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  • 1.
    Adamsson, Viola
    et al.
    Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Reumark, Anna
    Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Vessby, Bengt
    Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Risérus, Ulf
    Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Johansson, Gunnar
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    What is a healthy Nordic diet? Foods and nutrients in the NORDIET study2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Adamsson, Viola
    et al.
    Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Reumark, Anna
    Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Vessby, Bengt
    Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Risérus, Ulf
    Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Johansson, Gunnar
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    What is a healthy Nordic diet? Foods and nutrients in the NORDIET study2012In: Food & Nutrition Research, ISSN 1654-6628, E-ISSN 1654-661X, Vol. 56, article id 18189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: A healthy Nordic diet (ND), a diet based on foods originating from the Nordic countries, improves blood lipid profile and insulin sensitivity and lowers blood pressure and body weight in hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe and compare food and nutrient composition of the ND in relation to the intake of a Swedish reference population (SRP) and the recommended intake (RI) and average requirement (AR), as described by the Nordic nutrition recommendations (NNR).

    DESIGN: The analyses were based on an estimate of actual food and nutrient intake of 44 men and women (mean age 53±8 years, BMI 26±3), representing an intervention arm receiving ND for 6 weeks.

    RESULTS: The main difference between ND and SRP was the higher intake of plant foods, fish, egg and vegetable fat and a lower intake of meat products, dairy products, sweets and desserts and alcoholic beverages during ND (p<0.001 for all food groups). Intake of cereals and seeds was similar between ND and SRP (p>0.3). The relative intake of protein, fat and carbohydrates during ND was in accordance with RI. Intake of all vitamins and minerals was above AR, whereas sodium intake was below RI.

    CONCLUSIONS: When compared with the food intake of an SRP, ND is primarily a plant-based diet. ND represents a balanced food intake that meets the current RI and AR of NNR 2004 and has a dietary pattern that is associated with decreased morbidity and mortality.

    © 2012 Viola Adamsson et al.

  • 3.
    Backman, Ellen
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Regional Habilitation Center, Region Halland, Kungsbacka, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Ann-Kristin
    Department of Research and Development, Region Halland, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Sjögreen, Lotta
    Mun-H-Center Orofacial Resource Center for Rare Diseases, Public Dental Service, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gastrostomy tube feeding in children with developmental or acquired disorders: A longitudinal comparison on health care provision, and eating outcomes four years after gastrostomy2018In: Nutrition in clinical practice, ISSN 0884-5336, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 576-583Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Studies on long‐term feeding and eating outcomes in children requiring gastrostomy tube feeding (GT) are scarce. The aim of this study was to describe children with developmental or acquired disorders receiving GT and to compare longitudinal eating and feeding outcomes. A secondary aim was to explore healthcare provision related to eating and feeding.

    Methods: This retrospective cohort study reviewed medical records of children in 1 administrative region of Sweden with GT placement between 2005 and 2012. Patient demographics, primary diagnoses, age at GT placement, and professional healthcare contacts prior to and after GT placement were recorded and compared. Feeding and eating outcomes were assessed 4 years after GT placement.

    Results: The medical records of 51 children, 28 boys and 23 girls, were analyzed and grouped according to “acquired” (n = 13) or “developmental” (n = 38) primary diagnoses. At 4 years after GT placement, 67% were still using GT. Only 6 of 37 (16%) children with developmental disorders transferred to eating all orally, as opposed to 10 of 11 (91%) children with acquired disorders. Children with developmental disorders were younger at the time of GT placement and displayed a longer duration of GT activity when compared with children with acquired disorders.

    Conclusions: This study demonstrates a clear difference between children with developmental or acquired disorders in duration of GT activity and age at GT placement. The study further shows that healthcare provided to children with GT is in some cases multidisciplinary, but primarily focuses on feeding rather than eating.

  • 4.
    Behrendt, Marek
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Ivarsson, Tommy
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Hunger indikerar inte akut energistatus hos friska människor: En måltidsintervention2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The increasingly sedentary lifestyle of our society combined with a constantly rising caloric intake has elevated the risk of developing obesity and other metabolic diseases. There is a need to understand the underlying mechanisms of hunger regulation to effectively prevent and treat these diseases. The magnitude of which an active regulation of blood glucose has an influence on hunger regulation is rather controversial.

    Objective

    The objective of this study was to investigate how the changes in hunger and blood glucose levels may differ after a mixed meal compared to the fasting state. Research questions include: Does intermittent fasting reduce general hunger? How does an entrenched meal-pattern affect hunger? How does hunger and blood glucose change in anticipation of a meal?

    Method

    Twelve healthy subjects (7 men, 5 women), of which seven subjects regularly practiced intermittent fasting and the remaining five did not, were randomized into two groups, one group was eating pizza (Pi), and the other group was fasting (F). Blood glucose levels and hunger ratings were collected every 30 minutes, with exception of initial values that were collected 15 minutes prior to the serving of the pizzas. The subjects were unaware of which group they would be designated to until 10 minutes prior to the serving of the pizzas.

    Results

    Decline in blood glucose did not significantly differ between groups during the 5 hour window following the meal ingestion. Hunger ratings differed significantly between individuals but not between groups. However, only Pi had significantly elevated hunger ratings in the end of the test period compared to their initial ratings. In anticipation of the meal a significant change in blood glucose was observed between the groups (P = 0.05), where values dropped for Pi and rose for F. Four out of five subjects in F and one subject in Pi were considerably hungrier during time periods they reported as habitual eating occasion.

    Conclusion

    Correlations between absolute blood glucose levels and hunger could not be found. An equal rise in hunger appear regardless if subjects were fed or fasting, meaning significant hunger can appear although dietary energy still is absorbed into the blood stream. Thus our results indicate that the acute availability of dietary energy is only a relatively small part of the total hunger signaling process. A disrupted meal pattern seemed to affect hunger feelings more than the ingestion of the served meal. Thus we conclude that more research should focus on meal-pattern regulation to enable better hunger control.

  • 5.
    Börnhorst, Claudia
    et al.
    Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology – BIPS, Bremen, Germany.
    Siani, Alfonso
    Unit of Epidemiology and Population Genetics, Institute of Food Sciences, National Research Council, Avellino, Italy.
    Russo, Paola
    Unit of Epidemiology and Population Genetics, Institute of Food Sciences, National Research Council, Avellino, Italy.
    Kourides, Yannis
    Research and Education Institute of Child Health, Strovolos, Cyprus.
    Sion, Isabelle
    Department of Public Health, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    Molnár, Denés
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary.
    Moreno, Luis A.
    Rodríguez, Gerardo
    GENUD (Growth, Exercise, Nutrition and Development) Research Group, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain.
    Ben-Shlomo, Yoav
    School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.
    Howe, Laura
    School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom, MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit at the University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.
    Lissner, Lauren
    Section for Epidemiology and Social Medicine, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Mehlig, Kirsten
    Section for Epidemiology and Social Medicine, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Regber, Susann
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Bammann, Karin
    Institute for Public Health and Nursing Research (IPP), Faculty for Human and Health Sciences, University Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Foraita, Ronja
    Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology – BIPS, Bremen, Germany.
    Ahrens, Wolfgang
    Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology – BIPS, Bremen, Germany, Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Tilling, Kate
    School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.
    Early Life Factors and Inter-Country Heterogeneity in BMI Growth Trajectories of European Children: The IDEFICS Study2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 2, article id e0149268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Starting from birth, this explorative study aimed to investigate between-country differences in body mass index (BMI) trajectories and whether early life factors explain these differences.

    Methods

    The sample included 7,644 children from seven European countries (Belgium, Cyprus, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Spain, Sweden) participating in the multi-centre IDEFICS study. Information on early life factors and in total 53,409 repeated measurements of height and weight from 0 to <12 years of age were collected during the baseline (2007/2008) and follow-up examination (2009/2010) supplemented by records of routine child health visits. Country-specific BMI growth curves were estimated using fractional polynomial mixed effects models. Several covariates focussing on early life factors were added to the models to investigate their role in the between-countries differences.

    Results

    Large between-country differences were observed with Italian children showing significantly higher mean BMI values at all ages ≥ 3 years compared to the other countries. For instance, at age 11 years mean BMI values in Italian boys and girls were 22.3 [21.9;22.8; 99% confidence interval] and 22.0 [21.5;22.4], respectively, compared to a range of 18.4 [18.1;18.8] to 20.3 [19.8;20.7] in boys and 18.2 [17.8;18.6] to 20.3 [19.8;20.7] in girls in the other countries. After adjustment for early life factors, differences between country-specific BMI curves became smaller. Maternal BMI was the factor being most strongly associated with BMI growth (p<0.01 in all countries) with associations increasing during childhood. Gestational weight gain (GWG) was weakly associated with BMI at birth in all countries. In some countries, positive associations between BMI growth and children not being breastfed, mothers’ smoking during pregnancy and low educational level of parents were found.

    Conclusion

    Early life factors seem to explain only some of the inter-country variation in growth. Maternal BMI showed the strongest association with children’s BMI growth.

  • 6. Franzén, Lars-Gunnar
    Socker och hälsa – är det farligt att äta fruktos?2018In: Folkvett, ISSN 0283-0795, no 4, p. 40-61Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 7.
    Jakobs, Kristin
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET). Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    ­Hur påverkar dietärt nitrat muskelfunktionen och återhämtningen vid styrketräning?: En pilotstudie i samarbete med Karolinska Institutet och Åstrands laboratoriet.2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Research on human physiology and how it is working is updated daily. In the world of sports they are testing new as old, natural as unnatural preparations and different training methods continuously in order to optimize athletic performance. A substance that´s been research on, up till today is nitric oxide and its influence in the body. From being interpreted as a harmful substance in the body, it went to possibly help heart disease patients, and also optimize the physic in sport performance. Nitric oxide is formed in the body naturally by oxygen, but it can also be formed without oxygen through the ingestion of nitrates found in many vegetables. Studies on nitrate in the sport field have concentrated on the effect on endurance sports and the effect has been shown to increase the efficiency and the blood flow to the muscles. Later on they also found that nitrate supplementation seems to give a lower Vo2max together with an increased time to exhaustion. These findings are really interesting because normally a reduction in Vo2max leads us to a decrease in workability. All these studies give an idea on how nitrate works aerobic, that is with oxygen. The research has not yet an explanation on how nitrate affect anaerobic work and maximum performance that occurs in weight training.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how nitrate affects muscle function and endurance in strength training. In a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial, eight men (age 19-26, 23 (±2, 3)) consumed nitrate or a placebo (0.1 mmol/kg bodyweight/day) for three days. During the fourth day the test persons were tested in four different strength tests to see how they performed. Lactate and glucose concentrations were measured to see how the laktacid system was influenced.

    The study gave no support that dietary nitrate affects weight training. The results from the occasion with nitrate respectively placebo remained essentially unchanged.

    It was concluded that an intake of nitrate not will give any significant effects on the model of strength training. The main reason for this may be that nitrate provides the greatest impact on long-term work-duration and mainly during aerobic work. In this case the main use is mostly stored energy in the body, and the energy systems in which oxygen is required will probably not be of major importance.

  • 8.
    Johansson, Gunnar
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Dietary Advice on Prescription: A novel approach to dietary counseling2011In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 6, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes a novel approach to giving dietary advice, which is called "Dietary Advice on Prescription" (DAP; Matordning på Recept [MoR] in Swedish). It is the same principle as prescription on medicine and "Physical Activity on Prescription" (PAP; Fysisk aktivitet på Recept [FaR] in Swedish). The main idea is that a written prescription will strengthen the oral advice and emphasize certain aspects of the dietary recommendation. The DAP is on the brink of being tested in a planned study.

  • 9.
    Johansson, Gunnar
    Umeå universitet. Institutionen för kostvetenskap.
    Dietary assessments: Use, design concepts, biological markers, pitfalls and validation2006Other (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Johansson, Gunnar
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Kostrådgivning i helsevesenet: En kantete vei med motgang og muligheter2012In: Norsk tidsskrift for ernaering, ISSN 1503-5034, no 2, p. 32-36Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Johansson, Gunnar
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Nutritional epidemiology: Dietary assessments: use, design concepts, biologica markers, pitfalls and validation2014Book (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Johansson, Gunnar
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Nutritionsepidemiologi: Kostundersökningar: ändamål, design, biologiska markörer, felkällor och evaluering av kvalitén2014Book (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Johansson, Gunnar
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Nutritionsepidemiologi: Kostundersökningar: ändamål, design, biologiska markörer, felkällor och evaluering av kvalitén2010Other (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Johansson, Gunnar
    The Swedish National Institute of Public Health, Sweden.
    Selective underreporting is not specific to a certain dietary assessment method2008In: 9th Nordic Nutrition Conference: programme & abstract book : 1-4 June, 2008, Copenhagen, Copenhagen: International Conference Services , 2008, p. 114-114Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective:

    Valid dietary information is difficult to obtain and there is no consensus on the best method to use. The objective of the study was to compare nutritional intake results obtained from 16-day weighed records with those obtained from a food frequency questionnaire, repeated 24 h recalls, a 7-day food record, and a 7-day checklist.

    Methods:

    Seventy-five healthy men aged 55 to 88 years and living at home took part in the study. Means and standard deviations were calculated and distributions were ranked and then divided into quartiles. Statistical significance was assessed via one-way ANOVA.

    Results:

    The nutrient density was higher for protein and potassium for the group with low FIL values (energy intake/basal metabolic rate) in all dietary assessment method. For some methods this was also true for calcium, carotene, iron and vitamin C. All methods yielded similar results.

    Conclusions:

    This study indicates that selective underreporting exists, with socially desirable food items as the least underreported foods. Surprisingly, the simplest method, the simplified 24-h recall, performed as well as more complicated method. The existing conservative approach to dietary surveys needs to be abandoned and a more behaviourally intuitive approach should be adopted.

  • 15.
    Johansson, Gunnar
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Vegetariska koster2015In: Mat och hälsa: en klinisk handbok / [ed] Tommy Cederholm, Elisabeth Rothenberg, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2015, 1, p. 213-218Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Johansson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Källgård, Börje
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Öckerman, Per-Arne
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Effects of a shift from a mixed diet to a lacto-vegetarian diet on some coronary heart disease risk markers2012In: Open Journal of Preventive Medicine, ISSN 2162-2477, E-ISSN 2162-2485, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 16-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    There is convincing evidence that vegetarians have lower incidence of coronary heart disease, but there is a debate as to why this is the case.

    Objective:

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether a shift from a mixed diet to a lacto-vegetarian diet would lead to a decrease in risk for coronary heart diseases indicated by surrogate markers.

    Design:

    Twenty volunteers participated in the study (4 men and 16 women, mean age 44 years, range 27 - 61) from a town in western Sweden. Clinical examinations were performed, blood samples were drawn and dietary survey, i.e. repeated 24-h recalls were carried out before (0 months) and 3, 6 and 12 months after the change from a mixed diet to a lacto-vegetarian diet. A dietician educated the volunteers with regard to the vegetarian dietary regimen, organized and taught the vegetarian cooking courses.

    Results:

    The dietary shift lead to an increase in the intake of total carbohydrates and fibre and a decrease in fat, protein and sucrose. The coronary heart disease risk markers body weight, body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and low-density lipoptrotein cholesterol decreased significantly.

    Conclusions:

    There was a decrease in disease risk markers even though the ratio polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids was unchanged. The main finding in this study is that there was a weight loss, sustained for one year, without any recommendation to decrease the energy intake or any focus on weight reduction.

  • 17.
    Kallastu, Henri
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Dietära kolhydraters effekt på sömn: en litteraturstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Recent studies tend to focus on how dietary nutritional intake can affect human beings and also how we are affected by sleep. When symptoms like overweight, diabetes, cardiovascular disease becomes more common daily, partly caused by refined carbohydrates and bad dietary habits, it is important to verify how we are affected by our dietary habits. Recent studies have shown that shortened sleep, decreased sleep efficiency and quality are associated with the same symptoms which bad dietary habits can lead to. Therefor it would be of interest to examine the association between sleep and dietary habits.

    Purpose: By a systematic literature review examine the studies that exist of association between carbohydrates and sleep.

    Method: A systematic literature search was done to examine the studies that exist up to date with the association between carbohydrates and sleep. By certain search words and limits 9 studies were found and were carefully examines and compiled.

    Results: The results from the studies found showed that an increased total energy intake mainly from carbohydrates can reduce sleep duration. An increased intake from carbohydrate with higher Glycemic Index close to bedtime decreased the sleep latency and affect sleep quality.

    Conclusion:The association between carbohydrates and sleep is strong but still needs to be further investigated. Further studies are needed on the subject to better understand the effect of carbohydrate intake on our sleep.

  • 18.
    Lindqvist, Erik
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Holm, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Effekten av betainsupplementering på prestationsförmågan hos vältränade cykelatleter2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of betaine supplementation on counter movement jumps and sprint performance among male bicycle athletes

    Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a seven days supplementation regimen with betaine (2,5 grams per day) on counter movement jumps and sprint performance in trained male bicyclists.

    Method: Six (n=6) male subjects (mean ± standard deviation age, 31,7 ± 10,2 years; height, 188,2 ± 3,6 cm; bodyweight, 82,5 ± 7,6 kg; lean body mass, 71,6 ± 7,6 kg) completed a 21 day study involving five counter movement jumps (no arm swing) followed by 4 consecutive modified 12 second Wingate sprints on a bicycle ergometer with active rest (2,5 minutes) followed by another set of five counter movement jumps. A double blind, controlled randomized cross over design was used and there was a 1 week washout between the supplementation startup for each group. Following pre-testing (baseline) the participants were randomly divided into groups by choosing one of the following supplements: “12” Placebo –2,5 grams of maltodextrine plus 12,5 mg riboflavin or “11” – Active 2,5 grams of trimethylglycine plus 12,5 mg riboflavin. Riboflavin was used so mask the “fishy odor syndrome” effect of high intakes of trimethylglycine that may cause trimethyluria. Daily consumption of capsules was divided into two doses of two capsules each with meals. One dose (two capsules) was consumed in the morning and one dose in the evening. The following variables were analyzed: Maximum Peak Power, Average Peak Power, Maximum Mean Power, Average Mean Power, Maximum Relative Power Drop, Average Relative Power Drop, Mean CMJ-Pre + Post sprints and Maximal CMJ-Pre + Post sprints.

    Results: None of the parameters showed statistical significance.

    Conclusion: Our study indicates that seven days of betaine ingestion does not seem significantly improve counter movement jump or sprint capacity in male trained bicyclists. Larger studies are needed to investigate the performance enhancing effects of betaine, especially among high performance athletes.

  • 19.
    Nyman, Kim
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Effekten av styrketräning och energiunderskott på viktminskning hos nybörjarmotionärer2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Effekten av styrketräning och energiunderskott på viktminskning hos nybörjarmotionärer.

    Till dagens datum råder ingen strategi för hur fettförlusten kan maximeras och muskelförlusten minimeras (Katzeff et al, 1995). Lockwood (2008) visar att 50 % av individer som endast använder kostrestriktioner återfår sin ursprungliga vikt igen. Kraemer & Ratamess (2008) visar att regelbunden träning som involverar stora som små muskelgrupper i samma pass frigör mest anabola hormoner. Muskler offras av kroppen eftersom de tar energi och de kan ge energi via glukoneogenes för att ex. jaga byten. I dagens samhälle signalerar stressen ett konstant frigörande av kortisol vilket har en negativ påverkan på bl.a. muskler. Detta hormonpåslag har förstärkts i samband med energiunderskott.

    Är det möjligt att öka styrka med energiunderskott hos nybörjarmotionärer om protein tillförs för optimal kompenseringseffekt efter träningspass?

     4 av 6 överviktiga nybörjarmotionärer genomgick 8 veckor lång träningsperiod med betoning på hypertrofi, energiunderskott och mattiming i denna pilotstudie. 1RM tester har utförts på benpress i maskin, bröstmaskin samt sittande rodd med smalt grepp. Vilopuls har även tagits manuellt på morgonen av varje deltagare vid två tillfällen, före och efter träningsperioden. Testledare har tagit kroppsmått över byst, midja, rumpa samt vardera låren som utvärdering från energiunderskottet. Energiunderskottet har uppskattats till 500 kcal mindre än bibehållandet av ursprunglig vikt.

    Alla deltagare har ökat sina styrkeresultat och minskat alla kroppsmått. En person har någon extra centimeter kring låren, men kan tyda på hypertrofi. Inga signifikans test har utförts.

    BMI har minskat på alla deltagare medan kcalvärde har ökat för varje deltagare enligt BIA våg.

    Ett mål har varit att öka den basala metabolismen i vila via större muskler. Det är främst en ökad fettförbränning som är fördelaktigt för målgruppen, vilket kan uppnås genom en ökad muskelmassa och kolhydratrestriktioner. Trots att pilotstudien har behandlat fysiskt inaktiva nybörjarmotionärer har hypertrofi uppnåtts även efter 4 veckors teknikträning för ökat antal aktiva motorenheter. Inga konkreta slutsatser kan ringas in på en pilotstudie, men positiva resultat har framkommit.

  • 20.
    Pretorius, Maria
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Hassel, Anna
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Kure Andersson, Minna
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Föräldrars erfarenheter av kostinformation på barnavårdcentralen- En pilotstudie2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Kosten har stor betydelse för att barn ska kunna utvecklas normalt och uppnå en god hälsa. Kostvanor grundläggs tidigt och därför har kostinformationen under barnets första levnadsår en stor betydelse. Genom att BVC uppmärksammar föräldrars erfarenheter utav kostinformation i tidig ålder och anpassar informationen efter deras behov kan hälsoproblem relaterade till kost förebyggas. Syftet med denna pilotstudie var att beskriva föräldrars erfarenheter av BVC-sjuksköterskans kostinformation under barnets första levnadsår. Pilotstudien har en kvalitativ induktiv design med semistrukturerade intervjuer. Data analyserades med manifest innehållsanalys. I resultatet framkom fyra kategorier: BVC-sjuksköterskans attityd och bemötande har betydelse för kostinformationen, Adekvat och relevant kostinformation, Mer konkret och anpassad information efter barnets utveckling önskas samt Omständigheterna kring kostinformationen skulle kunna förändras. Det hade därför varit av värde att genomföra en större svensk studie för att få en djupare förståelse av föräldrars behov, hälsoproblem relaterade till kost kan förebyggas samt att alla föräldrar får möjlighet till samma information från BVC.

  • 21.
    Sjöholm, Therese
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Changes in Running Technique At Shod and Barefoot Running Condition: - An analysis of Muay Thai Fighters2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: everal studies mean that individuals accustomed to running barefoot and habitually barefoot individuals choose a fore foot or mid foot strike rather than a rear foot strike when running. This is partly to do with the proprioceptive feedback given from the soles of the feet. The common denominator of the barefoot runner and the Muay Thai fighter would be this proprioceptive feedback due to general bare foot training. A contributing factor to a non heal strike pattern could perhaps also be found in the sport specific movement pattern of Muay Thai where the athlete is trained to execute several actions from the fore foot. Aim: The first aim was to analyse differences in angles of the knee, ankle and foot at initial contact while running shod compared to barefoot in Muay Thai fighters accustomed to training barefoot. A second aim was to investigate if there was a difference in running technique regarding foot strike pattern when running shod compared to bare foot. The foot strike pattern is defined as heal strike, mid foot strike or forefoot strike. Method: Seventeen Muay Thai fighters (13 male 4 female) volunteered to participate in the test of the cross- sectional experimental study. The study took place at PT-Studion Halmstad. The participants performed 2x3minutes of running shod and barefoot respectively at a subjective speed equal to a 12 on the Borg scale. Both conditions were video recorded from a sagittal plane using an iPhone 6. The dominant leg defined as the non-weight bearing leg at the preferred boxing stance was analysed. Data was collected two-dimensionally of the angels of the knee, ankle and foot position to horizontal. Foot strike pattern was also determined. Landmarks were marked to ease the analysis. T-tests of paired samples were used to examine whether there were any differences between the angle of the knee, ankle and foot at barefoot and shod conditions. The significance level for this study was set to be statistically significant if p ≤ 0.05. Foot strike frequency distributions were compared between shod and barefoot runners using chi-square (X2) analysis. Result: A significant difference at the angle of the foot (p=0,034) at initial contact with the ground while running between shod (12 ± 9) and barefoot (17 ± 9) was found. No significant difference in the angle of the knee (p=0,076) or ankle (p=0,081) was found. Changes in foot strike pattern were observed. At shod condition 88% used a rear foot strike, 6% used a mid foot strike and 6% used a forefoot strike. At barefoot condition 41% used a rear foot strike, 0% used a mid foot strike and 59% a fore foot strike. Conclusion: This study shows that the there is a significant difference in foot strike pattern when running shod and barefoot which confirms previous studies. The test group have in common that they train Muay Thai although; their sport specific training doesn’t appear to in this case have any impact on the foot strike pattern.

  • 22.
    Ståhl, Jeanette
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Viktutveckling hos prematura barn: En journalgranskning2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the feeding strategi of prematurity is to emulate the intrauterine growth. Good nutrition is the foundation for optimal development of the child in the short and long term. The purpose of the study was to examine the weight development in children born in gestational week 33, concerning growth relative to expected intrauterine growth, until the expected date of delivery. The study was conducted with a retrospective design, were 12 patient records were reviewed. Quantitative variabels were identified and analysed. The sample consisted of all healthy preterm infants of gestational week 33 + 0 to 33 + 6 during 140101 to 140930, from a western Swedish medium-sized hospital. The result showed that the prematurely born children included in the study, lost an average of nearly eighteen percentage of their weight in relation to the normal curve. The feeding strategies needs to be changed to reduce the weight loss among the premature children, while more research is needed to ensure optimized feeding of the children born in the period between the extremely preterm and full-term babies.

  • 23.
    Svensson, Madeleine
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Bellocco, Rino
    Department of Statistics, University of Milano-Bicocca, Milan, Italy.
    Bakkman, Linda
    Unit of Clinical Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Trolle Lagerros, Ylva
    Unit of Clinical Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    An Interactive Internet-Based Plate for Assessing Lunchtime Food Intake: A Validation Study on Male Employees2013In: Journal of Medical Internet Research, ISSN 1438-8871, E-ISSN 1438-8871, Vol. 15, no 1, article id e13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Misreporting food intake is common because most health screenings rely on self-reports. The more accurate methods (eg, weighing food) are costly, time consuming, and impractical.

    Objectives: We developed a new instrument for reporting food intake—an Internet-based interactive virtual food plate. The objective of this study was to validate this instrument’s ability to assess lunch intake.

    Methods: Participants were asked to compose an ordinary lunch meal using both a virtual and a real lunch plate (with real food on a real plate). The participants ate their real lunch meals on-site. Before and after pictures of the composed lunch meals were taken. Both meals included identical food items. Participants were randomized to start with either instrument. The 2 instruments were compared using correlation and concordance measures (total energy intake, nutritional components, quantity of food, and participant characteristics).

    Results: A total of 55 men (median age: 45 years, median body mass index [BMI]: 25.8 kg/m2) participated. We found an overall overestimation of reported median energy intake using the computer plate (3044 kJ, interquartile range [IQR] 1202 kJ) compared with the real lunch plate (2734 kJ, IQR 1051 kJ, P<.001). Spearman rank correlations and concordance correlations for energy intake and nutritional components ranged between 0.58 to 0.79 and 0.65 to 0.81, respectively.

    Conclusion: Although it slightly overestimated, our computer plate provides promising results in assessing lunch intake. © Filippo Castiglione.

  • 24.
    Söderberg, Sofia
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Samband mellan relativ styrka, upplevd ansträngning och prestation i en standardiserad högintensiv styrketräningssekvens med och utan en föregående maxning i stöt hos Crossfitatleter2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Crossfit can be seen as one of the foremost workout trends in the world. Nevertheless, there is a lack of research regarding the physical adaptations of the sport and which factors may affect Crossfit performance. Crossfit has been shown to improve both aerobic and anaerobic performance, such as increased maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and increased power development (e.g. peak power), but also have positive effects on a person’s body composition and well-being. Previous research has also shown that strength is associated with Crossfit performance and that body weight can affect performance in other sports such as weightlifting and sprint.Methods: The study was conducted with an experimental cross-over design. Sixteen subjects between 18-50 years who regularly performed Crossfit (at least two times a week the last six month) participated in the study. The study consisted of two test occasions separated by one week. One test occasion contained a maximal strength test (1RM, 1-repetition-maximum) in clean and jerk before the Crossfit workout (WOD, workout of the day) ”Grace” was performed, and time was taken. Immediately after Grace the subjects rated their perceived exertion (rate of perceived exertion, RPE) using the Borg-scale. At the other test occasion, the subjects performed as many clean and jerks as at the 1RM test, but at a lower weight and less rest between the repetitions, before performing Grace.Results: Fifteen subjects conducted both tests. The study showed that there was no correlation between relative strength and the performance in Grace either without (r = -0,07) or with (r = 0,05) a previous 1RM test in clean and jerk. However, the result showed that there was a small correlation between RPE and the performance in Grace without a previous 1RM test in clean and jerk (r = 0,14) and a medium correlation between RPE and the performance in Grace with a previous 1RM test in clean and jerk (r = 0,40). Conclusions: The result indicates that body weight and strength don’t affect performance in Grace either without or with a previous 1RM test in clean and jerk. However, the high p- values means that the result of the study can’t be generalized to other than the subjects included in the current study. The conclusion is that further research needs to be conducted to determine how relative strength and RPE affect and correlate with Crossfit performance. 

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