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  • 1.
    Alfermann, Dorothee
    et al.
    University of Leipzig.
    Stambulova, Natalia
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Career transitions and career termination2007In: Handbook of sport psychology / [ed] Gershon Tenenbaum and Robert C. Eklund, Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons, 2007, 3, 712-733 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this chapter is to comprehensively overview this research area and expand the perspectives provided in the two earlier editions of this Handbook. In this chapter, we first define and explain the key concepts of athletic career, career transition, and career termination. In subsequent sections, we discuss the theoretical background, the empirical research, and intervention approaches as they are concerned with career transitions and termination. We close the chapter with suggestions for future research in the career transition area.

  • 2.
    Allirol-Molin, Céline
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Vilken av stretchingmetoderna statisk stretching, dynamisk stretching och proprioceptiv neuromuskulär facilitering är mest effektiv för att öka rörligheten i hamstrings?- en litteraturstudie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Bakgrund: Stretching har använts i många år inom sport och rehabilitering med målet att minska risken för muskelskador, bland annat skador i kombination med kort hamstrings. Flera olika stretchingmetoder används för att uppnå ökad rörlighet. Tre av dessa är; 1) Statisk stretching, 2) Dynamisk stretching, 3) Proprioceptiv neuromuskulär facilitering (PNF).

    Syfte: Syftet med den här litteraturstudien var att jämföra och undersöka tre olika stretchingmetoder (statisk, dynamisk och PNF stretching) för att se vilken som är mest effektiv för att öka rörligheten i hamstringsmuskulaturen.

    Metod: Sökning av artiklar gjordes i databaserna Pubmed, Sport Discus, samt Science Direct. Sökorden som användes var static stretching, dynamic stretching, pnf, flexibility samt range of motion. Totalt inkluderades till slut 26 artiklar i den här litteraturöversikten som dels överensstämde med inklusionskriterierna och som dessutom var tillgängliga gratis och i fulltext.

    Resultat: De flesta studierna var gjorda på unga vuxna mellan 16 och 35 år. Alla studier utom två visade på en statistisk signifikant ökning av rörligheten i hamstrings. Ferber et al. som studerade olika PNF-tekniker, uppvisade bäst resultat med en ökad hamstring rörlighet på 15,66 ± 0,95°. Den PNF-teknik som gav detta resultat var PNF- Agonist Contract-Relax.

    Slutsats: Baserat på de resultat som gavs i studierna verkar statisk stretching och PNF fungera lika bra, men, studierna som gjorts på PNF är för få för att verkligen kunna fastställa att denna teknik är lika bra som statisk stretching. Mycket få studier har gjorts på dynamisk stretching (färre än PNF) vilket innebär att det är svårt att bedöma exakt vilken effekt dynamisk stretching har på hamstrings rörlighet.

  • 3.
    Alvarsson, Evelina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Lorentzson, Moa
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Mobbning på arbetsplatsen: En litteraturstudie om mobbningens konsekvenser ur ett folkhälsoperspektiv2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Eftersom det inte finns någon riktig benämning på vad vuxenmobbning innefattar är detta område inte särskilt belyst. Det som på senare år tagits fram är att mobbing som förekommer på arbetsplatsen är orsaken till många sjukskrivningar. 

    Syftet: Syftet med studien var att beskriva hälsokonsekvenserna av mobbning på arbetsplatsen.     

    Metod: Studien genomfördes som en litteraturstudie där 15 vetenskapliga artiklar utgjorde grunden. Artiklarna granskades och därefter skapades två teman. 

    Resultat: De psykiska hälsoeffekterna av mobbning kan vara kort- och långsiktiga. De psykiska hälsoproblemen som ångest och depression kan övergå till fysiska åkommor så som sömnproblem, muskelsmärta och infektioner. 

    Implikation: Kunskap om mobbning kan användas till att utveckla trygga arbetsmiljöer för att motverka mobbning. 

  • 4.
    Anderson, Lisa
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    COPINGS INNEHÅLL, EFFEKT OCH RELATION TILL PRESTATION INOM GOLF2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 5.
    Andersson, Camilla
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Törnqvist, Lena
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Effekten av plyometrisk träning i starten för unga elitsimmare2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies on power have shown the relevance for athletic performance. Furthermore, there are several studies in plyometric training that demonstrate improvement in elasticity in sprint performance. However, few studies have been made on plyometric training for swimmers. We find it startling that no further studies have been made according to the positive effects that have been shown in swim performance. 

     

    The aim of this study was to investigate if the swimmer can increase in power output by performing plyometric training for eight weeks in link with regular exercise. In this study we used a test group of seven male and three female elite junior swimmers from Laxen, Halmstad.

     

    The tests conducted were 1RM squat, long jump, squat jump and the time between start and slide phase. We analyzed data with Dartfish. The training program was carried out twice a week for eight weeks to increase power output. The exercises were one leg bounding, truck jump, countermovement jump with medicine ball and vertical jump with weight.

     

    The improvements were significant in three of four tests. Mean pre-test of 1RM was 86.7 kg (± 16.8) and post-study had average increased to 95 kg (± 10.8). The results showed a significant difference (p = 0.05). Mean pre-test on the squat jump was 36.4 inches (± 5.5) and post-test had average increased to 41.8 cm (± 6.3). The results showed a significant difference (p = 0.001). Mean pre-test on the long jump was 2.42 meters (± 22.5) and post-test had average increased to 2.64 m (± 23.3). The results showed a significant difference (p = 0.001). The swim start showed no significant difference but the time was reduced by 9.2 percent. The greatest difference was in squat jump, which had an increase of 20 percent.

     

    The conclusion was that the swimmers gained a greater force after the training period. The tests in 1RM, squat jump and long jump had a significant difference. The swimmers had an increase in performance at the start of 9,2 percent. Although it was not a significant difference in the start, each percent increase in elite swimming is important.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Christoffer
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Golf swing rotational max power correlation to clubhead speed, ball speed and carry distance in young elite golf players.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In ballistic sports like golf power production in rotational movement play a major role for performance. To hit the ball far, high clubhead speed is crucial in golf and rotational power (medicine ball throws) have shown to have a good correlation to clubhead speed. A lower golf handicap has also shown to correlate well with higher clubhead speed. Few sport specific power tests have been executed and training and testing sport specific are associated with high performance in a sport. Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the correlation between three parameters (power, velocity and force) measured in a golf specific rotational test and clubhead speed (CHS), ball speed (BS) and carry distance (CD) on young elite golfers. Methods: Twenty-six golfers, 16 men and 10 women, completed the study. Two tests were performed on separate occasion; one golf performance test using Trackman launch monitor and one golf specific rotational test in 1080 Quantum. CHS, BS and CD were collected in the golf performance test and max power, force and velocity in the golf specific rotational test. To study the relationship between the selected variables, spearman’s correlations coefficient (rs) was used and analyzed the total group, and in men and women separately. Results: Excellent correlation was found between max power and CHS (r=0.9, p<0.00). Good correlation was found between force and CHS (r=0.8, p<0.00). Moderate correlations were found between force and BS and force and CD and max power and CD (r=0.7, p<0.00). Poor correlations were found between velocity and CHS, BS and CD (r=0.3, p>0.50). Conclusion: This study showed that strong correlations seem to exist between power production in a golf specific rotation test and Golf performance in young elite golfers. Even force also seems to have an impact on golf performance while velocity showed little to no correlation to golf performance.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Emil
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Egertz, Sofia
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Socialt stöd som moderator i relation mellan stressfyllda händelser och mental ohälsa2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande studie var att undersöka om socialt stöd fungerar som en moderator i relation mellan stressfyllda händelser och mental ohälsa hos elitidrottare. Genom ett strategiskt bekvämlighetsurval deltog 88 elitidrottare (ålder M=17.3, SD=2.4) från södra Sverige, som representerade idrotterna fotboll (N=71) och volleyboll (N=17). Studien baserades på ett frågeformulär med följande instrument: Life Events Survey for Collegiate  Athletes (LESCA), The Athlete Received Support Questionnaire (ARSQ) och General Health Questionnaire (GHQ 12). Resultatet visade stöd för hypotesen då socialt stöd delvis modererade sambandet mellan stressfyllda händelser och symptom av mental ohälsa. Resultatet diskuterades utifrån studiens referensramar.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Emilia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    West, Malin
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Idrottande ungdomars inställning till mental styrka2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet (även kallat huvudtema i kategoriprofilen) med studien var primärt att (1) undersöka vilkeninställning idrottande ungdomar har till begreppet mental styrka. Sekundärt syfte som förs upp tilldiskussion var att (2) skapa en förståelse om hur de tränar och upprätthåller sin mentala styrka samt(3) vilka faktorer under träning och tävling som deltagarna anser är viktiga för att utveckla ochupprätthålla mental styrka. I studien deltog tio idrottande ungdomar (m= 16,24), 6 män och 4kvinnor inom både lag och individuella idrotter. En egen utformad semi- strukturerad intervjuguideanvändes, utvecklad med teoretiskt stöd från Jones et al., (2007) och Gucciardi et el., (2009).Resultaten i studien visade att deltagarnas inställning och kunskap om begreppet mental styrkavarierade. De flesta deltagarna hade en positiv inställning och ansåg att det var en viktig faktor i deflesta situationer inom deras idrott. Vidare visade resultaten att ungdomarna fick för liteundervisning och fokus på mentala faktorer från både skola och tränare. Såväl praktiskaimplikationer av resultat som förslag på vidare forskning inom området ges.

     

  • 9.
    Andersson, Johanna
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Hellsten, Johan
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Individuella idrottares upplevda källor till self-efficacy2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine the sources to self-efficacy among individual sportathletes based on self-efficacy theory and the high performance pyramid.  The objectives were to examine: (A) sources individual sportathletes uses in high self-efficacy (B) sources of individual athletes in low self-efficacy (C)  the relationship between self-efficacy and performance. Ten semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten individual athletes (five men and five women) in age 18 - 27. The results showed that past experience was the major source of high self-efficacy with expressions such as "trained well before" and "good preparation" used the most by the participants. "Performance anxiety" and "external pressure” were the largest source of low self-efficacy. Examining the relationship between self-efficacy and performance revealed two pattern, high self-efficacy in 90 % cases is associated with successful performance and low self-efficacy in 80% cases is associated with poor performance.

  • 10.
    Andersson, Josefin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Teacher Education (LUT).
    Nilsson, Elisabet
    Halmstad University, School of Teacher Education (LUT).
    Rör sig elever tillräckligt mycket?: En studie om pojkar och flickors fysiska aktivitet på fyra olika skolor2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which children's physical activity during school  hours  are  met  in  relation  to  today’s  health  recommendations.  This  study  was  a quantitative  research  method  through  study  with  pedometers  and  observation.  The  main instrument was pedometers which the pupils wore during one day at school. The study group consisted of 74 students, made up of 36 boys and 38 girls from the 4th grade in four schools in  southern Sweden. The  results demonstrate  that  the boys were physical active 47-50 % of what  they should and  the girls 33-36 % of what  they should according  to recommendations. The boys  took about 3000 more  steps  than  the girls.  In our  study only one boy  reached  the recommended  amount  of  steps  per  day,  but  no  girl  did. The  conclusion  is  that  the  pupils  are  inactive  during  their  time  in  school.    There  are differences  in  boys'  and  girls'  physical  activity,  both  within  each  school  and  between  the schools. The observation showed that the girls stand still more than the boys during break and the girls are generally less active than the boys at all four schools.

  • 11.
    Andersson, Niklas
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    The Effects of a New ACL-Injury Prevention Device on Knee Kinematics and Hamstring and Quadriceps Co-Contraction: A Pilot Study2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) –injury is 3-5 times greater in female athletes compared to male athletes. This may be partially attributed to lower levels of hamstring-quadriceps co-contraction in females with subsequent knee kinematics that increases risk of ACL-injury. Finding training methods that improves co-contraction and increases knee stability is important.

    Objectives: To evaluate the effects of a new device on hamstring-quadriceps co-contraction and to investigate if training with the device can alter knee kinematics in female athletes.

    Study design: Controlled experimental study design with repeated measures.

    Method: Twenty soccer and floor ball athletes were measured with electromyography (EMG) for hamstring-quadriceps co-contraction while performing squats with and without the device. Thirteen athletes also underwent three-dimensional kinematic analyses, measuring knee abduction angles (at initial ground contact and peak angle) during a drop jump, before and after a six week intervention period with the device. Friedman’s test and Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to assess differences and effect sizes (ES) were calculated.

    Results: Co-contraction was consistently larger on the device (medial side: p<0.001, ES=0.88; lateral side: p<0.001, ES=0.80) and the ratio of medial-to-lateral co-contraction increased (p=0.001, ES=0.79). In the kinematic analysis low adherence rates amongst our subjects meant that the effects of the device on kinematics could not be measured.

    Conclusion: Performing squats with the new training device stimulates increased hamstring-quadriceps co-contraction and increases the ratio of medial-to-lateral co-contraction. The effects of the device on knee kinematics have yet to be determined.

     

  • 12.
    Arlegui, Leigh
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Changes in Anaerobic Sprint Performance, Perceived Muscle Soreness and Sleep Quality after Wearing Compression Garments during Recovery from a Strength Training Workout2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Compression garments are elastic, body-tight pieces of clothing with different pressure gradients used as a recovery method after exercise, such as strength training. Compression garments have increased in popularity within recreational and elite athletes as it is believed that they promote a reduction of muscle soreness and inflammation, which in turn may enhance performance. However, the exact physiological, psychological and performance enhancing effects of compression garments after recovery still remain unknown. Aim: To investigate whether female and male recreational athletes wearing full leg customised compression garments for at least 15 hours following a personalised strength training workout leads to an improvement in anaerobic sprint cycling performance as well as a reduction of perceived muscle soreness. Additionally a sleep quality assessment was conducted to assess the effects of the garments during sleep. Methods: Thirteen male and female subjects took part of a cross-over, randomised, controlled study. Subjects performed the first set of tests including Wingate anaerobic sprint test followed by their personalised strength training workout, after which they recovered with Compression Garments (CGS) or without compression garments (CON). They then returned 24hrs later to perform the second set of tests. Ten days later the same procedure was conducted however the other recovery method was used. Results: No significantdifferences were found between CGS and CON for the Wingate anaerobic test performance. Perceived muscle soreness was lower when subjects wore the garments and they felt better recovered 24hrs post-intervention compared to the CON condition. Some aspects of sleep were affected by wearing the compression garments during sleep however it was unclear whether this had an impact on performance. Conclusion: Recovering with customised full leg compression garments did not promote an improvement of physiological power performance 24 hours after a personalised strength training workout session. However perceived muscle soreness was reduced and the perception of recovery improved. The compression garments caused some sleep disturbances as subjects rated that they were too warm, suggesting a possible drawback of recovering with garments if worn during sleep.

  • 13.
    Bengtsson, Oscar
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Petersson, Johan
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    MAXIMAL STYRKA I ENBENSKNÄBÖJ KORRELERAR MED ACCELERATIONS KAPACITET OCH AGILITY2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Strong correlations have been found between strength in the two leg squat exercise and sprint performance in various distances but not in sprint performance in agility. In studies the most common way to test squat strength is on two legs.

    The purpose in this study was to investigate the correlation between maximal strength in a bulgarian split squat in a smith machine and speed in various sprint distances and agility.

    The test group were 19 men (age 23,9 ± 2,5 ) with regular experience in intermittent team sports. Sprint tests at 5, 10 and 20 meter and the zigzag agility test were performed. The bulgarian split squat was performed in a smith machine with the barbell on the shoulders to a depth of 110 degrees between tibia and femur.

    The results show significant correlation between maximal strength in the bulgarian split squat and sprint capacity in the 5 and 10 meter sprint test as well as the agility test. Maximal strength relative to bodyweight showed significant correlation with the 5 and 20 meter sprint as well as the agility test. The zigzag agility test also showed strong correlation between all distances in the sprint tests.

    Our conclusions based on the results are that the bulgarian split squat puts big demands on balance, stability and coordination and is therefore a specific movement towards sprints that include changes of direction. The maximum strength in a split squat is a good predictor for sprint capacity in sprints. Implementing one leg exercises in the strength and conditioning routine can be good for athletes in intermittent sports to improve the sports specific sprint capacity.

  • 14.
    Bergenblad, Jonas
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Validation study of a portable accelerometer to measure muscular power output: Correlation between the Beast Sensor and the linear encoder MuscleLab2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background: The ability to produce a high power output can be the deciding factor in determining which athlete wins or loses in a sporting event. Power output can be measured in an exercise like the squat or bench press. The use of a force plate, or a force plate paired with a linear position transducer is considered the gold standard when measuring power output in an exercise like the squat or bench press. Linear position transducers or linear encoders have also been considered valid methods. Power output can also be measured by accelerometers.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test the concurrent validity of the accelerometer Beast Sensor by measuring average power in explosive squatting and bench pressing at 40 % and 80 % of one repetition maximum (1RM). The linear encoder MuscleLab was used as criterion.

    Methods: 17 test subjects, five women and 12 men (average age 28 years) were recruited. Fifteen of the subjects completed two test sessions. The first session determined their 1RM. The second session took place 7-14 days later and measured average power output during two sets of three repetitions at 40 % and 80 % of the subjects 1RM in explosive squats and bench presses. The average power output of the repetitions was measured simultaneously by Beast Sensor and MuscleLab. For the Beast Sensor to be considered valid, a correlation coefficient of 0.9 or higher needed to be reached.

    Results: Beast Sensor demonstrated high or very high correlations with MuscleLab for average power output of explosive squats at 40 % of 1RM (rs = 0.91), and for explosive bench presses at 40 % (rs = 0.86) and 80 % of 1RM (rs = 0.74). However, for explosive squats at 80 % of 1RM, the correlation was low (rs = 0.42). All correlations were statistically significant with p-values of < 0.01. Beast Sensor was considered valid for squats at 40 % of 1RM, but neither at 80 % of 1RM in squats, nor at 40 % or 80 % of 1RM in bench presses.

    Conclusion: Beast Sensor showed high or very high correlations with the criterion MuscleLab in three of the four assessed data variables. Only the correlation for average power output of the explosive squats at 40 % of the subject’s 1RM reached the required correlation coefficient of 0.9 or higher for the Beast Sensor to be considered valid. Except for at 40 % of 1RM in squats, Beast Sensor missed a substantial amount of repetitions. Further studies examining the reliability of the Beast Sensor are therefore needed. 

  • 15.
    Bergman, Lina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Algotsson, Marcus
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Effekten av 6 veckor unilaterala knäböj, med eller utan isokinetiskt motstånd, på power och sprinttid på is hos manliga ishockeyspelare2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Ice-hockey are physically demanding. To be able to perform during a game it is required thatthe players have a high maximum leg strength and power. A bilateral squat is a valid and widespread exercise for improving muscle strength and power in the legs. Even more specific forice-hockey is the unilateral squat. During an isokinetic movement the velocity is pre-set andtherefore constant, while the force can be altered during the movement. Most isokineticsystems have been designed for unilateral training, but in terms of isokinetic multi-jointexercises, such as the squat, there seems to be no research until this day.The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of six weeks unilateral strength training(squat), either through traditional or isokinetic training, on power-output and 17.3 m sprinttime on ice among male junior ice-hockey players.20 elite male ice-hockey players, 18-19 years of age, was randomly divided in two differenttraining groups. One group (QG) did isokinetic unilateral squats in 1080 Quantum, with anangle of 110o degrees in the knee joint. The other group (SG) did traditional unilateral squatsin a Smith-machine, also with an angle of 110o degrees in the knee joint. The period oftraining was set to six weeks. Both groups participated in pre- and post-tests consisting ofsprint on ice and peak power in unilateral and bilateral jump squats.A significant improvement was seen with QG in peak power performed on both legs(p=0,004). SG had a significant improvement in unilateral squat performed on the right leg(p=0,018). A tendency to significant improvement was seen with QG in the ice-sprint(p=0,059).Isokinetic unilateral squat in a Smith-machine with a concentric velocity set to 0,2m/sec andan eccentric velocity set to 4,0m/sec with a maximum force is an effective exercise toimprove power-output on two legs, perhaps also to improve sprint ability on ice, among icehockeyplayers. It is difficult to draw conclusion about the results from this study whetherisokinetic unilateral squats is an effective method to improve the power compared totraditional unilateral squats in a Smith-machine with maximum speed.

  • 16.
    Birgersson, Rikard
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Eliasson, Eric
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Unilateralt och bilateralt genomförande av bänkpress och dess påverkan på varandra sett till muskelaktivering, effekt, och kraftutveckling2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: It has been studied whether strength-exercises performed with two arms (bilateral) leads to better performance when compared to exercises performed with only one arm (unilateral), and it has been shown that both implementations result in similar results after a short training period. At the same time, research shows that mixed results between different implementations in terms of muscle activation and force development exists.

    Objective: The main purpose of this study was to see the effect of unilateral or bilateral warm-up in the bench press and its influence on subsequent unilateral and bilateral performance in the bench press, investigating the factors: muscle activation, power, and force development. A secondary purpose was to relate the results of the study to bilateral index, to see if bilateral deficit or bilateral facilitation dominates.

    Method: Strength-trained men (n = 13, age 25 ± 3 years) warmed up with two different implementations (unilateral or bilateral), and after each individual warm-up they performed three submaximal lifts (40 and 80% of 1RM) in unilateral and bilateral bench press. Muscle activity, power, and force development were measured in muscles pectoralis major, anterior deltoid, and triceps brachii, after each individual warm-up during three submaximal lifts (40 and 80% of 1RM) in unilateral and bilateral bench press.

    Results: Significant results were found in unilateral performance in power and force development after unilateral warm-up (184 ± 36 W and 164 ± 31 W; 416 ± 76 N and 412 ± 74 N) compared with bilateral warm-up (p = 0.05). There were no significant differences between the different implementations in bilateral performance. Significant differences were neither found in the muscle activation of any of the implementations. The study also found evidence of a difference between the test participants regarding bilateral deficit and bilateral facilitation in terms of power and force development, where the majority of the test participants had bilateral facilitation.

    Conclusion: Regardless of warm-up, no difference was seen in the strength-trained men regarding muscle activation in the bilateral or unilateral bench press, however, the warm-up  was of importance to performance. Therefore, unilateral warm-up should be applied before unilateral performance, as this showed significant improvement. Although no significant improvement was observed, a bilateral warm-up should also preceed a bilateral performance.

  • 17.
    Björk, Anders
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Haag, Jonathan
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Psykologin bakom skadeprevention inom tyngdlyftning, styrkelyft, Crossfit och kroppsbyggning.: En Kvalitativ studie ur coachers perspektiv2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Huvudsyftet med föreliggande studie var att undersöka på vilket sätt coacher inom tyngdlyftning, styrkelyft, Crossfit och kroppsbyggning implementerar preventiva strategier designade för att förebygga skador genom inverkan på psykologiska riskfaktorer. Vidare var det av intresse att undersöka vilka personlighetsdrag hos en idrottare som coacher upplevde ökade risken för skador. Ett ytterligare syfte var att studera coachernas erfarenheter av relationen mellan idrottares stressnivå och skaderisk. Totalt genomfördes nio semistrukturerade intervjuer med coacher på distrikt till internationell nivå lokaliserade i Sverige. Samtliga coacher hade tidigare erfarenhet med skadade idrottare. Resultatet sammanställdes genom en deduktiv innehållsanalys. Under intervjuerna identifierades flera interventionsstrategier som kunde relateras till Williams och Andersens (1998) stress­skademodell. Det framgick att coacherna i studien fokuserar mycket på fysiologiska och stressrelaterade aspekter och inte personlighetsdrag när de implementerar interventioner för att förebygga skador. Implikationer för skadeförebyggande träning samt förslag på framtida forskning ges.

  • 18.
    Björk, Oscar
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Post-activation Potentiation in Moderately Heavy Squats following a Heavy Pre-load Squat2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Post-activation potentiation (PAP) is a phenomenon where force output is acutely enhanced

    following muscular contraction. Previous research has documented enhanced performance in

    power-type light exercise following a heavy pre-load, such as vertical jumps following heavy

    squats. To date, the effect of PAP on moderately heavy exercise following a heavy pre-load

    has not been investigated. Purpose: The purpose was to examine whether PAP could be

    elicited in moderately heavy squats following a heavy squat pre-load, and if so, what intensity

    (as percentage of one repetition-maximum [1RM]) of pre-load elicited the highest PAP effect

    (measured as mean power, mean force and number of repetitions performed). Subjects:

    Seventeen resistance-trained males (age 24±2 years, length 182±8 cm, body mass 84.7±13.1

    kg, squat 1RM 147.6±29.6 kg) with at least 2 years of experience of the squat exercise.

    Methods: After testing parallel squat 1RM at a separate session, subjects performed three

    testing sessions in a randomized order in a cross-over design; performance test at 80% of

    parallel squat 1RM (control), one repetition at 85% of 1RM followed 8 minutes later by the

    same performance test (PAP85), and one repetition at 93% of 1RM followed 8 minutes later

    by the same performance test (PAP93). Sessions were separated by six days. Force and power

    output was recorded using a linear encoder. Friedman’s test was used to reveal differences

    between conditions, and a Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to identify these differences.

    Results: There was an increase in number of repetitions performed for PAP85 (p=0.009) and

    PAP93 (p=0.001) compared to control, but not for mean power or mean force. There was no

    significant difference between PAP85 and PAP93 for number of repetitions (p=0.091).

    Conclusion: PAP can be elicited to improve performance in moderately heavy squats

    following a heavy squat pre-load in trained subjects, but only measured as number of

    repetitions performed, not force or power. PAP could therefore be useful not only for

    designing power training, but also for strength and hypertrophy training.

    KEYWORDS: squat, post-activation potentiation, PAP, strength, power, hypertrophy.

  • 19.
    Björkegren, Adam
    Halmstad University.
    Mindfulness2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 20.
    Björnell, Rebecha
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Kristensson, Michaela
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Kan ett 5-veckors hembaserat träningsprogram förbättra smärtan hos personer med fibromyalgi?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka om ett 5-veckors enkelt styrketräningsprogram i hemmet minskar den upplevda smärtan hos personer med fibromyalgi.

    Metod: Antal deltagare med fibromyalgi var 10 stycken som rekryterades för att genomföra ett 5 veckors träningsprogram med fokus på styrka i buk-, rygg- och magmuskulatur. Före och efter träningsprogrammet mättes styrka (rygg, mage och ben – 3 tester) och smärta (Visual Analog Skala - VAS). Fyra frågor kring smärta besvarades med VAS-skala. Skillnad mellan undersökning före påbörjad träning (pretest) till undersökning efter avslutad träning (posttest) analyserades. Wilcoxons rangtest användes för att undersöka om där fanns en signifikant skillnad mellan pretest och posttest.

    Resultat: Efter avslutat träningsprogram hade inte smärtan förbättrats. I styrketesterna framkom signifikant förbättrad benstyrka medan rygg- och magstyrka var oförändrad. För sju av tio av deltagarna förbättrades styrkan i magtestet utan signifikant skillnad och för fem av tio deltagare förbättrades styrkan i ryggtestet utan signifikant skillnad. Smärtan var efter avslutad träning förbättrad, dock ej signifikant skillnad.  

    Slutsats: Det studerade styrketräningsprogrammet under 5 veckor ledde inte till en minskning av smärta.

  • 21. Blickander, Jacob
    Post Activation Potentiation – Effects onNumber of Repetitions and Average ForceOutput in Moderately Heavy Overhead Press2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 22.
    Böröy, Jan
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Dispositionell mindfulness, emotionsreglering och idrottspsykologiska färdigheter2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med den befintliga studien var att genom en pathanalys pröva delar av Birrer et al.´s (2012) föreslagna modell, detta genom att vid tre mättillfällen undersöka samband mellan dispositionell mindfulness, emotionsreglering och idrottspsykologiska färdigheter (motivation, coping).

    Resultat: Den befintliga studiens modell visade longitudinella predicerande samband mellan dispositionell mindfulness för emotionsreglering, samt emotionsreglering för coping och motivation (Inre motivation, amotivation).

    Design: Longitudinell korrelationsstudie med tre mätningar. Metod: 65 deltagare varav 33 kvinnor och 32 män fyllde i enkäten (se bilaga 1). Modellen baserades på de 47 deltagare som fyllt i enkäten vid samtliga tre tillfällen. Slutsats: Den befintliga studiens modell stämmer, vilket innebär att mindfulnessträning med högre grad av dispositionell mindfulness som följd även ger främjande effekter för flertalet processer. Vidare konstateras att emotionsreglering är en central del i påverkansprocessen av mindfulness för att nå de idrottspsykologiska färdigheterna. Dessutom kan både coping och motivation slås fast att ingå i en modell likt den som presenteras av Birrer et al. (2012) och att varje steg i modellen är viktigt. Slutligen kan det konstateras i den befintliga studiens modell att dispositionell mindfulness är predicerande för emotionsreglering som i sin tur är predicerande för coping och motivation.

  • 23.
    Böröy, Jan
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Mattsson, Emil
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Samband mellan dispositionell mindfulness, påverkansmekanismer, psykologiska färdigheter och prestation2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine mindfulness and it´s connection with performance in sports. By examining the correlations between dispositional mindfulness, three mechanisms of action (Clarity, rumination and negative emotion regulation), four psychological skills (Motivation, coping, emotion control skills and motor control skills) and performance  according to Birrer, Morgan and Röthlin´s (2012) model. As a foundation for the study a survey was used which were answered by 242 athletes, average age was 18,42 years (SD=0,26) it was 69 women and 172 men. Correlation analysis and regression analysis were done and showed what correlations and predications that were given in the study. This study  didn´t find any direct correlations between dispositional mindfulness and performance. On the other hand correlations were found between dispositional mindfulness and rumination, rumination and coping and coping and performance. The psychological skills that had significant correlations with all of the mechanisms of action were coping and emotional control. From the main results can the conclusion be made that the psychological skills coping and emotional control are essential in the model from Birrer et al (2012). The hypothesis of this study, that Birrer et al.´s (2012) model is accurate, could after completion of the study be in many ways confirmed. This motivates further studies on this model.

  • 24.
    Carnebratt, Jakob
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Sevholt, Simon
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Mindfulness korrelationer med påverkansmekanismer, idrottspsykologiska färdigheter och prestation hos idrottare2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of present study was to empirically examine a theoretical model for correlations between dispositional mindfulness, impact mechanisms and sport psychological skills (Birrer, Röthlin & Morgan, 2012). The model is tested by (1) to examine the correlations between dispositional mindfulness and impact mechanisms (Self-regulation, Clarity and Rumination). (2) To examine correlations between impact mechanisms and sport psychological skills (Motor Control Skills, Arousal Regulation Skill, Motivation and Coping Skills). (3) In addition was also correlations between skills and self-rated sport performance (competitive and training performance) examined. The study involved 242 competitive athletes from sports clubs in southwestern Sweden. The current study supports Birrer with colleagues' (2012) model when the results (1) showed significant correlations between dispositional mindfulness and all three impact mechanisms. (2) Furthermore, the results showed that Self-Regulation is related to better Coping Skills, Intrinsic Motivation and Arousal Regulation Skill. The results showed that better Clarity about its inner emotional life is related to better Coping Skills, Intrinsic Motivation and Arousal Regulation Skill. The results also showed that less Rumination is related to better Coping Skills and Arousal Regulation Skill. (3) Better Coping Skills and higher levels of External Motivation appeared to be related to higher self-rated competitive performance. Finally, the results showed that better Coping Skills and higher levels of Intrinsic Motivation are related to higher self-rated exercise performance. The results were discussed in relation to research and theoretical frameworks.

  • 25.
    Cato, Hampus
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Correlation Between 3000-meter Running Performance, Yo-Yo IR1 & Submaximal Treadmill Jogging Test2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Physiologic functional capacity through maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max) can be measured in many different ways depending on sport and qualities needed to be assessed.In handball a demanding 3000 meter (m) running test is used to evaluate V̇O2max. If this test is sport specific or if it could be replaced by a less strenuous test is unknown. Aim: The aim ofthis study was to compare performance on 3000-meter running with predicted V̇O2max from a submaximal treadmill jogging test (SMTJ) and performance of the Yo-Yo intermittentrecovery test 1 (IR1). Methods: Male handball players (n = 12) performed the 3000 m running test, the Submaximal Treadmill Jogging test and the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery test level 1. Measurements in seconds (s), ml ∙ kg-1 ∙ min-1 and meters where collected and correlated using Pearson r, interclass correlation. Results: A strong significant linear correlation (p < 0.01) was found between performance in 3000 m running (s) and Yo-Yo IR1 performance (m), r = - 0.724 (r2 = 0.524). A weak, not significant linear correlation (p > 0.05)was found between performance in 3000 m running (s) and predicted V̇O2max from submaximal treadmill test (ml ∙ kg-1 ∙ min-1), r = - 0.309 (r2 = 0.095). Conclusion: According to this study the 3000 m running test could be replaced by the Yo-Yo IR1 test or vice versa in adolescent male handball players. The submaximal treadmill test used in this study had several potential errors in estimating V̇O2max, this is probably the reason why only a weak correlation was found between the SMTJ and the 3000 m running test.

  • 26.
    Chaletorn, Tichna
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Thun, Maja
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Kan 4 veckors beta-alaninsupplementering öka prestationen hos idrottare inom högintensiva sporter i jämförelse med placebo?: Examensarbete inom biomedicininriktning fysisk träning 180 hp2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagsläget finns det en hel del kosttillskott som lovar bättre prestation, men många av substraten har inte tillräckligt med forskning bakom dem som bevisar att de verkligen fungerar. Tre av de kosttillskotten där det finns mycket forskning på och har visat sig förbättra prestationen är kreatin, koffein och natriumbikarbonat. Nyare forskning har studerat supplementering av beta-alanin som tros kan fördröja muskeltröttheten under fysisk aktivitet. Det är inte mycket av denna forskning gjord på överkroppen hos elitidrottare, därför ska detta undersökas i denna studie. Många teorier om muskeltrötthet involverar att vätejoner (H+) som härrör från bl.a. laktat, ändrar pH-värdet i muskeln, vilket kan vara en av anledningarna till varför prestationen minskar. Beta-alaninsupplementering ökar karnosin nivåerna i muskeln vilket fungerar som en H+ buffert och kan motverka sänkningen av pH-värdet i muskeln och kanske därför kan fördröja muskeltröttheten. Syftet med denna studie var att se om fyra veckors beta-alaninsupplementering kan förbättra prestationen hos högintensividrottare. Testpersonerna delades upp i två grupper, en grupp som fick beta-alanin (n=6) och en placebogrupp (n=4) som fick maltodextrin 2,5 g 2 gånger om dagen. Testet som utfördes var ett modifierat wingatetest för överkroppen, det utfördes för- och eftertester. Även blodlaktat testades direkt efter utfört test samt 2 minuter efteråt. Testet resulterade inte i några statistiska signifikanta skillnader i average power och peak power varken hos gruppen med beta-alanin eller placebo (p≥0,13). Eftertesterna visade ett högre värde av blodlaktatet 2 min efter avslutat test i jämförelse med förtesterna i beta-alaningruppen (p=0,05). Slutsatsen av denna studie var att vi inte kunde visa att 4 veckors beta-alaninsupplementering leder till bättre prestation i överkroppen hos tränade individer i den utförda interventionen, större studier bör utföras.

  • 27.
    Claeson, Andreas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Psychological risk factors on rehabilitation on post-surgery and conservative rehabilitation after severe sport injury2008In: : Nordic Conference: Health, participation and effects of sport and exercise / [ed] Carlsson, B., Johnson U., Stambulova, N, 2008, 24- p.Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Claesson, Alexander
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Meditationens inverkan på idrottslig prestation2011Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 29.
    Corazza, Madeleine
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Motiv till idrottsdeltagande och personliga egenskaper hos handbollsspelare2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine motivation of elite and exercise handballplayers and what characterizes the motivation of each group. The study aimed to examine personal traits and motives for sport participation and study possible interactions between these two factors among players at elite and exercise level. The study consisted elite (n = 47) and exercise (n = 54) handballplayers. Total number of participants was 101 players. Participants were both males and females divided into one men's and six women's team. Three teams playing in the highest division and four teams in lower divisions. The instrument used was a battery of questions with three different parts (1) background and demographic data, (2) NEO-FFI, and (3) Participation Motivation Questionnaire (PMQ). The personality traits extraversion and agreeableness and the motives fitness, environmental and social recognition showed significant differences. Elite players showed higher levels of extraversion, agreeableness and teamspirit, while exercise players were higher in neuroticism and conscientiousness. The result can be applied by coaches, because knowledge about why people play handball and understanding regarding personality traits can enhance the understanding about players physical activity. Interesting future studies is to study coaches effects on players based on their motives for participating in sport and personality traits.

  • 30.
    Dahl, Mattias
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Andersson, Viktor
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Can we recreate the ”Bengan Boys” era?: A case study on Athletic Talent Development Environment and psychological needs in young handball players2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study’s purpose was to describe a handball ATDE (Athletic Talent Development Environment) in the south of Sweden and to examine and derive the success factors of the ATDE, and within this context explore the motivational climate and autonomy support as perceived by members of the ATDE. The study is based on three theories: the Holistic ecological approach, Self Determination theory and Achievement Goal theory. The study’s participants all represented a club in the south of Sweden and consisted of players in the age of 15-19, the club manager, coaches and parents. The study was conducted through semi-structured interviews, observations and analysis of documents surrounding the club's vision and training/match policies. A total of seven interviews with four players, two coaches and the manager were conducted. Five observations at a minimum of 90 minutes gave the authors a broader view of the ATDE. An analysis of content and a triangulation with the supervisor were conducted in order to interpret the empirical data.

    The study revealed that the club is under re-organization, and its enthusiasm to evolve and become even better. The study found the ATDE to have a mastery oriented and autonomy supportive climate which in many ways contributed to the successful features of the ATDE. The study confirms earlier research regarding ATDE success factors as well as connections between SDT and AGT. The results also provide a deeper understanding of how successful factors, relationships, motivational climate and the autonomy support in an ATDE, affects young handball player’s motivation to evolve and reach their full potential. Implications with a basis in the theories used are presented.

  • 31.
    Dahlström, Filip
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Jump ability and knee stability in adolescents with different elasticity training2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Jump height, utilization of the stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) and knee stability is key qualifications and important factors for athletic performance. This is usually practiced with the help of plyometric training. However, plyometric training is considered as an exercise with high-impact that adds stress on the body. Trampoline training is an activity with a growing number of adolescent’s performers, and with the ability to train the same qualities that plyometric training. However, few studies have investigated trampoline trainings effect on jump height, utilization of the SSC and the knee stability in comparison to ordinary plyometric exercises. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate whether the jump height in a countermovement jump (CMJ) and a squat jump (SJ), the use of SSC and knee stability at landing is different in adolescents who are training using a trampoline and adolescents training using plyometric exercises. Methods: Thirty (n=30) participants, 19 handball players and 11 trampoline practitioners, aged 14-18 years, completed this cross-sectional study. This study involved three tests, a CMJ and a SJ for measuring the jump height and SSCand a double leg drop jump test for measuring the knee stability. Results: The result showed a significant difference in relative jump value between the groups, were the handball group showed a higher value in the CMJ and the SJ compared to the trampoline group. In the utilization of the SSC there were no significant difference between the groups. The result showed that there was a significant difference between the groups knee stability, were the handball group showed a greater knee degrees of varus compared to the trampoline group. Conclusion: Findings from this study suggests that adolescents might benefit from performing plyometric training to achieve a greater jump height and trampoline training to achieve a greater knee stability. Both activities had the same effect on the utilization of theSSC. More studies are needed, including a more homogenous group with larger sample sizes, to support the present results and investigate whether the results are reliable.

  • 32.
    Devrér, Jesper
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Persson, Mikael
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    En för alla, alla för en: Vad är sammanhållning och vilken innebörd har begreppet sammanhållning för SISU`s idrottskonsulenter.2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to find out how SISU reason about cohesion with respect to its own operations, as sports consultants.

    There is no previous research on how sports consultants using cohesion as a pedagogical tool. However, there is research on cohesion linked to sport. Earlier research sees cohesion as a multidimensional phenomenon. This means that multiple factors determine the experience of cohesion. Such factors include how how-knit the team or group are, individual and joint objectives and that the individuals share common experiences. Previous research also shows that cohesion can be understood only when one understands the context in which the team or group is in. 

    SISU is a sports educational organization, actively working with the development of sports clubs. Through them sports clubs learn the importance of cohesion in sport. SISU comprises 21 districts and is available in all municipalities from north to south. By its geographical coverage and the large number of sports they are in contact with, they are an influential factor that should not be underestimated. The socio-cultural perspective sees learning as an ongoing process and that people learn and absorb new knowledge both consciously and unconsciously. From a sociocultural perspective conveyed SISU's vision of cohesion directly and indirectly to the sport.

    The results of this study show that SISU uses several intellectual tools to increase understanding of the importance of cohesion. These tools are also used to create a greater cohesion in sports.

    The results also show that SISU puts greatest emphasis on the importance of cohesion in sports. For SISU is the cohesion everything.

    Our conclusion is that SISU talking about cohesion through a series of concepts. These concepts include team spirit, community, group cohesion, group dynamics, friend and family spirit. Our interpretation is that SISU's Sports Consultants talk about cohesion through these concepts and that cohesion is strongly linked to them. These concepts can be seen as dimensions of cohesion. But a specific definition of what the concept of cohesion is not found.

  • 33.
    Dorling, Sebastian
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Performance in public: Young tennis players' reactions to different types audiences2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect audience types have on young tennis athlete’s performance and behaviours and to investigate how previous experiences, social relationships, and audience awareness correlate to audience effect and coping strategies. Participants (n=4) (m=11.5 years) were given 4 weeks task-motivational climate training followed by 2 match days consisting of 5 matches of varying audiences; no audience, family, others, coaches and cameras. Quantitative data was evaluated by experts. Qualitative data was obtained by post-match semi-structured interviews. Each participant displayed different reactions to audience effects. Quantitative results were not generalizable but were used in interviews to stimulate participants. General themes of audience types were found; cameras resulted in physical appearance awareness, coaches resulted in mistake avoidance, and no audience resulted in lower concentration levels. Playing tennis helped develop coping strategies for performance in public, where further training by stimulation of various audience types was highlighted. These results support previous theoretical frameworks but highlight a need of further emphasis on audiences. A Multi-dimensional Model of Audience Effect in Athletic Performance was proposed. Training in front of varying audience types should be implemented in tennis training, and further research into different sports is needed. 

  • 34.
    Edman, Sebastian
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Is drinking water ad libitum sufficient to stay euhydrated throughout an hour of ice hockey practice?2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The effects of carbohydrate and electrolyte containing sports drinks on hydration status has been investigated in ice hockey players. Unfortunately, no study has yet examined if a change in any hydration markers occur during an ice hockey practice or game when subjects are allowed to only drink water. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine how hockey players’ hydration level, measured as plasma sodium concentration, is affected by an hour of on-ice practice whilst exclusively drinking water to thirst. Subjects: Twenty- one male competitive hockey players (18.5 ± 1.4 years of age), playing in the second highest division of the Swedish junior J20 hockey league. Method: Subjects were tested during two sessions. During the first session a baseline plasma sodium value was measured using a capillary blood sample. For the second session subjects were measured for weight and plasma sodium concentration before and after an hour of on-ice practice. Subjects were instructed to drink water ad libitum during the practice session and intensity was measured using heart rate monitors. Sweat loss could be calculated using the change in body weight added to the measured drinking quantity. Results: No statistical difference was found for the plasma sodium values between baseline, pre and post measures. No correlation was found between difference in sodium concentration (pre-post) and water consumed as well as between difference in sodium concentration and sweat rate. Conclusion: It is sufficient during intermittent sports practices lasting one hour to drink water ad libitum in order to not affect hydration status in the form of plasma sodium concentration. KEYWORDS: Hydration, dehydration, drinking, fluid, water, electrolyte, ad libitum, ice hockey.

  • 35.
    Edman, Sebastian
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Esping, Tobias
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Squats as a predictor of on-ice performance in ice hockey2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The National Hockey League Entry Draft Combine (NHLED Combine) is

    considered one of the toughest physical fitness tests an ice hockey player has to go through. The NHLED Combine consists of several fitness tests evaluating the athlete’s aerobic- and anaerobic capacity; lower body power, upper body strength and power, flexibility and anthropometrics; no lower body strength test are employed. Squats are the only exercise used by all National Hockey League (NHL) strength and conditioning coaches yet it is not included in the NHLED Combine.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine which off-ice test correlates best with on-ice performance measured as forward skating speed. We hypothesised that squat one repetition maximum (squat 1RM) would be a better or equal predictor of on-ice performance compared to the current NHLED Combine tests standing long jump (SLJ) and Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT).

    Method: Eleven male subjects, aged 17.8 ± 0.8 years, performed an on-ice sprint followed by the off-ice tests SLJ, WAnT and squat 1RM.

    Results: A correlation was found between sprint time on-ice and SLJ (r= -0,727, p= 0.006), Wingate anaerobic test mean power/ body weight (WAnT MP/BW) (r= -0,607, p= 0,024), squat 1RM (r= -0,600, p= 0.026) and squat 1 repetition maximum/body weight (squat 1RM/BW) (r= -0,609, p= 0.023).

    Conclusion: The results indicate that squat 1RM and squat 1RM/BW are equally good predictors of hockey performance as SLJ and WAnT MP/BW.

  • 36.
    Edvardsson, Arne
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Is a cognitive-behavioural biofeedback intervention useful to reduce injury risk in junior football players?2012In: Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (JSSM), ISSN 1303-2968, Vol. 11, no 2, 331-338 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Athletes participating in sport are exposed to a relatively high injury risk. Previous research has suggested that it could be possible to reduce sports injuries through psychological skills training. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which a cognitive behavioural biofeedback intervention could reduce the number of sports injuries in a sample of players in Swedish elite football high schools. Participants from four elite football high schools (16-19 years old) were divided into one experiment (n = 13) and one control group (n = 14). Participants were asked to complete three questionnaires to assess anxiety level (Sport Anxiety Scale), history of stressors (Life Event Scale for Collegiate Athletes) and coping skills (Athletic Coping Skills Inventory - 28) in a baseline measure. Mann-Whitney Utests showed no significant differences in pre-intervention scores based on the questionnaires. The experimental group participated in a nine-week intervention period consisting of seven sessions, including: somatic relaxation, thought stopping, emotions/problem focused coping, goal setting, biofeedback training as well as keeping a critical incident diary. A Mann-Whitney U test showed no significant difference between the control and experimental group U (n1 = 13, n2 = 14) = 51.00, p = 0.054. However, considering the small sample, the statistical power (0.05 for present study), to detect effects was low. The results of the study are discussed from a psychological perspective and proposals for future research are given. © Journal of Sports Science and Medicine.

  • 37.
    El khouri, Sargon
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Goitom, Dawit
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Daniel, Aman
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Att bli mer delaktig och engagerad i en mångkulturell ideell idrottsverksamhet: En kvalitativ studie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    BAKGRUND: Det ideella arbetet har en stor betydelse i dagens idrottsverksamheter runt om i Sverige, där individer frivilligt ställer upp vid olika arbetsuppgifter. Det finns idag över 600 000 ideella ledare och arbetare som ständigt engagerar sig och bidra till idrottsverksamheter runt om i Sverige från sin egen tid. Vi anser då att vår studie ökar en bättre förståelse för vad som påverkar en ideellt arbetande till att engagera sig mer, vilket kan vara problematiskt när ideella arbetare inte får betalt eller har tidsbrist. Denna studie riktas till verksamheter som arbetar för barn och ungdomar i vårt mångkulturella samhälle. Styrelsen i Andersberg IK är gruppen som ligger i fokus i studien.

    SYFTE: Syftet med studien är att studera styrelsemedlemmarnas erfarenheter och upplevelser av den sociala interaktionen inom styrelsen samt vilken betydelse dessa erfarenheter har på styrelsemedlemmarnas engagemang i en idrottslig ideell verksamhet med olika etniska bakgrunder.

    METOD: Studien inspireras av en fenomenologisk vetenskapsteoretisk ansats.  Fyra intervjuer och en observation genomfördes på samtliga styrelsemedlemmar. Observationen genomfördes på ett av styrelsens månadsmöte.

    RESULTAT: Resultatet av studien visar att de finns en koppling mellan den bristande interaktionen och tidsbristen för att reflektera i styrelsearbetet som utförs, vilket resulterar till att det hämmar engagemanget. Utifrån styrelsemedlemmarna upplevelser finns ett övergripande mål i verksamheten som är grunden till att den ser ut som den gör idag, vilket är att hjälpa ungdomarna i området och förse dem med andra alternativ än att spendera tid på gatan. Dock upplever styrelsemedlemmarna att det brister när samtliga medlemmar inte har en klarhet om delmålen som finns i styrelsearbetet. Styrelsen upplevde även när delegering av arbetet inträffade så inkluderades inte samtliga i styrelsen, detta bidrog till att flera medlemmar inte blev engagerade på samma sätt. Resultatet visar att samtliga styrelsemedlemmarnas erfarenheter och etnicitet har berikat den ideella verksamheten. Utifrån resultatet kan vi konstatera att styrelsen bör arbeta och sträva mot samma mål för att få ett gemensamt engagemang.

    FORTSATT FORSKNING: I vår studie har vi baserat allt på individers upplevelser samt erfarenheter kopplat till etnicitet. Vi anser att det finns andra faktorer som kan studeras som exempelvis ekonomins påverkan på engagemanget.

  • 38.
    Elfsberg, Emelie
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Zetterström, Julia
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Var glad för att må bättre: En undersökning av sambandet mellan psykologiska responser och psykologiskt välbefinnande hos skadade idrottare2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to investigate whether there was any change in psychological well-being during a 20 days period during rehabilitation from sport injuries. Also, one second purpose was to investigate the within-person relationship between affects, social support, adherence to rehabilitation and psychological well-being during rehabilitation. Data collection was conducted via contact with three physiotherapy clinics, where athletes who suffered a sports injury that needed rehabilitation of 30 days or more was asked to participate. In total 81 athletes decided to participate in the study. The athletes who decided to participate were, on three occasions at a 10 day intervals, asked to complete a questionnaire. The result showed that the psychological well-being changed between the three measurement occasions. Also, positive- as well as negative affects were the psychological factors that had the strongest relationship to psychological well-being. Based on the results of this study, further recommendations will be that physioterapists and significant others facilitates positive affective responses to improve the athletes psychological well-being during rehabilitation.

  • 39.
    Elliott, Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Effects of 16 weeks of Unilateral or Bilateral Resistance Training with Varying Movement Velocity on Measures of Power and Performance in Elite Women’s Handball Players2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Handball is a fast paced sport, with high velocity movements performed in a predominantly unilateral plane. In order to make training as specific as possible to on court movements, resistance training programmes should involve exercises that reflect the speed and stance of how they will be performed during gameplay however, working velocities are rarely prescribed due to the lack of research in the area. Aim. The aim of this study was (1) to determine the effect of three different training modes; unilateral high velocity (UHV), bilateral high velocity (BHV) and bilateral slow velocity (BSV) on vertical loaded and unloaded jumps, sprint, agility and balance. (2) To determine if any of these interventions had more of an effect when compared to each other. Methods. 29 women from four teams in the Swedish Elitserien participated in a 16-week intervention study. Teams were assigned to either UHV, who performed unilateral exercises with a high intended movement velocity, BHV, bilateral exercises at a high intended movement velocity, or BSV, who continued their regular bilateral slow velocity training. Power was assessed pre- and post-intervention by loaded vertical squat jump and countermovement jump (CMJ) both unilaterally and bilaterally. Performance assessments were conducted through 20m Sprints, agility T-test and Y-balance test. Effect sizes were calculated to determine the magnitude of differences from pre- to post-intervention in three training modes. One-way ANOVA determined if the group interactions were significant. Results. All three training modes increased their power output to varying levels and effect sizes. The UHV group demonstrated large effect sizes for all improvements in power output, whilst the BHV and BSV groups ranged from trivial to large. UHV got significantly faster at reaching time to peak velocity in unilateral and bilateral measures compared to both BHV and BSV (p=<0.05). Conclusion. The results suggest that a 16-week resistance training intervention regardless of stance improves power however to varying magnitudes. The high velocity groups showed greater improvements in measures of power and performance. This study suggests that resistance training at a high intended movement velocity may be beneficial for improving power and performance in elite women’s handball players.

  • 40.
    Engberg, Amanda
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    The weight lifting belt’s impact on power output, velocity and range of motion in a squat2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background: Using a weight lifting belt when performing a variety of resistance exercises is becoming more and more common. The purpose of using a weight lifting belt is its supposed ability to reduce compressive forces on the lumbar spine and enhancement of athletic performance. Although the weight lifting belt has been proven to increase the intra abdominal pressure that helps reduces the shear forces during a squat, little is known about the weight lifting belts effect on the performance.

    Studies have suggested that wearing a weight lifting belt during a squat can increase the vertical velocity and range of motion. Few studies have focused on the power output, but improvements have been seen while wearing a weight lifting belt when performing a deadlift. Variables such as power, velocity and range of motion are of importance for an athlete when making individual training plans as well as measuring the progress. Therefore more research is needed to identify the actual influence of the weight lifting belt on the performance.

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to examine if weight lifting belts have an impact on an athletes ability to develop power, velocity or improve range of motion in a squat.

    Methods: Fifteen healthy men and women familiar with the squat exercise participated in the study. During the study they performed six repetitions of the squat divided into two sets, one set without a weight lifting belt and one with a weight lifting belt. Power and velocity were measured during every squat with a linear encoder and videotapes were made to later calculate the angles in the hip- and knee joints at the lowest position of the exercise.

    Results: No significant differences were found in power (p = 0.25) or concentric and eccentric velocity (p = 0.61, p = 0.16) with or without a weight lifting belt. Range of motion in the knee joint was greater when not wearing a weight lifting belt (p = 0.03), but no differences in the hip angles were found (p = 0.70).

    Conclusion: The result from the current study shows that when performing a squat the weight lifting belt has little to no effect on power, velocity or range of motion. Although a noticeable change in range of motion of the knee joint were observed, further studies on larger populations are needed to determine if it is of clinical value. 

  • 41.
    Enocksson, Markus
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Överträning inom idrott2014Student paper other, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 42.
    Eriksson, Christoffer
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Swedish Players’ Transition From Junior to Senior Football in Relation to Perceived Health and Athletic Identity2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objectives of this study concerning Swedish players’ transition from junior to senior football were to examine: (1) transition, perceived health, and athletic identity variables, as well as the relationship between them; (2) how transition, perceived health, and athletic identity variables contribute to: (a) healthy sport participation; (b) unhealthy sport participation; (c) quality of adjustment on the senior level of football; (d) life satisfaction. The theoretical frameworks included: the developmental model on transitions faced by athletes; the career transition model; the perceived health and sport/exercise participation model; the circle of health model. The participants (n = 126) were Swedish adolescent football players at local, national or international competitive levels. Three instruments were used in regard of the quantitative approach: the Transition Monitoring Survey; the Perceived Health and Sport Participation Profile; the Athletic Identity Measurement Scale. The transition variables were examined and several relationships were discovered between transition and perceived health variables, and athletic identity. Four multiple regression analyses showed that satisfaction with different spheres of life and coping strategies are significant positive predictors of healthy sport participation. Athletic identity, personal resources, and environmental pressure are significant positive predictors of unhealthy sport participation. In addition, environmental support was revealed to be a significant negative predictor of unhealthy sport participation. Importance of different aspects of sport and satisfaction with sport participation are significant positive predictors of the quality of adjustment on the senior level of sports, whereas importance of different spheres of life and athletic identity are significant negative predictors. Importance of different spheres of life and healthy sport participation are significant positive predictors of life satisfaction. The results are discussed in relation to theoretical frameworks and previous research.

  • 43.
    Eriksson, Elin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Lundberg, Andrea
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Knästabilitet hos ungdomar aktiva inom fotboll och handboll: En rörelseanalys som riskindikator för främre korsbandsskador2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Anterior cruciate ligament injuries (ACL-injuries) are serious and common in sports, especially in adolescents between the ages of 14 and 19. An increased risk for ACL-injury has been shown in individuals active in soccer and team handball, which both are popular sports worldwide. Within these sports, women have been proven to have two to eight times greater risk for ACL-injury than men.

    Aim: The aim was to investigate whether there was any difference in knee stability during a jump-landing movement between girls and boys aged 16-19 years, active in soccer and team handball and also to investigate whether there was any difference between the soccer players and team handball players, regardless of gender.

    Method: A drop jump test was performed by 20 adolescents, active in soccer and team handball, mean ± SD age 17.0 ± 0.9 years old. The tests were recorded in the frontal and sagittal plane and were then analyzed using the Landing Error Scoring System (LESS). Post hoc analyzes were used to examine differences in 1) the degree of knee valgus alignment between the girls and the boys and 2) the degree of knee flexion between the soccer- and the team handball players in the landing movement. An independent student’s t-test was used in the statistical analysis and the level of significance was set at p ≤ 0.05.

    Results: There was no significant difference in LESS-score between the girls and the boys (p = 0.694). The soccer players had significantly lower LESS-score (p = 0.002). A higher frequency of the girls displayed a knee valgus alignment during the test compared to the boys. The soccer players displayed according to LESS adequate knee flexion to greater extent than the team handball players did during the test.

    Conclusion: No significant difference in knee stability and jump-landing technique was found between the girls and the boys. The soccer players displayed significantly better knee stability and jump-landing technique than the team handball players. The girls displayed a greater degree of knee valgus during the test than the boys did and the team handball players displayed a smaller degree of knee flexion then the soccer players did. More research is required within the area to be able to generalize the results.

  • 44.
    Eriksson, Erik
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Stress, återhämtning och coping under tävlings- och icke-tävlingsinriktad diet.2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine differences in stress, recovery and coping between individuals who had dieted for competitive reasons compared to non-competitive reasons. 86 individuals (64 men, 21 women, mean age 25) participated. The selected quantitative method consisted of a three part questionnaire containing the Swedish translated instruments Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes (RESTQ-Sport) (Kellmann & Kallus, 2001), Brief COPE (Muhonen & Torkelson, 2005) and a self-made questionnaire for categorizing participants as specific dietary types: I) Bodybuilding (BB, n=26), Other Competitive Context (OCC, n=32) and Non-Competitive Context (NCC, n=28). Results showed statistically significant differences in stress between dietary types, where BB experienced more stress compared to NCC, and that BB experienced more of the stress subscale Fatigue than NCC. Highlighted implications were aimed at spreading a better understanding of recovery to nutritional advisors within public health care as well as to diet coaches within bodybuilding.

  • 45.
    Eriksson, Linn
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Baigi, Amir
    Primary Health Care Research and Development, Council Halland, Falkenberg, SwedenPrimary Health Care Research and Development, Council Halland, Falkenberg, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Eva-Carin
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Ambition of a perfect body: a risk factor of body dissatisfaction2009Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 46.
    Eriksson, Linn
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Baigi, Amir
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Marklund, Bertil
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Lindgren, Eva-Carin
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Obsession with diet among fitness center participants in relation to body ideal and social physique anxiety2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies indicate that women are more likely than men to exercise for appearancerelated reasons, but today, even men have become more concerned about how they look. Exercise and/or diets are sometimes used in an attempt to develop a more attractive physique. Strict diets such as an obsession with healthy food, sometimes termed orthorexia nervosa (ON), are controversial and have been questioned by researchers. This study investigates how scores on the Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS) and the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire (SATAQ) relate to Bratman’s orthorexia test (BOT) scores with regard to age, sex, and self-reported exercise frequency and duration. The fitness participants (n=251, 166 women and 85 men, 21% dropout) were consecutively selected from five fitness centers in Sweden. They completed the BOT, SPAS, SATAQ, and a questionnaire focusing on exercise frequency and duration. Multiple stepwise regression analysis was used and the significance level set at 5%. In men, the results indicated that the SATAQ subdomain internalization could itself explain the variation in BOT results. In women, the results demonstrated that exercise frequency, in combination with the SPAS score and the SATAQ subdomains of internalization and awareness, could explain the variation in BOT results. Internalization of a slimness ideal (for women) and a muscular body (for men) can be a risk factor for obsession with diet. In the same way, higher exercise frequency, a higher level of social physique anxiety and awareness of Western body ideals seem to be predictors of obsession with diet among women. It is possible that the fitness center environment emphasizes a body ideal that leads to an increased obsession with diet. On the other hand, it may be that people who are aware of the body ideal and are obsessed with diet are the ones who engage in fitness center activities.

  • 47.
    Eriksson, Madeleine
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    The effect of Post activation potentiation on triceps brachii and latissimus dorsi on the aerobic performance of elite freestyle swimmers2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Competitive swimming is a sport that require high muscle strength to overcome the forces in the water. A phenomenon called post activation potentiation (PAP) is known to acutely increase power output. PAP can be defined as an increase in muscle performance after muscle contraction. Previous research on PAP has shown positive effects on different sports, including swimming. However, a limited amount of studies exists on PAP associated with swimming and distances longer than 100 meters. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate if PAP for triceps brachii and latissimus dorsi with elastic bands can improve the aerobic performance, V4-speed, of elite freestyle swimmers. Methods: 13 elite swimmers participated in this study (mean ±SD: age 18 ±1.15). The participants performed three test sessions on two different days. The first occasion evaluated aerobic performance, V4-speed, where the participants performed a 400-m freestyle swim race and lactate and time were collected. At the second occasion, a 10-repetition maximum (RM) elastic resistance band test was done to get the right resistance band for each individual participant for the PAP exercise. At the third occasion, a PAP exercise, that mimics freestyle swim, with elastic resistance band was performed with 10 repetitions in two sets. After, a rest of six minutes was performed and then the same 400-m freestyle swim test as the first occasion. A paired samples t-test was used to evaluate significant differences between the swim test performed with and without a PAP exercise. Results: The study showed no statistical difference between the V4-speed with or without PAP exercise (p=0.93). An increase in lactate was seen after the PAP exercise (p=0.02). Conclusion: This study could not ensure an improvement of the aerobic performance, V4-speed, of elite swimmers when a PAP exercise, similar to a freestyle stroke, was performed before a 400-m submaximal freestyle swim race with elastic resistance band. Further research must be done in this area before coaches and athletes can apply this in training programs.

  • 48.
    Esping, Tobias
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    A comparison of isokinetic and isoinertial squats on strength, power and speed in male ice hockeyplayers2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An athlete’s performance is partly determined by his or hers ability to exert force in order toachieve a desired movement and velocity. By increasing force output during a specific timeframe, while mass is constant, will in turn increase the so called rate of force developmentand potentially improve speed. Isokinetic training is designed to increase force productionthrough the full range of motion in an exercise but has traditionally been done in a singlejointdevice limiting its applicability to sports. To date there is little research done on theeffects of isokinetic training used in more sport specific movements to improve on iceperformance parameters. PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to investigate theeffects of 8 weeks of two different training protocols volume matched for concentric loadingincluding; (1) isokinetic squats versus (2) isoinertial squats on strength, power, speed (on andoff-ice) and agility on ice in young male ice hockey players. METHOD: 15 ice hockey playersfrom division 1 in the Swedish junior hockey league were included in this study. They werestratified by 1RM strength test values into either the isokinetic (IKT) or the isoinertialtraining group (TRT) in order to control for equal total volume. The training was done for 8-weeks with 2-3 sessions each week consisting of 4 different squat exercise variations. Testsfor strength (1RM squat), power under heavy load (loaded squat jumps) and power underlight load (unloaded jump variations), speed (30 m sprint on and off ice) and agility(Cornering S test on ice) were conducted pre-and post intervention. A 2 between(treatment) x 2 within (time) analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to detect anymain effects or interactions. RESULTS: Significant main effects for time were found for squat1RM (p ˂0.01) loaded vertical jumps for 20 kg (p 0.01), 40 kg (p ˂0.01), 60 kg (p ˂0.01), 80 kg(p ˂0.01), sprint 30 m on ice (p ˂0.01) and sprint 30 m off ice (p= 0.01). There were nostatistical significant differences between the two groups for any of the measuredperformance variables. CONCLUSION: Although a training effect was present in mostvariables measured, isokinetic training had no greater effect on strength, power, speed oragility variables among adolescent ice hockey players than traditional isoinertial barbelltraining after 8 weeks lower body of resistance training. Further research is needed toelucidate both the effects of isokinetics training on power and strength but also on icehockey performance parameters.

  • 49.
    Farias, Marcelo
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Petersson, Rasmus
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Idrottsliga avhopp: Anledningar och konsekvenser hos ungdomar2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of present study was to investigate the reasons why adolescents in the age between 16-19 years dropout from sport and what consequences this may entail. Retrospective interviews were made on eleven adolescents from a sportgymnasium in Southwest Sweden. The two models used in the study were Push/pull/anti-push/anti-pull framework (Fernandez, Stephan & Fouquereau, 2006) and the holistic athletic career model (Wylleman, Reints & De Knop, 2013). The results showed that the most common dropout reasons were injuries, lack of time, social problems outside the sport, social problems inside the sport and the sport culture. The results also showed that the most frequent consequences for dropping out from sport were mainly concerning psychosocial- and sports factors. Almost all participants described that they lost friends from the sport as a result of the dropout, many also indicated that they had changed their type of exercise after the dropout. The participants reported that after the dropout they had more time for school and they were more focused once they were in school, some even pointed out that they got better grades.

  • 50.
    Fleetwood, Lina
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Bilateral differences and relationship between rotational power and hand strength in young golf players2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Strength and power are important factors in many sports, and rotational power of the trunk and upper body are important components of golf performance. Trunk and pelvis cooperated in the rotation movement and strength in the muscles surrounding these segments is contributing to a successful and powerful rotation. Side-to-side asymmetry is often discussed in the field of injury prevention and it is suggested that bilateral imbalances affects the performance. Hand strength is a measure of diverse use when testing physical requirements in athletes. It has previously been concluded that hands strength correlates strongly with strength in both lower and upper extremity in youths, but the correlation among adults and athletes are unknown. In golf, hand strength has been stated to be one of the most important components for golf performance and it strongly correlates with golf specific variables such as ball speed and drivers distance. The relationship between hand strength and rotational power is unknown. Aim: The aim was to study rotational peak power and hand strength in young golf players to compare side-to-side differences and the relationship between rotational peak power and hand strength. Methods: Twenty-seven subjects, 22 men and 5 women, with a golf handicap of ≤5 participated in the study. The two tests performed was a hand strength test using a T.K.K handheld dynamometer and a rotational peak power test in Quantum. The tests were performed at the same session, first hand strength and then rotational peak power. In order to test the rotational peak power a 1RM test was performed. In order to study the relationship between hand strength and rotational power a Spearman´s range of correlation (rs) was used. A Wilcoxon signed-ranked test was used to study the side-to-side differences between dominant and non-dominant hand strength and rotational power. Results: No statistical significant differences were found between dominant and non-dominant hand strength (p = 0.28) or between dominant and non-dominant rotational power (p = 0.97). A strong correlation between dominant hand strength and dominant rotational power was found (rs = 0.636) and a moderate correlation between non-dominant hand strength and non-dominant rotational power (rs = 0.589). Conclusion: There are no side-to-side differences in hand strength or rotational power in young healthy golf players. Dominant hand strength correlates strongly with dominant rotational power.

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