66-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Overweight people claim to be mistreated by the fashion industry. Fashion companies disagree. Despite the controversy, actual research has been scarce. This study compares the sizes of clothes that the four leading mass-marketing fashion retailers in Sweden offer to the body sizes of the population. Although branding theory would support the idea of rejecting fat consumers to improve user imagery for fashion brands, such practices were not evident. The main contribution of this article is that it provides the first quantified empirical evidence on the theory of typical user imagery. In the discussion, it is posited that, although mass-market fashion brands should be susceptible to negative user imagery related to overweight and obese users, the companies avoid such problems by making garments that are not directly attributable to a specific brand, thus mitigating the negative effect of overweight and obese user imagery. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Ltd.

  • 6.
    Aagerup, Ulf
    Department of Business Administration School of Business, Economics and Law University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    User BMI effects on mass market fashion brandsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate how the weight of users affects the perception of mass market fashion brands.

    Design/methodology/approach: This study attempts to show effects of typical - as well as ideal user imagery on fashion brands. An experiment was carried out in which 1848 university students replied to a web survey, rating the brand personality of jeans and shirts according to Aaker’s Big Five construct. The garments were worn by digitally manipulated versions of one person as thin, overweight, and obese.

    Findings: The findings show that consumers’ impressions of mass market fashion brands are significantly affected by the weight of its users. The effect of male user imagery is ambiguous. For women’s fashion on the other hand, slender users are to be preferred.

    Research limitations/implications: It is possible, even probable, that high fashion would suffer more from negative typical user imagery than would mass market fashion. It would therefore be interesting to replicate this experiment using clothes of higher fashion grade and price.

    Practical implications: The demonstrated effects of user imagery support the industry practice of slim ideal female imagery. However, excluding customers to boost brand perception should not be an option for these brands.

    Social implications: The results inform the debate over skinny models vs. “real women” in advertising as well as the debate over discrimination of overweight consumers through assortment decisions.

    Originality/value: This is the first time typical user imagery effects are included in a study of this type, and it is the first study to test user imagery effects on fashion. 

  • 7.
    Aagerup, Ulf
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Nilsson, Jonas
    Handelshögskolan i Göteborg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Green consumer behavior: being good or seeming good?2016In: Journal of Product & Brand Management, ISSN 1061-0421, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 274-284, article id 115980330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This paper aims to expand the emerging field of symbolic green consumer behavior (GCB) by investigating the impact of anticipated conspicuousness of the consumption situation on consumers’ choice of organic products. In addition, the paper also explores whether self-monitoring ability and attention to social comparison information (ATSCI) influence GCB in situations of anticipated high conspicuousness.

    Design/methodology/approach: Two experiments test the study’s hypotheses.

    Findings: The results of both experiments show that the anticipation of conspicuousness has a significant effect on GCB. Moreover, in Experiment 2, this effect is moderated by consumers’ level of ATSCI but not by their self-monitoring ability.

    Research limitations/implications: Because ATSCI significantly interacts with green consumption because of the anticipation of a conspicuous setting, although self-monitoring ability does not, we conclude that social identification is an important determinant of green consumption.

    Practical implications: Marketers who focus on building green brands could consider designing conspicuous consumption situations to increase GCB.

    Social implications: Policymakers could enact change by making the environmental unfriendliness of non-eco-friendly products visible to the public and thus increase the potential for GCB.

    Originality/value: The results validate the emerging understanding that green products are consumed for self-enhancement, but also expand the literature by highlighting that a key motivating factor of GCB is the desire to fit in.

  • 8.
    Aasberg Pipirs, Julius
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Carlsson, Christoffer
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    USING BRAND MANAGEMENT TO ESTABLISH NETWORK RELATIONS: How SMEs can work with brand management in order to establish and develop corporate reputation and legitimacy in network relations in a B2B context2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Using Brand management to establish network relations: How SMEs can work with brand management in order to establish and develop corporate reputation and legitimacy in network relations in a B2B context

    Authors: Aasberg Pipirs Julius & Carlsson Christoffer

    Level: Master thesis, 30hp

    Keywords: Brand management, SME, Legitimacy, Corporate reputation, Network relations

    Background: Given the crucial role SMEs play in the modern society it is vital that knowledge is evolved that can be used to support and grow these businesses. Using brand management practices SMEs could establish and develop corporate reputation and legitimacy in network relations, which could result in higher chances of long-term survival in a B2B context.

    Research Question: How does working with brand management among SMEs establish, and develop, corporate reputation and legitimacy, and how do these three concepts affect the process of establishing network relations in a B2B context?

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to first investigate how SMEs, in a B2B context, work with brand management and how this can establish and develop corporate reputation and legitimacy. Finally the authors wants to see how these three concepts affect the process of establishing network relations.

    Method: Based on an abductive research approach, a qualitative research method will be used to study six Swedish SMEs that operate in a B2B context. Primary data will be based on semi-structured interviews with managers at each company.

    Theoretical Framework: The current literature concerning SME brand management is presented followed by its linkages towards establishing and developing corporate reputation and legitimacy. Finally previous research concerning, the process of establishing network relations among SMEs, its relevance for SMEs, and how brand management, corporate reputation, and legitimacy could affect this process, is presented.

    Findings & Conclusions: Brand management offers SMEs the tools to communicate and interact with various types of stakeholders, which connects the organization to its external and internal environment. By combining this tool with a dedication of always performing above expectations, SMEs stands to efficiently establish and develop corporate reputation and legitimacy. These two constructs essentially acts as the foundation of that which network relations are built upon.

  • 9.
    Abelsson, Erik
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Adam, Herhold
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Produktplacering i bloggar: Vägen till generation Y!2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagens samhälle blir människan utsatt för mer information än någonsin tidigare. Företagen konkurrerar om att just deras budskap ska nå fram till konsumenten för att skapa den påverkan som i slutändan resulterar i konsumtion och som företagen tjänar sina pengar genom.

    Företagen har inte bara problem att sticka ut bland all övrig marknadskommunikation, människor blir även allt bättre på att sålla ut den information de själva är intresserade av. En av de största svårigheterna i sin kommunikation har företagen fått med den generation som precis ska kliva in i vuxenvärlden, de som är födda mellan 1977 och 1994 vilka varit uppvuxna med en ständig ström av information. Denna generation kallas för generation Y och är individer som utvecklat ett kritiskt sätt att sålla bland information och i synnerhet traditionell reklam. Detta tvingar företagen att finna nya vägar för att kunna påverka denna kräsna generation som ses som en viktig framtida konsument.

    Denna uppsats hade därför som syfte att undersöka en ny möjlig väg för företagen att komma åt generation Y på varpå en frågeställning har upprättats som lyder: Hur kan generation Y påverkas av produktplacering i bloggar?

    Produktplacering i bloggar var av stort intresse att utforska då generationen består av de människor som är mest aktiv på sociala medier och som läser flest bloggar. Då det fanns begränsad forskning på hur generation Y påverkas av bloggar och forskning inom produktplacering främst var gjord på medier så som film och TV fann vi ett kunskapshål att försöka fylla.

    För att fylla kunskapshålet har framförallt teori om kommunikation, påverkan, och generation Y samlats in för att kunna analyseras med det resultat som vi erhöll via en kvalitativ undersökning med två fokusgrupper som innehöll deltagare från generation Y.

    Resultatet av denna studie påvisade att produktplacering i bloggen kan påverka generation Y:s köpbeteende och hur produktplacering bör utformas samt vad som bör tas i beaktning för att påverkan på generation Y. Denna studie har därför bidragit med relevant kunskap till ett delvis outforskat område. Slutsatserna användas som en vägledning och riktlinjer för flera företag och marknadsförare som funderar på eller har bestämt sig för att produktplacera i bloggar.

  • 10.
    Abrahamsson, Caroline
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Swedish SME companies revisited ten years after2017Student paper other, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 11.
    Abrahamsson, Caroline
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    The advantages of social capital for businesses on Facebook2017Student paper other, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 12.
    Abrahamsson, Caroline
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    The nature of friends on Facebook2017Student paper other, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 13.
    Abrahamsson, Louise
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Tover, Sofie
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Hållbarhetsredovisning: En undersökning av hur lag (2016:947) om ändring i årsredovisningslagen (1995:1554) påverkar stora företag2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    From the fiscal year of 2017 and onwards, large companies in Sweden will be obligated by

    law to publish a sustainability report. Amendment (2016:947) to the Annual Account Act

    (1995:1554) is based upon an EU directive, which aims to create transparency and openness

    among companies. The amendment will affect about 1600 Swedish companies and aims to

    make companies more transparent and thus consider how their businesses affect the world.

    Scandals and crises from all over the world are contributing to the increasing demands and

    expectations on companies taking responsibilities for their actions. The sustainability reports

    aims not only to help companies operate a more sustainable business, but also to

    communicate their sustainable progress to stakeholders. Sustainability is a current issue and

    poses major challenges for companies, at which the amendment aims to respond. Hence the

    research question is: how does the amendment (2016:947) to the Annual Account Act

    (1995:1554) affect the sustainability reporting of large companies? To answer the research

    question we have assumed a qualitative method with inductive approach. An empirical study

    has been conducted with both visit and telephone interviews with six respondents responsible

    for the sustainability reporting on six different companies affected by the amendment. An

    additional three interviews have been conducted with auditors working with advisory and

    review of sustainability reports. The study shows that the largest companies are unlikely to be

    affected by the amendment due to the fact that they are already producing a detailed

    sustainability report. The smaller of the companies concerned and the companies that are

    unlisted will probably need to either develop the existing report or start up a sustainability

    report from scratch. When establishing a sustainability report, companies experience

    problems regarding validation and assurance of the published information. The study shows

    that auditing would be effective in response to this challenge, but auditing is not statutory for

    the sustainability report. As external demands and expectations are increasing, the

    implementation of sustainability in the businesses of companies is growing in importance.

    The study shows that since more companies are obligated to produce a sustainability report,

    the sustainable activities of the company will evolve, which ultimately leads to a more

    sustainable development.

  • 14.
    Abt, Tobias
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Erath, Fabian
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Power of E-Motion: Business Model Innovation for the Introduction of Electric Cars to China2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    E-Cars challenge prevailing business practices, especially in industrial sectors that heavily depend on the use of fossil fuels such as the automobile industry. The sustainable powertrain has to fight against prejudices towards a lack of performance, long charging times, the fear of too short driving ranges and a long list of other concerns. However, hazardous environmental pollution in Chinese megacities as well as changes among the consumers’ mindsets and purchasing behavior claim for a change in the product portfolios of today´s car manufacturers. In the western world we can see a successive (although hesitant) penetration of the markets by E-Cars. However, the Chinese market is still almost untouched and car manufacturers have just started to show the first signs of action. This phenomenon is mainly based on differences among the markets, especially the customer segment, partnerships and the proposition of value in China differ compared to the western markets. Furthermore, there are dissimilarities between China and the western car markets when it comes to political, legal and social aspects. To successfully introduce E-Cars to China, car manufacturers have to develop business models that transform the specific characteristics of E-mobility to create economic value and overcome the barriers that preclude them from penetrating the market. Of course, not an entirely new Business Model is needed. However, car manufacturers have to consider various aspects to innovate among their existing ones. A key prerequisite to enter a market with new products or services is to understand it. Based on a qualitative analysis about the introduction of E-Cars to China we therefore conducted an in-depth PESTEL-Analysis by hand of secondary data as well as an interview with a Shanghainese Business Manager of the Auto Components Working Group from the European Chamber of Commerce in China. After this market description we analyzed the Business Models of two German car manufacturers from the premium segment, which on the one hand operate successfully in the Chinese market and on the other hand, already show some movement in terms of E-Cars – the BMW AG and the Daimler AG. In our analysis we give valuable information about the two companies’ current Business Models, according the nine building blocks of the business model canvas and in regard to the data emerging from the PESTEL-Analysis. The conclusion chapter gives an overall discussion of the most important findings emerging from the analysis with regard to the business operations and the existing business models of the two car manufacturers. Findings have been evaluated on a global level and substantially transferred to a national level on the Chinese market by hand of the information from the PESTEL-Analysis. Furthermore, we offer important implications for the adaption and adjustment of high consideration areas of a car manufacturer Business Model as well as the future of the Business Models of a car manufacturer to successfully introduce E-Cars to China.  

  • 15.
    Achard, Paola Olimpia
    et al.
    Universita' degli Studi dell'Aquila, Faculty of Economics, L'Aquila, Italy.
    Nucciarelli, Alberto
    Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Department of Technology Management, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Rosato, Roberto
    Salini Costruttori S.p.A., Roma, Italy.
    Svensson, Göran
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Risk Identification in the Infrastructure Construction Industry: A Supply Chain Case Study2008In: International Journal of Logistics Economics and Globalisation, ISSN 1741-5373, E-ISSN 1741-5381, Vol. 1, no 3–4, p. 343-356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this article is to describe the risk identification within a supply chain of an infrastructure construction project. This research is based on a case study of risk management within a supply chain in the infrastructure construction industry. Data have been collected from an international company emphasising the stage of risk identification. A particular view of risk management has been adopted. More specifically, a way to identify risk within the construction industry has been given. Technical and operational evidences have been revised and organised in order to take a first step in the direction of a systematic treatment. It has highlighted some crucial issues dealing with risk identification, while risk assessment and risk response provide an opportunity for further research. The article has underlined how risk management can be seen as the way to discover existing risks that are preventing firms from advancing their strategy. Main insights that emerged dealt with five categories: strategic objectives; critical success factors; environment and stakeholder influences; key performance indicators and principal risks; principal risk response strategies.

  • 16.
    Achtenhagen, Leona
    et al.
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Laurell, Hélène
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Frühe Internationalisierung eines Unternehemens im Hoch-technologiebereich: Treiber und Hindernisse2011In: ZfKE - Zeitschrift für KMU und Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1860-4633, Vol. 59, no 2, p. 125-140Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Adari, Praveen
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Lakshmipathy, Ganesh
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Frugal Innovation in Smaller Firms in the West: "How do smaller firms in theWest use Frugal Innovationwhich in its nature best suitedfor emerging markets, havingno subsidiaries in the localmarkets essential to developfrugal solutions for those emerging markets?"2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Although researchers during the last 5 years have been doing a lot of study onemerging market innovations, and of which Frugal Innovation had its special place. They haveparticularly concentrated on this innovation type on how it re-emerged in the emergingcountries especially India and China and gave it new theoretical definition and a framework.Although this frugal innovation usage is constrained only to the firms located in those emergingmarkets and this innovation has not seen much application in the western smaller firms. In thisresearch our main idea is to develop a theoretical model on frugal innovation for the westernsmaller firms, where currently not much emphasis is given by the previous researchers in thiscontext. To achieve this we have been involved in an action research with a company lookingto enter an emerging market by using frugal innovation strategy for their product development.The output of this research is a theoretical framework model which is sequential and includesall the stages that a firm has to follow as part of a frugal innovation strategy having not muchknowledge of the emerging markets or its customers and who had to rely on external partnersin developing countries to successfully develop frugal innovations. We have also identifiedchallenges firms face in this context and listed out alternatives at each level of the strategy,finally concluded by listing out the future scope of research on frugal innovation in thisparticular area.

  • 18.
    Adler, Emilie
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Poricanin, Lejla
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Jönsson, Caroline
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    En studie om vilken inverkan anställdas självledarskap och arbetstillfredsställelse har på personalomsättningen i restaurangbranschen2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Self-leadership is described as a process where individuals, based on their own ability influences themselves to handle different situations they are exposed to. Previous research indicates that self-leadership strategies have an impact on intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction. The research also shows that job satisfaction has an impact on employee turnover. The purpose of this study is to gain an understanding if employees’ self-leadership affects the employee turnover in the restaurant industry by analyzing job satisfaction as a link between self-leadership and employee turnover. The restaurant industry is an industry with high employee turnover, which is facing the challenge of high growth in the future. One of the reasons for the high employee turnover is because the employees have not reached the desired job satisfaction. An individual who deals with its own self-leadership leads to an improvement of job performance and attitude towards its work. A quantitative method in the form of a questionnaire study was conducted to investigate the problem. A total of 302 questionnaires were sent out with 102 completed questionnaires, the response rate was 34 %. The results did not show any direct impact between self-leadership and employee turnover. However, the result agreed with the theories that there is a relationship between self-leadership and job satisfaction and between job satisfaction and employee turnover. This indicates that there is an indirect impact between self-leadership and employee turnover.

  • 19. agostini, alessandro
    Differences in Business Model Innovation: A challenges' perspective2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 20.
    agostini, Alessandro
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Winning Customers in the Era of Cloud Business Intelligence:: Key Adoption Factors from a Small and Medium Enterprise perspective2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the fast development of new technologies, the Business Intelligence market is changing rapidly, forcing vendors to adapt their offerings to the customers’ needs. As the amount of data available to companies has been substantially increasing in the past years, the need of suitable software tools that perform the right analyses became essential, even in the small and medium sized business' environment. The previous literature,focused on big firms and traditional implementation of Business Intelligence solutions, highlighted the importance of understanding the key factors in successful projects. In the past few years, a new delivery model for Business Intelligence software is taking place: the cloud computing. To date, key factors for adopting cloud Business Intelligence in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) have not been systematically investigated. Existing studies have rarely considered these arguments and we lack of a proven framework. This paper is aimed to fill this gap and the structure of the article is subordinated to this objective.

    Firstly, the thesis offers an overview of the subject and the terminology used in it with the purpose of facilitating the understanding of a rather complex argument. Therefore, it starts with a short historical overview of the Business Intelligence sector, it defines the term Business Intelligence, and it explains both the characteristics of the Business Intelligence systems (cloud vs on-premise) and the importance of having a business intelligence solution for SME.

    Subsequently, the theoretical framework of this study is defined, combining the prior theories and empirical data collected through the interviews with four Business Intelligence vendors and customers. Initially, the existing Critical Success Factors (CSFs) of IT and BI projects proposed by different authors in the literature are reviewed. Afterwards, the evaluation criteria for the cloud software are taken into consideration. By integrating insights drawn from these studies, as well as adding new factors coming from the interviews, a framework has been created and utilized as a basis for the further questionnaire development.

    The choice of pursuing both the quantitative and qualitative approaches is aimed at improving the study’s reliability. Empirical data are mainly primary data, collected during a survey and four interviews, supported by secondary data such as general companies' reports, market and trends analysis from trustworthy sources.

    Based on the findings, the author of this thesis has ranked the key aspects of a cloud BI adoption in SMEs. It is revealed the most important key adoption factors that SMEs evaluate when purchasing a cloud BI solution are the level of software functionalities, the ubiquitous access to data, the responsive answers to customer support requests, the ability to handle big amount of data and the implementation cost.

    Regarding the managerial implications, the study’s practical relevance consists in offering to BI suppliers' managers, executives and decision-makers interesting areas of discussion for improving the knowledge of SMEs' needs. Moreover, the results of this investigation can be used by Business Intelligence newcomers as a guidance for evaluating solutions available in the market. 

  • 21.
    Agostino, Alessandro
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Solberg Søilen, Klaus
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Gerritsen, Bart
    Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering, TU Delft, Netherlands.
    Cloud solution in Business Intelligence for SMEs – vendor and customer perspectives2013In: Journal of Intelligence Studies in Business, ISSN 2001-015X, E-ISSN 2001-015X, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 5-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to identify key success factor for SME customers of cloud based Business Intelligence products. A deep interview was made with four producers and a questionnaire was carried out among 36 SMEs. The findings suggest that the most important CSFs were the level of software functionalities, the ubiquitous access to data, responsive answers to customer support requests, handling large amounts of data and implementation cost. Each of these factors addresses a specific area that customers pay close attention to during the adoption process of a cloud BI solution. Offering ubiquitous access to date and respsonsive answers to customer requests are particularly emphasized for SMEs. We also found that industry tailored software is preferred, monthly or quarterly billings, and contact by email or phone for service. The paper shows recommendations, implications of research and suggests further research on the topic.

  • 22.
    Ahlbeck, Iselin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Johansson, Ida-Paulina
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Hållbarhet - styrning, arbete och redovisning: Arbetsförloppet med hållbarhetsfrågor i sex stora svenska textilföretag2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Problembakgrund: Ekonomiska kriser och hållbarhetskriser har lett till förändringar i sociala, ekonomiska och ekologiska förhållanden världen över. Företag börjar ta större ansvar för hållbarhet men kan uppleva stora svårigheter att uppnå sina hållbarhetsmål. Detta beror på att det saknas förståelse för hur processen ser ut. Beslutsfattare har svårigheter med att skapa en plan som går ända från hållbarhetsvision till hållbarhetsredovisning via strategi, implementation och prestationsmätning. Textilindustrin spelar en stor roll i den globala ekonomin, och har stor påverkan på sociala och miljömässiga frågor. Studien undersöker hur arbetsförloppet med hållbarhetsfrågor ser ut hos sex stora textilföretag: KappAhl, Hemtex, Åhléns, Haglöfs, Indiska samt Gudrun Sjödén.

    Frågeställning: Hur ser arbetsförloppet ut i svenska textilföretags verksamhet från att hållbarhetsmål utformas till att resultat redovisas?

    Syfte: Syftet med uppsatsen är att beskriva och analysera arbetsförloppet i stora svenska textilföretag från att hållbarhetsmål utformas till att resultat redovisas, och generera en ökad förståelse för detta.

    Metod: För att få fram relevant data med utgångspunkt i frågeställningen utfördes en kvalitativ studie. Eftersom det saknas kunskap kring frågeställningen har studien ett induktivt angreppssätt där ökad förståelse inom området försöktes skapas. Detta gjordes med hjälp av intervjuer med personer som aktivt arbetar med hållbarhetsarbete i respektive företag.

    Resultat:Studien har identifierat ett arbetsförlopp över hållbarhetsarbetet i de undersökta företagen bestående av vision, mål, strategi/plan,genomförande och redovisning. Studien har även funnit faktorersom påverkar hållbarhetsarbetet. Dessa är lönsamhet, mål, strategi, budget, struktur, kultur, lärande, samarbete, integration samt redovisning. Studien har även ökat förståelsen för vikten av att integrera hållbarhet i hela verksamheten.

  • 23.
    Ahlberg, Jenny
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Släktbandens betydelse för styrelsens funktioner i familjeföretag2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Familjeföretagen dominerar många av världens ekonomier, och är speciella eftersom familjen ofta finns med i företagets ledning och styrelse. Just på grund av släktrelationerna kan styrelseledamöter som är familjemedlemmar tänkas ge en speciell karaktär till styrelsen, som i sin tur kan tänkas påverka betoningen på styrelsens funktioner, det vill säga de uppgifter styrelsen ägnar sig åt. Uppsatsens syfte är med detta som bakgrund att förklara släktbandens betydelse för styrelsens funktioner i familjeföretag.

    I uppsatsens teori behandlas familjen utifrån tre delar, vilka är om styrelseledamöterna är familjemedlemmar eller inte, hur nära släkt de är, samt om flera generationer inom samma familj finns representerade i styrelsen. De två senare delarna kombineras till något som kallas släktkoefficient, som anger ett medeltal för hur nära släkt styrelseledamöterna är. De olika styrelsefunktioner som teorin utgår från är kontroll, hantering av resursberoende samt konfliktlösning.

    Undersökningen genomfördes genom två enkäter samt genom insamling av kompletterande information från Affärsdata. Resultatet blev fullständiga svar från 94 familjeföretag. I analysen visade det sig att fyra styrelsefunktioner kunde identifieras, närmare bestämt kontroll, hantering av resursberoende, konfliktlösning och beslut, där den senare behandlats som en del av konfliktlösning i teorin.

    I analysen undersöktes samband mellan de tre delarna i familjedimensionen samt de fyra styrelsefunktionerna. Det visade sig finnas samband mellan släktkoefficienten och betoningen på funktionerna kontroll, hantering av resursberoende samt beslut, vilket kan tolkas som att släktrelationerna i styrelsen har betydelse för betoningen på dessa funktioner. Det fanns också samband mellan antalet generationer i styrelsen och betoningen på konfliktlösningsfunktionen. Uppsatsens bidrag är att ha påvisat betydelsen av hur nära släkt styrelseledamöterna är för styrelsens funktioner.

  • 24.
    Ahlberg, Johan
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Nelje, Joel
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Revisorn och revisionens roll i ideella föreningar - en studie på idrottsföreningar2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Non-profit organizations have a large and significant role in Swedish society and Thunberg (2006) choose to express it like Sweden stops without nonprofit effort. But in several non-profit organizations, and then perhaps especially in sports, there exist problems with the economy. Tate (in Vermeer, Raghunandan & Dana, 2009) explains that the audit of non-profit organizations differs from the audit of for-profit companies as they often have differences in culture, organizational structure, financial requirements, accounting standards, financial reporting, financial statements and the auditor's risk environment. While the audit is different, it should also be noted that in the vast majority of non-profit organizations, there are no statutory requirements for audit, but despite this, 99% of all non-profit organizations have some form of audit regulated by their statute (Lundén & Lindblad, 2011). Meanwhile, several Swedish sport federations began using more and more of the elite licenses for clubs which play in the highest and higher series.

    Purpose of the study: With this study, we want to describe and analyze the auditor and the audit's role and influence in sports. The aim is also to develop a study to understand whether the auditor is of importance for survival and sports club building and the fulfillment of their goals. This has been a contributing factor to our research question: What is the auditor and the audit's role and influense in Swedish non-profit sports clubs and what is their significance in the sports association's work with economic goals versus goals of achievements?

    Method: We chose to conduct a qualitative study and has worked with an inductive approach. In this study, we have chosen to focus on two groups of respondents in our empirical data collection: sports and auditors in sports. We interviewed three sports clubs and four auditors.

    Results and conclusions: We believe this completed study say that the auditor is an important part of sports associations in Sweden. By being able to be of assistance to them as there always exists knowledge that is needed to make important decisions for the association. We also find that although the purpose and aim of the activities of sports associations and the companies are different, this do not change the auditor's role in any substantial way, but work on the same basic principles of business. However, independence is something that can be questioned in several clubs as it seems, without that auditors put any more emphasis on it. 

  • 25.
    Ahlberg, Niklas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Pettersson, Olle
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Musiken är framtiden: En studie om hur musik kan bygga varumärkeskapital2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien visar att strategiskt arbete med musik för att bygga varumärkeskapital kan användas på många olika sätt för att stärka varumärket. Alla organisationer är olika och musik kan hjälpa varumärken att differentiera sig mot konkurrenterna. Att koppla varumärket till musik genererar ett starkare varumärkeskapital oberoende av hur stark kopplingen är till musiken, förutsatt att organisationen är medveten om att musik påverkar hur varumärket uppfattas. Att stegvis förbättra och utveckla användningen av musik i kommunikationen anser vi är av vikt då både den egna marknaden och musikindustrin kontinuerligt utvecklas. Att varumärket innehar en egen strategisk musikplattform som uppfattas trovärdig av marknaden, anser vi är det mest effektiva.

  • 26.
    Al Mouaqet, Amjed
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Rofidal, Clément
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Idea generation in the fuzzy front-end of small entrepreneurial projects2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The success of the new product development (NPD) process is vital for the survival of projects. Especially for small entrepreneurial projects that try to survive in a very competitive environment, affected by constant market and technical changes. Previous literature emphasize the importance of the generation of new ideas, to improve the product concept during the pre-development stage, but it did not pay a lot of attention to the sources of ideas. For this reason, this study aims to develop the knowledge concerning the sources of ideas of small entrepreneurial projects, during the fuzzy front-end (FFE).

    The literature review of this study presents the previous researches that relate to the sources of ideas, during the idea generation stage of the FFE. The structure of the existing model, integrating the sources of ideas, is based on three categories: environmental scanning, innovative organizational culture and joint research.

    An inductive study and a research, based on the analysis of one small high-tech entrepreneurial project, were conducted to cover the literature gap. This choice of methodology reflects the experimental purpose of this research. The empirical data are only primary data, collected by analyzing the diaries of the two entrepreneurs involved in the project.

    Our findings reveal that contact with lead user, entrepreneur experience, customer involvement, brainstorming sessions, competitor analysis, resource constraints and prototype conception represent the main sources of ideas of small entrepreneurial projects in the FFE.

    The practical purpose of this study is to offer some advices to entrepreneurs of small entrepreneurial projects for accessing to sources of ideas, during the idea generation stage of the FFE, and manage their impact on the development of the product concept. The theoretical implications contribute to the identification of new sources of ideas and a proposition of framework of their impact.

  • 27. Albin, Holm
    Motiven bakom en investering i crowdfunding2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that small businesses and entrepreneurs in the initial phase has difficult to gain access to external capital and bank loans. With the background of the problems that entrepreneurs face when they ask for capital has since the financial crisis the phenomenon of crowdfunding developed and evolved. Crowdfunding is an alternative source of funding for entrepreneurs to fund their ideas through small or medium-sized capital contribution from a larger amount of investors, often investors who have any kind of relationship with the entrepreneur or to the very idea. This study examined the factors that motivate and guide an investor's decisions when they select their projects. The results of the study show that the motives of the various existing forms of crowdfunding is big. To answer the question of what can affect an investor's motives, the form of crowdfunding must be mentioned. The motivational factors in the study turns out to be local projects, social benefits in the form of altruism, affiliation, shared values as well as the monetary returns and material rewards.

  • 28.
    Aldén, Josefine
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Gavie, Maja
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Sponsringens förmåga att skapa varumärkesassociationer: Når bilföretags budskap fram?2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med studien är att skapa förståelse för hur företag använder sig av sponsring för att skapa associationer till sina varumärken. Vidare undersöks huruvida associationerna når fram till företags målgrupp.

    Metod: Studien är kvalitativ och har ett abduktivt angreppssätt. I studien intervjuades tre stycken bilföretag individuellt. Det genomfördes även en gruppintervju med företagens målgrupp.

    Teoretisk referensram: Den teoretiska referensramen behandlar varumärke, målgrupp, sponsring och dess associationsförmåga, faktorer som avgör ett effektivt sponsorskap samt nackdelar och risker. Kapitlet avslutas med en egenmodifierad modell som beskriver sambandet mellan de olika teorierna.

    Empirisk studie: Empirisk data samlades in genom intervjuer med sponsoransvariga för Mercedes Benz, Audi och Volvo samt ifrån varumärkenas målgrupp.

    Slutsats: De slutsatser som presenteras är att det är av vikt att företag arbetar med sponsringens associationsförmåga utifrån väldefinierade mål med grund i varumärkets identitet. Företaget ska identifiera sin målgrupp för att budskapet ska nå fram och för att associationerna som skapas ska överensstämma med vad företaget vill förmedla. Både befintliga och nya målgrupper kan bearbetas genom val av evenemang och detta val ska kännas naturligt sammankopplat till sponsorns varumärke. Företag samarbetar över gränser med andra sponsorer för att nå nya målgrupper och för att förstärka befintliga eller skapa nya varumärkesassociationer. När företagets budskap överensstämmer med vad som har nått fram till målgruppen har önskvärda associationer skapats vilket tyder på ett starkt varumärke.

  • 29.
    Alfelt, Oscar
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Eriksson, Martin
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Talent Management inom den svenska banksektorn: Hur den svenska banksektorn använder talent management processen som en del av sitt HR-arbete2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Titel:                                   Talent Management inom den svenska banksektorn.

    Författare:                         Martin Eriksson och Oscar Alfelt 

    Handledare:                      Timurs Umans

    Nivå:                                  Kandidatuppsats 15 hp, Ledarskap, VT 2012 

    Frågeställning:                  Hur använder svenska banker talent management processen som en del av sitt HR-arbete? 

    Syfte:                                  Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka hur banker använder talent management processen som en del av sitt HR-arbete och på så sätt öka sin konkurrenskraft och effektivisera sitt arbete. Vi ämnar undersöka hur processen kan anpassas till en specifik sektor vilket i vårt fall är den svenska banksektorn.

    Metod:                               Studien gjordes med ett beskrivande angreppssätt. Vi använde en kvalitativ ansatts med individuella öppna intervjuer. Intervjuerna gjordes över telefon med fem stycken respondenter från svenska banker. 

    Teoretisk referensram:    Den teoretiska referensramen består av tre delar där första delen handlar om att förklara vad talent management är för att sedan presentera två talent management processer samt att beskriva HR inom banksektorn. Detta ligger som grund för vår talent management modell som presenteras i slutet. 

    Resultat:                            Här återges vad respondenterna uppgav under intervjuerna. 

    Analys:                               I analysen jämförs respondenternas empiri och analyseras efter den teori som vi har använt.

    Slutsatser:                          Här presenteras de ändringar som gjorts i modellen sedan den först presenterades i den teoretiska referensramen. Med hjälp av teorin och informationen från respondenterna har vi kunnat skapa en relevant och giltig talent management modell för den svenska banksektorn.

    Nyckelord:                         Talent Management, Human Resource Management, banksektorn, personalarbete.

    Centrala begrepp:            HRM (Human Resource Management): Handlar om arbetet med personal och humana resurser.

    Talent Management: Ett verktyg inom HRM med fokus på arbetet med att attrahera, bibehålla och utveckla nyckelpersoner inom företaget.

  • 30.
    Almaw Tefera, Chalachew
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Nilsson, Felix
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    MARKET ENTRY MODES OF INTERNATIONAL SERVICE FIRMS2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 31.
    Al-Mimar, Samer
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science. Halmstad University.
    The Swedish sustainable energy market:Opportunities and barriers for new actors.: Barriers and obstacles to Swedish solar market2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is moving from the fossil-atomic age, making ready for photovoltaics (PV) to assume a noteworthy part in a future formed by renewable power production. Sweden is a global leader in renewable energy, environment technology, and Clean-tech. The country fully embraces green technologies and this area has a major business potential. The goal is to reach a 50 percent share of renewable energy by 2020. Photovoltaic (PV) system is one of the main sources of renewable energy sources, the rate of installed PV increased in Sweden. During 2014 36.2 MWp installed, which is almost double installed power 19.1 MWp during 2013. During 2013 and 2014 1.1 MWp sold to the electrical grid and 9.5 MWp of the off-grid system been sold. It was and will be always a problem to start a business or to enter a new market or technology, struggle to understand the market, solve the problems, and increase the sales to achieve the success. Since many companies face difficulties, selling products and getting more projects, for that a research document made to investigate more and find solutions. The purpose of this research to identify solar market entrance obstacles and barriers, and how can new entrants makes solar market entrance. Investigate the statues que of today market and the predict future for solar market in Sweden. Data collection sequence started with identifying customer needs, then review the literature, and finally interview Swedish solar firms. The interviewed firms were five firms operating in Southern of Sweden. The information outcome from the process identifies market obstacles and barriers, providing ideas about the today market situation, predicting the market future, and setting a plan for market entrance for a new entrant. The research neglected the firm size, concentrating on market obstacles and barriers. 

  • 32.
    Almqvist, Philip
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET). Campus Varberg .
    Gustén, Oscar
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET). Campus Varberg .
    Problematiken kring ett energieffektiviserande projektförslag i en kommunal organisation2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When it comes to the priority of a project proposal, a variety of factors is affecting theoutcome. In the municipal sector, factors of non- economic nature appears to be particularlyimportant when the organization is not intended to be profit-making.This study's research question is What problems can occur around an energy-efficiencyproject proposal in a municipal organization? The purpose of this study is to gainunderstanding of what possible problems an energy efficiency project proposal mayencounter, in the municipal implementation process as well as the problems of a changingownership can bring.To conduct this study, the method was qualitative in nature. We have cooperated withVarberg Energi AB and Varberg kommun, which has stood as respondents for the empiricalbasis of the study. In this study, we have conducted four personal interviews.In this study, we have found that there may be several problematic factors associated with anenergy-efficiency project proposal in a municipal organization. In conjunction with theimplementation of an energy efficiency project proposal in a municipal organization, we seethat the problem is that the decision process is preceded by a complexity that includesinadequate decision support, the fear of losing the "public space" and that the street lightsisn´t included in the energy efficiency strategy. In connection with a change in ownership, wesee the increased decentralization leads to a larger distance between the municipality and themunicipal company. Distance can create an agent-principal relationship in which themunicipality has the role of principal while the municipal company becomes the agent. Thedistance may lead to information about future decisions made by the municipal company (theagent), never reaches the municipality (the principal). If information about a future decisiondoes not reach the municipality (the principal), it may be perceived as having lost control ofstreet lighting.

  • 33.
    Alonso Rodríguez, Marta
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Calmès, Anne-Gaëlle
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Advertising and the role of gender: A study of Sweden,France and Spain magazine advertisements2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The gender portrayals study aims to understanding how the roles of men and women are portrayed in magazine advertisements. This has been an issue investigated over the past decades as companies try to achieve a higher level of sales of their products and services and the gender issue influences in how this companies plan one advertising program or another. However, there is a debate among authors: some of them believe that advertising reflects what is already on society and others express that advertisers use the most convenient reality to sell their products. Thus, it makes us wonder what is the actual truth behind this debate. This thesis tries to answer the question of how men and women are portrayed in advertising campaigns. There are several studies on gender portrayals across countries but none that compares France, Spain and Sweden. This thesis tries to fill this gap.

     

    The study is conducted following Hofstede framework that classifies countries whether masculine or feminine, and is completed by analyzing the data gathered from four magazines of these three countries. We classified this data following Courtney and Lockeretz classification scheme and analyzed the data obtained with theories of some other authors.

     

    The results of this thesis show that males were dominant among working roles while females were in non-working roles. The findings might not add a huge contribution to this field of study but may be used as guiding tool for further research.

  • 34.
    Altmann, Peter
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Engberg, Robert
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL). Getinge Sterilization AB, Getinge, Sweden.
    Frugal Innovation and Knowledge Transferability: Innovation for Emerging Markets Using Home-Based R&D2016In: Research technology management, ISSN 0895-6308, E-ISSN 1930-0166, Vol. 59, no 1, p. 48-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Western firms are generally advised to rely on emerging market partners when attempting to develop frugal innovations for these developing markets. Underlying such advice is the idea that the requirements of emerging market consumers may not be familiar to Western firms and local developers will better understand local needs. We propose an alternative approach for high-tech firms—one that relies on home-based breakthrough R&D focused on emerging market needs. Three frugal innovation projects at a Swedish medical devices manufacturer serve to illustrate both how home-based breakthrough R&D can help managers reconceptualize their core products and the contextual factors favoring such an approach. © 2016, Industrial Research Institute.

  • 35.
    Altmann, Peter
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Engberg, Robert
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Managing Human Resources and Technology Innovation: The Impact of Process and Outcome Uncertainties2015In: International Journal of Innovation Science, ISSN 1757-2223, E-ISSN 1757-2231, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 91-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High technology innovation performance relies on a skilful utilization of human resources. The main purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of interpreted outcome and process uncertainties on the effective management of human resources for technology innovation. This is achieved through an insider-outsider based case study approach of three medical device innovations with varying degrees of radicalness. Findings suggest that uncertainties in process and outcome strongly influence what constitutes effective management of human resources for technology innovation. Findings also offer insights into when certain innovation theories hold, and suggestions on how to manage human resources and technology innovation under various conditions of uncertainty.

  • 36.
    Altmann, Peter
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Li, Jing
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    The novelty of Open Innovation2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Proponents of Open Innovation argue in support of its novel additions, critics however question its novelty and argue that the roots of Open Innovation predate Chesbrough. We investigate what is novel about Open Innovation by comparing predating theories and concept swith the main themes we found using a literature review. Our results indicate that the novelty of Open Innovation lies in its holistic approach. These findings were synthesized into a star model that could help both scholars and managers in their work with Open Innovation.

  • 37.
    Altmann, Peter
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Rundquist, Jonas
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Florén, Henrik
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Sustained innovativeness and human resource management2011In: Research on Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management 2009-2011: Introducing the Research Area of Innovation Science / [ed] Sven-Åke Hörte, Halmstad: Högskolan i Halmstad , 2011, p. 21-35Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation is paramount to success. Over time firms must maintain their ability to innovate in order to maintain their competitive edge. In this paper we explore the role human resource management has in nurturing and enhancing the innovative capability of the firm. To explore HRM activities, functions and processes that enhance or impede innovativeness we conducted a literature review. Following this review, 10 propositions have been made that link HRM to both incremental and radical innovativeness respectively. Our results include suggestions for empirical studies to validate our propositions as well as some managerial implications.

  • 38.
    Amal, Mohamed
    et al.
    FURB, Blumenau, Brazil.
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Raboch, Henrique
    FURB, Blumeanu, Brazil.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Differences and similarities of the internationalization processes of multinational companies from developed and emerging countries2013In: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 411-428Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This paper aims, by a direct comparison, to address the differences and similarities of the internationalization processes of multinational companies both from developed and emerging countries.

    Design/methodology/approach: This study employed qualitative approach, using an integrated model of internationalization process. Multiple case studies, with two companies with significant involvement in foreign markets and originating in countries with different levels of development, were carried out.

    Findings: The results reveal that the case companies show some differences with regards to their use of ownership advantages to facilitate their internationalization. On the other hand, learning and experience of internationalization, coupled with the use of networks, have been factors that have influenced the pace and the pattern of the case companies' internationalization. An integrated model, which includes variables related to networks and learning/experience, may contribute to the understanding of the case of multinational companies from emerging economies.

    Originality/value: Although the research field of emerging multinationals has been growing lately, very few attempts have been made in the sense of directly comparing the internationalization process of firms from both developed and emerging countries. The authors proposed an integrated analytical model that draws on insights from the eclectic paradigm and the Uppsala internationalization model. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 39.
    Amara, Yasmina
    et al.
    Blekinge Inst Technol, Dept Management, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Solberg Søilen, Klaus
    Blekinge Inst Technol, Dept Management, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Jenster, Per
    Nijmegen School of Management, Netherlands.
    Vriens, Dirk
    Nijmegen School of Management, Netherlands.
    Evaluating Business Intelligence Software: Testing the SSAV Model2009In: ECIS 2009: Third European Competitive Intelligence Symposium / [ed] Hoppe, M, Solberg-Soilen, K, Hamrefors, S, Västerås/Eskilstuna: Mälardalens Universitet , 2009, p. 238-251Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Choosing the right Business Intelligence (BI) software is critical to increasing productivity and effectiveness in organizations today. At the same time it is a very elaborating and complex process to choose the right software due to the fact that a large number of BI products exist on the market, which are quite different and updated frequently. The objective of this study is to develop and test a model for the evaluation of BI Software. The findings of the study revealed that it is difficult to declare what is the most competitive BI software as what is good for one user might not be good for another depending on their different business needs. Having said that the study initiated a new classification of BI Software vendors depending on the degree to which they comply with the functions in the Competitive Intelligence (CI) cycle. The software tested was divided into five categories: Fully complete, Complete, Semi Complete, Incomplete and Insubstantial. We conclude that the SSAV (Solberg Soilen, Amara, Vriens) Model Together with some proposed non technological variables and a classification developed can be used as a user's selection tool for deciding which BI Software to purchase.

  • 40.
    Amos, Gideon Jojo
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Corporate Social Responsibility, Innovation and Leadership: Exploring the Compatible Territories2017In: Journal of Developing Country Studies, ISSN 2224-607X, E-ISSN 2225-0565, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 149-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The objective of this study is to provide insights into the role of leadership in promoting creativity and innovation at the level of the firm, and how these may translate into improving firms’ own context of competitiveness in their respective markets through CSR initiatives.

    Method/approach – This paper employs literature study, which is descriptive in nature, to explore the relationships between leadership, creativity/innovation, and CSR. We sought to describe the relationships between the three concepts: leadership, creativity/innovation, and CSR, as practically as possible. In employing exploratory research strategy, we draw insights from extant literature, drawn from the management sciences to describe leadership, creativity/innovation and CSR in organizations. In doing so, we explore, by arguing, how leadership can stimulate creativity/innovation in employees and how firm-level innovation-directed activities can connect to CSR activities.

    Findings - The model suggests that leaders can stimulate employees’ creativity/innovative behaviour and this in turn may influence the rate at which innovation manifest in the products and processes of the organization. These, in turn, may be closely related to the CSR initiatives that the organization pursues. The study has argued that for creativity/innovation to be embedded in the organization’s product and processes, leadership of organization remains a key factor in terms of either enabling or inhibiting individual employees’ innovative behaviour. Leadership of organizations and individual employees’ innovative behaviour appear to influence the nature of CSR initiatives that is undertaken and may contribute in defining organization’s own competitiveness. Organization’s CSR initiatives can connect with efforts at improving its own competitiveness through, leadership of organization and stakeholder partnerships.

    © www.iiste.org

  • 41.
    Amos, Gideon Jojo
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Social Responsibility in the Context of Multinational Enterprises: Exploring Perceptions and Expectations of Local Employees of Subsidiaries in a Developing-Country2017In: Journal of Developing Country Studies, ISSN 2224-607X, E-ISSN 2225-0565, Vol. 7, no 5, p. 96-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This paper seeks to explore perceptions of local employees regarding MNE subsidiaries’ attitudes in relation to local customs, values, and belief systems prevalent in the settings in which they operate. Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative research design was used as the methodological grounding for the study. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted in Ghana with a total of 20 participants (16 males and 4 females). Interviews were audio-taped, with permission of the participants. A convenience sampling method was used, and all 20 participants were recruited via initial personal visits by the researcher and subsequent follow-up visits and phone call. Interviews were transcribed via thematic analysis. The views of participants were organized into four major themes: relevance of CSR (business ethics) to local employees; local employees’ attitude towards firms’ (un)ethical behaviour; educating managers and employees of foreign-owned companies; and attractiveness of company and ability to draw resources. Findings: Our interpretive research in the Ghanaian context suggests that most of the participants appreciate the salient role of cooperation between companies and traditional authorities in identifying and resolving potential tension that could evolve out of non-compliance with local socio-cultural values and belief systems. In respect to this, the findings from the present study reinforce the insights of Kjonstad and Willmott (1995) that reliance on rule-based approaches to business ethics is deficient, as it has been found to be ineffective or at best, less ‘empowering’ when it comes to influencing organizations in their ethical behaviour. The findings further suggest that inadequate information about local customs, values and belief systems, partly explains the seeming ‘irresponsible’ posture of foreign-owned companies towards aspects of local socio-cultural values and belief systems. Thus, as scanty information is available to the companies and their managers, few are able to either integrate them into their core CSR practices and/or encourage employees to uphold them in their processes. Research limitations/implications: Findings are based on a single-country investigation. This limitation, combined with a relatively small sample size (20 participants, across firms that belong to 6 industry-groupings), may have implications that the results might not be readily generalizable. Moreover, as the present study employed an interpretive methodological approach, the findings could have been impacted by self-evaluation (i.e., self-narratives from participants), resulting in socio-cultural preferences and response biases, on the part of the participants. Practical implications: Although results of this study is based on single-country (Ghana) study, given similarities in socio-cultural characteristics across developing-countries, this study is likely to have wider relevance and applicability in developing-countries, as a whole. Originality/value: The present study explored relatively unexplored ground by investigating the perceptions of local employees regarding MNE subsidiaries’ attitudes in relation to local customs, values, and belief systems, prevalent in the settings in which companies operate. Most importantly, these initial attempts at exploring the perceptions of local employees regarding MNE subsidiaries’ attitudes in relation to local customs, values, and belief systems, can hopefully be further explored and validated through future research directed at this topic. © www.iiste.org

  • 42.
    Amos, Gideon Jojo
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Baffour Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    In search of competitiveness through innovation-driven CSR initiatives in Multinational Enterprise subsidiaries in developing countries2017In: Journal of Developing Country Studies, ISSN 2224-607X, E-ISSN 2225-0565, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 161-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The objective of the present study is to investigate opportunities for integrating innovation and CSR in the context of firms’ activities. This is explored by investigating the extent to which innovation may complement CSR activities of MNE subsidiaries in developing-countries.

    Method/approach – This paper employs literature study to describe how innovation complements CSR in the search for competitiveness at the level of the firm. In doing so, the competitiveness of firms, which is often driven by the demands for responsible behaviour and innovativeness, is derived from studying the extant literature. By drawing from multiple theoretical lenses (i.e., legitimacy theory, stakeholder theory, CSR literature, firms’ reputation, and innovativeness), we aim at evaluating their collective impact on firms’ competitiveness.

    Findings - The model suggests that firm’s contextual capabilities (e.g. legitimacy, innovation, and stakeholders) can define its CSR activities (e.g. CSR ethical, CSR social, and CSR environmental). The cumulative effects of these, define firm’s reputation, which eventually, produces firm’s own competitiveness. The study has argued that there is more to firms’ stakeholders than ordinary resources required in furtherance of firms’ economic objectives. It therefore follows that stakeholders’ potential to constitute a pool of resources and capabilities that the firm can blend with to realize its strategic objectives ought to be stressed. Consequently, markets and for that matter firms, are subject to CSR and innovation demands through, for example, more socially responsible productive behaviour. This requires that MNE subsidiaries in developing-countries connect different strategies towards improving their own competitiveness. This may be accomplished through, re-packaging CSR into bundles of interrelated activities, collaborating with stakeholders to jointly create and deliver social and economic values, and integrating CSR into productive activities that may lead to bundles of products to suit local market conditions.

    © www.iiste.org

  • 43.
    Andersen, Evelina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Selsmark, Anna
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Produktplaceringens effekter på svenska konsumenter: en fallstudie av TV-serien Solsidan.2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

                                              Sammanfattning

    Titel:

    Produktplaceringens effekter på svenska konsumenter: en fallstudie av TV-serien Solsidan.

    Författare:

    Evelina Andersen och Anna Selsmark

    Handledare:

    Klaus Solberg Søilen

    Nivå:

    Kandidatuppsats, Marknadsföring 15 Hp, VT 2013.

    Nyckelord:

    Produktplacering, varumärke

    Problemformuleringar:

    (1) Hur uppmärksamma är svenskar gällande produktplacering i serien Solsidan? (2) På vilket/vilka sätt påverkas svenskar av produktplacering i serien Solsidan? (3) Hur påverkas svenskars attityder gentemot de produktplacerade varumärkena i serien solsidan? (4) Är produktplacering en effektiv metod i svenska serien Solsidan gentemot svenskar? (5) Hur uppfattar svenskarna produktplaceringen i serien Solsidan?

    Syfte:

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka effektiviteten av produktplacering i svensk television samt hur medvetna de svenska tittarna är gällande produktplacering.

    Metod:

    Vid besvarandet av våra problemformuleringar har vi använt oss utav en kvantitativ undersökningsmetod med ett induktivt tillvägagångssätt. Visning av serien solsidan som efterföljts enkätundersökningar om avsnittet som visats.

    Teoretiskt perspektiv:

    Tidigare produktplaceringsforskning redogörs i olika delar rörande typer, etik och varumärkesimage.

    Empiriskt perspektiv:

    Primärdata presenteras för de 153 respondenterna som det genomförts visningar med.

    Analys:

    I kapitlet ställs empirin mot redan befintlig teori och analyseras.

    Slutsats:

    Konstaterade slutsatser, reflektioner och framtida forskning.

  • 44.
    Anderson, Helén
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Växjö, Sverige.
    Danilovic, Mike
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Business Model Innovation (BMI).
    Interaktiv innovation genom intervention2013In: Det mogna tjänstesamhällets förnyelse – affärsmodeller, organisering och affärsrelationer / [ed] Andersson, P., Axelsson, B., & Rosenqvist, C., Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2013, 1, p. 275-285Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Anderson, Helén
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Danilovic, Mike
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Business Model Innovation (BMI).
    Chernetska, Diana
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Business Model Innovation (BMI). University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Oskarsson, Steinthor
    Ramböll AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Innovation Through Interactions for Bathroom Suppliers2016In: Extending The Business Network Approach: New Territories, New Technologies, New Terms / [ed] Peter Thilenius, Cecilia Pahlberg & Virpi Havila, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan , 2016, p. 159-176Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Companies often build an innovation strategy that is mostly reliant on internal knowledge and resources. This can lead to failure to meet customer needs (von Hippel 1986). By interacting with customers, companies can obtain crucial information and have the opportunity to involve customers in innovation and product development processes (Füller and Matzler 2007; Hadjikhani and Bengtson 2004; Laursen 2011; von Hippel 2009).

  • 46.
    Andersson, Albert
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Backman, Antonia
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Grön Marknadsföring - En fallstudie om företags attityder och det bakomliggande samhällsansvaret2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 47.
    Andersson, Andreas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Hultman, Kim
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Revisorns oberoende: En kvalitativ studie om hur olika faktorer kan påverka revisorns oberoende2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Revisorns oberoende är en viktig förutsättning för en opartisk, självständig och objektiv revision. Trots att revisorns oberoende beskrivs som hörnstenen för att uppfylla revisionens funktion har det uppdagats i flera stora konkurser att revisorer brustit i sitt ansvar att oberoende och kritiskt granska företaget. Under 2016 införs ny reglering som begränsar revisorns uppdragslängd, vilka konsulttjänster denne får göra samt att sanktionsavgifter införs. Litteraturstudien som genomförts inför uppsatsen har funnit att teorin är motstridig huruvida utvalda faktorer kan påverka revisorns oberoende.

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att beskriva, förklara och utveckla en modell för hur utvalda faktorer påverkar revisorns oberoende, samt undersöka revisorers attityd till hur ny reglering kommer att påverka revisorers oberoende. Genom en kvalitativ studie har sex revisorer från stora och mindre revisionsbyråer intervjuats där svaren analyserats mot befintlig teori i ämnet. Faktorerna konsulttjänster, klientens betydelse, klientens anknytning och revisorns uppdragslängd har identifierats som faktorer som ger upphov till ett antal olika hot; konsulttjänster kan ge upphov till självgranskningshot och egenintressehot, klientens betydelse kan ge upphov till ett egenintressehot, klientens anknytning kan ge upphov till vänskaps- och skrämselhot samt revisorns uppdragslängd kan ge upphov till vänskapshot. Vidare finner studien att revisorer är positiva till den nya regleringen om byrårotation och minskade konsulttjänster men de ställer sig skeptiska till införandet av sanktionsavgifterna som anses orimliga.

  • 48.
    Andersson, Anna
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Åstrandh, Emmy
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Revisionsbyråernas tjänsteutveckling - med anledning av förändringarna i revisionsplikten2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 49.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Persson, Annika
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Hållbarhetsredovisning i försäkringsbolag: En jämförelse mellan fyra försäkringsbolag2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Idag är det modernt att arbeta mot en hållbar utveckling. För att nå en hållbar utveckling krävs det att företagen tar sitt ansvar och agerar på ett långsiktigt hållbart sätt. Företagens ansvar är uppdelat i tre olika områden: miljö, socialt och ekonomiskt och för att nå en hållbar utveckling ska dessa balanseras på ett optimalt sätt. Företag kan visa att de tar sitt ansvar för de tre områdena genom att upprätta hållbarhetsredovisningar, där de redovisar sitt förhållningssätt till hållbar utveckling genom att redogöra olika resultat och aktiviteter. Det har visat sig att det idag förväntas att företag tar sitt ansvar och genom att de hållbarhetsredovisar har många företag bland annat upplevt legitimitet och större trovärdighet från samhället. Det har dock visat sig att branschen har betydelse för hur mycket hållbarhetsrelaterad information företag väljer att redovisa. Den bransch som redovisar minst hållbarhetsrelaterad information är den finansiella branschen och i denna bransch utmärker sig försäkringsbolag med att vara de företag som redovisar minst information. Det har också visat sig att informationen som försäkringsbolagen väljer att lyfta fram varierar mellan försäkringsbolagen.

     

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att beskriva och analysera hur svenska försäkringsbolag redovisar sitt hållbarhetsarbete och få en förståelse för varför de upprättar hållbarhetsredovisningar. Studien har utgått från följande problemformulering: Hur redovisar svenska försäkringsbolag sitt hållbarhetsarbete och varför upprättar de hållbarhetsredovisningar? Under studiens gång har vi använt oss av en kvalitativ ansats med en abduktiv strategi, vilket vi ansåg passade bra för vår studie, då vi utgått från tidigare teorier men även till viss del från empiriskt material. Insamlandet av information har bland annat skett genom en dokumentundersökning, där vi jämfört fyra försäkringsbolags hållbarhetsredovisningar, för att hitta skillnader och likheter i hur de redovisar sitt hållbarhetsarbete. Vi har även samlat in information till vår studie genom telefonintervjuer med respondenterna från respektive försäkringsbolag. När vi formulerade frågorna till försäkringsbolagen utgick vi från både teorier och tidigare forskning, men även till viss del från dokumentundersökningen för att vi skulle kunna få en förståelse för varför försäkringsbolagen upprättar hållbarhetsredovisningar.

     

    Resultatet i studien visar på att innehållet hållbarhetsredovisningarna varierar mellan försäkringsbolagen med att de till exempel lägger olika stort fokus på de tre områdena miljö, socialt och ekonomiskt, omfattningen i form av antalet sidor varierar och de redovisar transparent information i olika utsträckning. Resultatet tyder också på att erfarenhet av att upprätta hållbarhetsredovisningar har betydelse för vilken information försäkringsbolagen väljer att lyfta fram och GRI:s riktlinjer har stor inverkan på redovisningen. Försäkringsbolagen upplever förväntningar om att de ska visa att de tar sitt ansvar, men upplever inte att det finns några förväntningar om vad de ska redovisa. Slutligen verkar trenden vara den största anledningen till varför försäkringsbolagen börjat upprätta hållbarhetsredovisningarna.

  • 50.
    Andersson, Barbro
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Örnborg, Beatrice
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Hassanova Sürer, Nejla
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Vad, hur och varför?: - Om mått och mätning i fyra små tillverkande företag2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background and problem

    A general problem is that the research based on small and medium sized enterprises is very small, in terms of financial and performance measurements.

    Purpose

    The purpose is to describe and analyze which measurements of results are used in four small manufacturing corporations. We want to describe and analyze how the dimensions are measured, how the information is communicated about them, for what purpose they are used and if the dimensions are linked to a goal of the corporation. The essay aims to create a greater understanding of how small businesses measure their performance and achievements in their business.

    Method

    With an abductive and hermeneutic approach was empirical and theoretical data collected. Through a qualitative study and visiting interviews with four small manufacturing corporations we have been given the opportunity to describe how they use measurements in their business. The theory framework was then used to make a deeper understanding for the empirical data.

    Conclusion

    The measures that small businesses use have to be chosen according to the needs of each and every company in order to fit because a lot of elements have influence on the choice of measure. Depending on corporate goals the measuring get different purposes and in this way the measures connect to the goals. We do see that small businesses have needs for explicit routines when it comes to measuring, and the communication is mainly made through formal channels. The matter of control seems to be a general purpose in order to create prerequisites for the other purposes which are learning, rewarding and mobilization.

    Suggestions for future research

    Because small and medium sized enterprises are diverse and non- homogenous it would have been interesting if a study of a larger population was made. We believe that a quantitative study in the subject of measures and measurement in small businesses would provide a broader picture.

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