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  • 1.
    Acevski, Robert
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Tidebrant, Niklas
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Familjefaktorer som påverkar barns och ungdomars frukt och grönsaksintag.2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Frukt och grönsaksintaget har minskat i både rika och fattiga länder. Konsekvenserna av ett för lågt intag kan vara övervikt och fetma som i sin tur kan leda till hjärt- och kärl sjukdomar, cancer och diabetes typ 2. Det har visat sig att det finns flera olika faktorer i hemmet som gör att det har blivit ett minskat intag. I tidigare forskning finns det tydliga samband mellan familjen och ett minskat intag av frukt och grönsaker hos barn och ungdomar. Syfte: Syftet med studien var att undersöka vilka faktorer i familjen som påverkar barn och ungdomars intag av frukt och grönsaker. Metod: Metoden som användes var en litteraturstudie och de databaser som användes vid databassökning var Ebsco och Pubmed. Resultat: De tre faktorer som hade störst betydelse för frukt och grönsaksintaget var: Socioekonomisk status, Matkultur och Föräldrars som förebilder. En låg socioekonomisk status visade på ett mindre intag av frukt och grönsaker. I familjer med låg socioekonomisk var tillgängligheten och kunskapen om frukt och grönt lägre hos familjerna. Tidigare gjorda interventioner visar att det finns metoder för att öka intaget hos barn och ungdomar. Implikationer: Genom att höja kunskapen om betydelsen av frukt och grönsaker går det att förbygga problem med framtida hälsa.

  • 2.
    Ahlborg, Mikael
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Svedberg, Petra
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Nyholm, Maria
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Morgan, Antony
    Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, United Kingdom.
    Nygren, Jens M.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Socioeconomic inequalities in health among Swedish adolescents - adding the subjective perspective2017In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 17, article id 838Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Socioeconomic inequalities in adolescent health predict future inequalities in adult health. Subjective measures of socioeconomic status (SES) may contribute with an increased understanding of these inequalities. The aim of this study was to investigate socioeconomic health inequalities using both a subjective and an objective measure of SES among Swedish adolescents.

    Method

    Cross-sectional HBSC-data from 2002 to 2014 was used with a total sample of 23,088 adolescents aged 11–15 years. Three measures of self-rated health (dependent variables) were assessed: multiple health complaints, life satisfaction and health perception. SES was measured objectively by the Family Affluence Scale (FAS) and subjectively by “perceived family wealth” (independent variables). The trend for health inequalities was investigated descriptively with independent t-tests and the relationship between independent and dependent variables was investigated with multiple logistic regression analysis. Gender, age and survey year was considered as possible confounders.

    Results

    Subjective SES was more strongly related to health outcomes than the objective measure (FAS). Also, the relation between FAS and health was weakened and even reversed (for multiple health complaints) when subjective SES was tested simultaneously in regression models (FAS OR: 1.03, CI: 1.00;1.06 and subjective SES OR: 0.66, CI: 0.63;0.68).

    Conclusions

    The level of socioeconomic inequalities in adolescent health varied depending on which measure that was used to define SES. When focusing on adolescents, the subjective appraisals of SES is important to consider because they seem to provide a stronger tool for identifying inequalities in health for this group. This finding is important for policy makers to consider given the persistence of health inequalities in Sweden and other high-income countries. ©  The Author(s). 2017

  • 3.
    Ahlborg, Tone
    et al.
    Nordic School of Public Health.
    Persson, Lars-Olof
    University of Göteborg.
    Hallberg, Lillemor R.-M.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Assessing the Quality of the Dyadic Relationship in First-Time Parents: Development of a New Instrument2005In: Journal of Family Nursing, ISSN 1074-8407, E-ISSN 1552-549X, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 19-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this research was to psychometrically evaluate the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS), modified for use with new, first-time parents by extending the items of communication, sensuality, and sexuality. A total of 820 Swedish respondents, 6 months after the birth of their first child, participated in the study. Psychometric evaluation was conducted with factor analysis. The obtained factor structure was tested with multitrait analysis program. Thirty-three itemswere found to fit into a five-factor solution, explaining 50% of the total variance. Descriptive data revealed thatmost new parentswere satisfied with their intimate relationship in general, but dissatisfied with their sexual lives. Themodified DAS, now called the Quality of Dyadic Relationship Instrument includes 33 items and seems to be a useful, updated measurement for assessing quality of the intimate relationship in new first-time parents.

  • 4.
    Aili, K.
    et al.
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden & FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Andersson, M.
    FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden & Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Haglund, Emma
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bergman, S.
    FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden & University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sleep problems and fatigue as a predictor for the onset of chronic widespread pain over a 5- and 18-year perspective: a 20-year prospective study2018In: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 77, no Suppl. 2, p. 87-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: If localised pain represent one end of a pain spectra, with overall better general health, chronic widespread pain (CWP) and fibromyalgia represent the other end of the spectra with worse general health and more comorbidities with other somatic diseases and mental illness. Sleep problems and fatigue are common among individuals reporting CWP and previous research indicate that sleep problems may be an important predictor for pain prognosis.

    Objectives: The aim of this population-based study was to investigate if sleep problems and fatigue predict the onset of CWP 5 and 18 years later.

    Methods: In order to get more stable baseline classifications of CWP, a wash-out period was used, including only individuals who had not reported CWP (according to ACR 1990 criteria for fibromyalgia) at baseline (−98) and three years prior baseline (−95). In all, data from 1249 individuals entered the analyses for the 5 year follow-up (−03) and 791 entered for the 18 year follow-up (−16). Four parameters related to sleep (difficulties initiating sleep, maintaining sleep, early morning awakening and non-restorative sleep), and one parameter related to fatigue (SF-36 vitality scale) were investigated as predictors for CWP. Binary logistic regression analysis were used for analyses.

    Results: All investigated parameters predicted the onset of CWP five years later (problems with initiating sleep (OR 1.91; 1.16–3.14), maintaining sleep (OR 1.85; 1.14–3.01), early awakening (OR 2.0; 1.37–3.75), non-restorative sleep (OR 2.27; 1.37–3.75) and fatigue (OR 3.70; 1.76–7.84)) in a model adjusted for age, gender, socio-economy and mental health. All parameters except problems with early awakening predicted the onset of CWP also 18 years later. In all, 785 individuals did not report any of the sleeping problems at baseline (fatigue not included), 268 reported one of the problems, 167 two, 128 three and 117 subjects reported to have all four sleep problems. Reporting all four sleep problems was significantly associated with CWP at follow-up at both time points when adjusting for age, gender, socio economy and mental health (OR 4.00; 2.03–7.91 and OR 3.95; 1.90–8.20); adjusting for age, gender, socio economy and number of pain regions (OR 2.94; 1.48–5.82 and OR 2.65; 1.24–5.64) and in a model adjusting for age, gender, socio economy and pain severity (OR 2.97;1.53–5.76; and OR 3.02;1.47–6.21) for the 5 year and 18 year follow-up respectively, compared to not reporting any of the sleep problems at baseline.

    Conclusions: Both sleeping problems and fatigue predicts the onset of CWP 5- and 18 years later. The results highlight the importance of the assessment of sleep quality in the clinic.

  • 5.
    Aili, Katarina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport. Spenshult Research and Development Center, FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden & Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Maria
    Spenshult Research and Development Center, FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden & Lunds Universitet, Lund, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Spenshult Research and Development Center, FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden & Lunds Universitet, Lund, Sweden & University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark & Syddansk Universitet, Graasten, Danmark.
    Haglund, Emma
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Spenshult Research and Development Center, FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Larsson, Ingrid
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing. Spenshult Research and Development Center, FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Sleep problems and fatigue as predictorsfor the onset of chronic widespread painover a 5- and 18-year perspective2018In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, ISSN 1471-2474, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Previous research suggests that sleep problems may be an important predictor for chronic widespread pain (CWP). With this study we investigated both sleep problems and fatigue as predictors for the onset of CWP over a 5-year and an 18-year perspective in a population free from CWP at baseline.

    Methods: To get a more stable classification of CWP, we used a wash-out period, including only individuals who had not reported CWP at baseline (1998) and three years prior baseline (1995). In all, data from 1249 individuals entered the analyses for the 5-year follow-up and 791 entered for the 18-year follow-up. Difficulties initiating sleep, maintaining sleep, early morning awakening, non-restorative sleep and fatigue were investigated as predictors separately and simultaneously in binary logistic regression analyses.

    Results: The results showed that problems with initiating sleep, maintaining sleep, early awakening and non-restorative sleep predicted the onset of CWP over a 5-year (OR 1.85 to OR 2.27) and 18-year (OR 1.54 to OR 2.25) perspective irrespective of mental health (assessed by SF-36) at baseline. Also fatigue predicted the onset of CWP over the two-time perspectives (OR 3.70 and OR 2.36 respectively) when adjusting for mental health. Overall the effect of the sleep problems and fatigue on new onset CWP (over a 5-year perspective) was somewhat attenuated when adjusting for pain at baseline but remained significant for problems with early awakening, non-restorative sleep and fatigue. Problems with maintaining sleep predicted CWP 18 years later irrespective of mental health and number of pain regions (OR 1.72). Reporting simultaneous problems with all four aspects of sleep was associated with the onset of CWP over a five-year and 18-yearperspective, irrespective of age, gender, socio economy, mental health and pain at baseline. Sleep problems and fatigue predicted the onset of CWP five years later irrespective of each other.

    Conclusion: Sleep problems and fatigue were both important predictors for the onset of CWP over a five-year perspective. Sleep problems was a stronger predictor in a longer time-perspective. The results highlight the importance of the assessment of sleep quality and fatigue in the clinic. © The Author(s). 2018

  • 6.
    Almquist-Tangen, Gerd
    et al.
    Child Health Care Unit, Region Halland, Kungsbacka, Sweden & Department of Paediatrics, Institute for Clinical Sciences at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Strömberg, Ulf
    Research and Development Department, Halland, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Holmén, Anders
    Research and Development Department, Halland, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Alm, Bernt
    Child Health Care Unit, Region Halland, Kungsbacka, Sweden & Department of Paediatrics, Institute for Clinical Sciences at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Roswall, Josefine
    Department of Paediatrics, Halland Hospital, Halmstad, Sweden & Department of Paediatrics, Institute for Clinical Sciences at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Research and Development Centre, Spenshult Hospital, Oskarström, Sweden.
    Dahlgren, Jovanna
    Department of Paediatrics, Institute for Clinical Sciences at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Influence of neighbourhood purchasing power on breastfeeding at four months of age: a Swedish population-based cohort study2013In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 13, no 1, article id 1077Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Parental socioeconomic status (SES) is an important determinant in child health, influencing beneficial factors such as breastfeeding. A better understanding of the influence of neighbourhood-level SES measures, relating to spatial determinants, might lead to targeted actions to promote breastfeeding during infancy.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study analysis the association between breastfeeding at four months of age and neighbourhood purchasing power, taking account of individual-level variables including maternal age, smoking and parental level of education. Data were obtained from a prospective population- based cohort study recruited from birth in 2007-2008 in the Halland region, southwestern Sweden. Questionnaire data on the individual-level variables and the outcome variable of breastfeeding at four months (yes/no) were used (n=2,407). Each mother was geo-coded with respect to her residential parish (there are 61 parishes in the region) and then stratified by parish-level household purchasing power. It emerged that four neighbourhood characteristics were reasonable to use, viz. <10%, 10-19%, 20-29% and ≥ 30% of the resident families with low purchasing power.

    RESULTS: The proportion of mothers not breastfeeding at four months of age showed a highly significant trend across the neighbourhood strata (p=0.00004): from 16.3% (< 10% with low purchasing power) to 29.4% (≥ 30% with low purchasing power), yielding an OR of 2.24 (95% confidence interval: 1.45-3.16). After adjusting for the individual-level variables, the corresponding OR=1.63 (1.07-2.56) was significant and the trend across the strata was still evident (p=0.05). A multi-level analysis estimated that, in the neighbourhoods with ≥ 30% of the families with low purchasing power, 20% more mothers than expected, taking account of the individual-level factors, reported no breastfeeding at four months of age (≥ 95% posterior probability of an elevated observed-to-expected ratio).

    CONCLUSION: The neighbourhood purchasing power provided a spatial determinant of low numbers of mothers breastfeeding at four months of age, which could be relevant to consider for targeted actions. The elevated observed-to-expected ratio in the neighbourhoods with the lowest purchasing power points toward a possible contextual influence. © 2013 Almquist-Tangen et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  • 7.
    Almqvist-Tangen, Gerd
    et al.
    Child Healthcare Team, Region Halland, Sweden & Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Arvidsson, Susann
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Alm, Bernt
    Child Healthcare Team, Region Halland, Sweden & Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden & Research and Development Centre Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Roswall, Josefine
    Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden & County Hospital, Region Halland, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Dahlgren, Jovanna
    Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nevonen, Lauri
    Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden & Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    What makes parents act and react? Parental views and considerations relating to ‘child health’ during infancy2017In: Journal of Child Health Care, ISSN 1367-4935, E-ISSN 1741-2889, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 415-423Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lifestyle factors and behaviours are adopted very early in life and tend to persist throughout life. Considering that the parents are the primary gatekeepers for their child’s health, there is a need to gain more knowledge and deeper understanding about what causes parents to act and react in order for early preventive efforts to have any effect. The aim was to explore the parental views and considerations concerning ‘child health’ among parents with infants 8–10 months old. The sample was strategic and 16 parents (aged 23–41) were recruited from three child health centres in Sweden. Open-ended interviews were conducted and a qualitative, manifest content analysis approach was utilized. The parents described the subject ‘child health’ as a large, multifaceted concept. Three categories emerged during data analysis: developing a sixth sense, being affected by perceptions and believing health and ill health as a continuum. The parents perceived food and feeding issues as one of the most worrying aspects and a significant indicator of ‘child health’. In order to meet the parents on their turf, the ‘healthy health message’ conveyed needs to take the parental perspective into consideration rather than attempting to educate the parents from predetermined assumption, belief and values. © The Author(s) 2017

  • 8.
    Andersson, Erica
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Ungdomars upplevelser av skolidrott som motivation till fysisk aktivitet2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Obesity is currently a major problem in children and adolescents, especially because of physical inactivity and poorer eating habits. The school is an important element in the promotion of child and adolescent habits of physical activity. School sports are also important for children and adolescent´s habits of physical activity in a lifelong perspective. The aim of the study was to highlight adolescent´s experience of school sports as motivation for physical activity. Qualitative interviews were used as data collection methods, followed by content analysis method of analysis. The sample in the study was a strategic choice, a total of nine students from grades three to two high schools in southwestern Sweden participated. The analysis of the data collection resulted in three main categories with four subcategories. The first main category was Knowledge as motivation, with subcategories Knowledge of Physical Activity and Knowledge of the health conept. The second main category was Participation and acknowledgment, with the subcategories To get positive feedback/respond and To be involved in decison-making. The last main category was Lack of personal interest. Overall theme of the results was Teachers create opportunities for physical activity. This is because the overall result of the study was that the teachers had a crucial role in the informants' experiences of physical education as a motivational and inspirational to physical activity. Continued research in this area may advantageously be to also find out the PE teachers' attitudes towards creating conditions for motivation to physical activity among students who are not interested in the topic in their teaching.

  • 9.
    Andersson, Erica
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Andersson, Sandra
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Sociala och mediala orsaker påverkar utvecklingen av Anorexia Nervosa bland unga kvinnor: En litteraturstudie2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Mental illness among young woman is a public health problem. Anorexia nervosa is categorized as a mental illness. Young woman affected by Anorexia nervosa, wich for example may be due to earlier life events that gave rise to mental imbalance in their everyday lives. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the socio-cultural reasons that contribute to the development of Anorexia nervosa among girls and young women 12-25 years. METHOD: The study is a literature review, based on 21 differens aricles. The method has been to look up earlier research in the area through various databases on the internet. Databases that have been used is pubmed and psycinfo. The articles were divided into different themes, with main category and subcategory. RESULTS: The results of the study was divided into two main categories each with two subcategories. Social causes for the occurrence of Anorexia nervosa: School and youth culture and the second was lack of family relationship. Media reasons in the emergence of Anorexia nervosa: Media image of the feminine ideal and negative inspiration on the internet. Socio-cultural reasons, medial reasons, family reasons, and cultural reasons. IMPLICATION: For example, one can study the various reason in a more specific level, and studying each factors separately. The study can also be used as a form of inspiration that reinforces the importance of health promotion activities for mental illness is the focus.

  • 10.
    Andersson, Hanna
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Ohlsson, Elin
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Hälsofrämjande åtgärder på arbetsplatser-: Enkätstudie bland stora och medelstora företag i Halmstad kommun2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine how enterprises in Halmstad municipality, Sweden, worked with health promotion. A survey, in the form of a questionnaire was performed on large- and medium-sized enterprises in Halmstad. The respondents can be described as staff responsible for health promotion and work environmental issues. The results show that of 34 companies, 31 offer health promotion benefits, 23 actively work on improving the work environment by introducing ergonomic measures and 21 works with health services. The analysis indicates that by having these benefits and services in place, the absence due to sickness decreases while the employee’s health status increases. However, the study also found that there were difficulties in promoting health in these enterprises; mainly lack of time, economy and lack of motivation among employees. To further improve health promotion in work places we recommend educating responsible staff in particular and employees in general.

  • 11.
    Andersson, Lena
    et al.
    The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden & Nordic School of Public Health, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Staland Nyman, Carin
    The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Krantz, Gunilla
    The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Associations between general self efficacy, barriers to care and self-reported mental illness—a population-based study2010In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 20, no Suppl. 1, p. 69-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Mental illness is an increasing health problem globally. However, many individuals do not seek health care although evidence-based care is available. Research has shown that self efficacy is associated with various health outcomes and it is of importance to investigate if it also is associated mental illness. Early detection promotes recovery and decreases suicide risk.

    Aim

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether low levels of self efficacy is associated with a higher degree of mental illness and whether level of self-efficacy influence health seeking behaviour.

    Methods

    This is a cross-sectional study based on data from the Health Assets study, with data collected in 2008 in West Sweden. The study population is a randomly selected population sample of 4027 individuals, aged 18–65 years. Data collection was done by a postal questionnaire and the response rate was 50.4%. Bi-and multivariate analyses were employed to investigate associations and results were stratified on sex, age, civil status, education and social support.

    Results

    A total number of 1361 (36%) out of 3811 individuals answered ‘Yes’ on the question ‘Have you ever felt so mentally ill that you had (felt a need) to seek care’. A total of 33% of the women answering yes were found in the lowest quartile of the general self efficacy scale, 20% in the highest quartile. Corresponding figures for men were 30 and 23% respectively. The most common reason stated for not seeking health care was a belief that the mental health problem would disappear by itself. Others reasons mentioned were beliefs that health care would not help, they did not know were to go or they felt ashamed for showing others they suffered from mental illness.

    Conclusion

    Mental illness is a serious health problem and access to care needs to be improved. Health promotion should also include individual traits/characteristics such as self efficacy and health-seeking behaviour.

  • 12.
    Andersson, Lena
    et al.
    The Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Department of Social Medicine, PO Box 453, SE-405 30 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Staland Nyman, Carin
    The Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Department of Social Medicine, PO Box 453, SE-405 30 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Spak, Fredrik
    The Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Department of Social Medicine, PO Box 453, SE-405 30 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Hensing, Gunnel
    The Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Department of Social Medicine, PO Box 453, SE-405 30 Göteborg, Sweden.
    High incidence of disability pension with a psychiatric diagnosis in western Sweden. A population-based study from 1980 to 19982006In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 343-353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Regional differences in Sweden in the prevalence of disability pension with a psychiatric diagnosis are unexplained, in spite of the significant impact on the population's health, rehabilitation systems, and the health care system. The purpose of this study was to describe the pattern of disability pensions with a psychiatric diagnosis and to analyze the impact of age and gender. We examined the incidencerates in one urban and one semi-rural region and compared these to national rates. The study sample was drawn from employed persons between 16-64 years of age who, because of their sickness insurance coverage, would be eligible to access disability pensions should it be necessary. Analysis of annual incidences and standardized morbidity ratios were made for 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, and 1998. Data ondisability pension cases were collected from the National Social Insurance registers. In the urban region we found that the proportion of men and women clearly outnumbered the national average: approximately twice the number of persons between 16-64 years of age with apsychiatric diagnosis were receiving a disability pension. In the semi-rural region there were fewer men overall on disability pensionswith psychiatric disorders, but in 1980, 1985, and 1995 women clearly outnumbered men. Access to psychiatric care, unemployment, alcohol dependence, and previous sickness absence are suggested as possible factors that might affect the rates of disability pension in different geographical settings. © 2006 IOS Press. All rights reserved.

  • 13.
    Andersson, Lena
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Twum-Antwi, Akwasi
    Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada.
    Nyman, Carin
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    van Rooyen, Dalena
    Nelson Mandela University, Port Elizabeth, South Africa.
    Prevalence and socioeconomic characteristics of alcohol disorders among men and women in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa2018In: Health & Social Care in the Community, ISSN 0966-0410, E-ISSN 1365-2524, Vol. 26, no 1, p. e143-e153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is growing concern about alcohol problems in low- and middle-income countries. More research is required, particularly among the younger generation. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of alcohol disorders and associated socioeconomic characteristics among young men and women living in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. This was a cross-sectional population-based study of 977 participants (52% male and 48% female) aged 18–40, the majority of whom lived in low-income areas. Data collection was carried out in 2012 by trained fieldworkers. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (DSM-IV) was used to investigate the prevalence of alcohol dependence (increased tolerance to alcohol, failed attempt to cut down, risk of physical and mental effects) and alcohol abuse (harmful use, consistent intoxication, risk behaviour, physically hazardous, social problems). A high 12-month prevalence of alcohol dependence was found (26.5% in total; 39.0% among men and 19.1% among women) as well as of alcohol abuse (9% in total; 19.0% among men and 6.0% among women). Few socioeconomic differences emerged among the men, except older men (OR 1.94, CI 1.11–3.42) and those supported by social grants (OR 2.28, CI 1.06–4.93), who presented higher odd ratios for alcohol dependence than the reference groups. Among the women, more differences emerged: women who were widowed/single (OR 2.35, CI 1.20–4.62), had no education (OR 3.41, CI 1.04–11.21), had a low income (OR 3.26, CI 1.55–6.80) and had no social support from friends when ill presented higher odd ratios (OR 1.73, CI 1.07–2.80). In the adjusted model, marital status and low income remained statistically significant. With regard to alcohol abuse, fewer socioeconomic differences emerged. Interventions need to address the early onset of alcohol misuse in order to meet both current needs and long-standing mental and physical illness. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd

  • 14.
    Arlid, Jonas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Nilja, Nicklas
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Olofsson, Nina
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Fysisk aktivitet som hälsofrämjande åtgärd för barn och ungdomar med särskilda behov: En intervjustudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund/Syfte: Ett av Folkhälsoinstitutets 11 målområden är fysisk aktivitet, målområdet innefattar att främja fysisk aktivitet bland befolkningen. Ett steg i detta arbete är att rekommendera fysisk aktivitet 30-60 minuter om dagen. Hallands Idrottsförbund bedriver olika projekt för att kunna erbjuda barn med särskilda behov möjlighet att bli fysiskt aktiv i en idrottsförening i samarbete med bland annat Barn och ungdoms psykiatri, Region Halland och habiliteringen. Syftet med studien var att beskriva erfarenheter av fysisk aktivitet som hälsofrämjande metod för barn och ungdomar med särskilda behov.

    Metod: En kvalitativ metod användes och 6 intervjuer genomfördes på olika arbetsplatser bland personer som jobbar med hälsofrämjande åtgärder och insatser för barn och ungdomar. Intervjuerna transkriberades från ljudfil till text och analyserades till en temaanalys.

    Resultat: Temaanalysen resulterade i tre olika teman. Det första temat var betydelsen av barn och ungdomars hälsofrämjande arenor, här visade det sig att skolan och föreningslivet är de två viktigaste arenorna för att nå ut till barn och ungdomar med hälsofrämjande arbete. Det andra temat var motivation och stöd till barn och ungdomar där det framkom att motiverande samtal är en tänkbar metod för att motivera äldre barn till fysisk aktivitet. Stöd från omgivningen är även en viktig komponent för att motivera barn och ungdomar till fysisk aktivitet. Det tredje temat var hinder och behov i arbetet. Här beskrevs fördelar och nackdelar inom det aktuella området exempelvis hur ekonomin kan vara ett hinder både för föräldrar och föreningar. Det framkom även att kompetensen hos de ledare som arbetar med barn och ungdomar behövs utvecklas.

    Implikation: Vi vill med hjälp av denna studie belysa olika hinder och behov samt vad som är viktigt att tänka på inom det hälsofrämjande arbetet med barn och ungdomar exempelvis utökade resurser inom föreningslivet och stöd från omgivningen. Ett steg i att hitta tänkbara lösningar för att gagna fortsatt arbete inom det aktuella området är att underlätta för föräldrar att erbjuda sina barn fysisk aktivitet genom ekonomiskt och praktiskt stöd.

  • 15.
    Baigi, Amir
    et al.
    FoU-enheten, Primärvården Halland.
    Bergh, Håkan
    FoU-enheten, Primärvården Halland.
    Haraldsson, Katarina
    FoU-enheten, Primärvården Halland.
    Lindgren, Eva-Carin
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Lydell, Marie
    FoU-enheten, Primärvården Halland.
    Månsson, Jörgen
    FoU-enheten, Primärvården Halland.
    Wendt, Eva
    FoU-enheten, Primärvården Halland.
    Hälsa på lika villkor? Hallands resultat från en nationell folkhälsoenkät2005Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    N/A

  • 16.
    Bank, Petra
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
     Hinder och problem med metoden FaR inom Primärvården.:  En intervjustudie.2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Metoden fysisk aktivitet på recept började användas 2001 inom primärvården, med avsikten att öka fysisk aktivitet bland befolkningen. Syftet med denna studie var att beskriva förskrivarnas upplevelser av hinder och problem, med att använda metoden FaR inom primärvården. Kvalitativ metod valdes och 12 intervjuer genomfördes. Data analyserades med hjälp av innehållsanalys. Resultatet som framkom bildade tre huvudkategorier; metoden, förskrivarna och samverkan. Resultatet visade, att trots att metoden ansågs vara bra, fanns det aspekter som behövde förbättras. Hjälpmedlen användes i liten utsträckning, tid och arbete behövdes för att väl förankra metoden på arbetsplatsen. Förskrivarna behöver motiveras för att kunna hjälpa patienten på bästa vis och även andra aktörer i samhället behövs i arbetet med att öka den fysiska aktiviteten bland befolkningen. Slutsatsen blev att metoden behövs inom primärvården, men att tydliga riktlinjer krävs om hur arbetet ska implementeras och användas praktiskt i vardagen. Även kontinuerliga påminnelser behövs för att arbetet ska fortgå, till exempel tävlingar och föreläsningar som sätter extra fokus på metoden. Aktivitetskatalogen behöver utvecklas och om möjlighet finns, även införa en prisreducering, så att alla oavsett ekonomisk situation, har chans att delta. Ett större samarbete med andra aktörer utanför hälso- och sjukvården krävs, för att möjliggöra och synliggöra arbetet, detta för att öka hälsan bland befolkningen. Slutligen så bör förskrivarna få större möjligheter att få vara med och utforma metoden, för att kunna eliminera det motstånd som finns.

  • 17.
    Bengtsson, Anna
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Äldre individers upplevelser av vad som bidrar till den egna hälsan och välbefinnandet2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are four main factors contributing to good ageing: social community, meaningful occupation and participation, physical activity and good eating habits. The purpose of this study was to describe what elderly people experience contribute to their own health and well-being. Qualitative semi structured interviews were conducted with 15 people aged 75 or more. The interviews were analyzed with qualitative content analysis. Three main categories emerged under the latent theme of “feeling of having access to and control over resources making it possible to live a continued active and meaningful life as an elderly”: “living in a good physical environment”, “feeling of meaningfulness” and “feeling of independence”. It was important to the informants to have a good home and a nice neighbourhood. Meaningfulness came from social sense of community and belonging, meaningful activities and a positive attitude and faith. Independence consisted of feeling well and healthy and adapting activities as well as having a good economy and access to transportation. Access and control over these conditions made it possible to keep living an active and meaningful life. The result is in accordance to previous research within the area. It is important that health promoting efforts for the elderly has a comprehensive view and that all needs of the elderly are met as far as possible. Future research could investigate the subject in elderly with a lower self-perceived health.

  • 18.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Research and Development Centre, Spenshult, Oskarström, Sweden.
    Psychosocial aspects of chronic widespread pain and fibromyalgia2005In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 27, no 12, p. 675-683Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To study the impact on health status as measured by SF-36 in groups of subjects having chronic musculoskeletal pain with different degree of generalization: No chronic pain (NCP), chronic regional pain (CRP), chronic widespread pain (CWP), CWP with a stricter 'Manchester' definition (CWP-M), and clinically defined fibromyalgia (FM). The study also examines the association between psychosocial and lifestyle background variables, and these pain-groups.

    METHOD: A cross-sectional study with a postal survey to 3928 subjects, constituting a representative sample of the adult general population, followed by clinical examination in a selected group of subjects with CWP. CWP and FM were diagnosed according to ACR 1990 fibromyalgia criteria. Health status was measured by SF-36 Health Survey.

    RESULTS: Patients with CWP, CWP-M, and FM were found to present with more severe impairment of health status than the other two population groups. Several psychosocial factors, such as belonging to a lower socio-economic group, being an immigrant, living in a compromised housing area, having lower educational level, experiencing lower social support and having a family history of chronic pain, were associated with the populations with CWP and FM.

    CONCLUSIONS: The spectrum of impact on health and association to background variables, with respect to a stricter definition of CWP, indicates that these factors are important to attend to in the understanding and management of CWP and FM.

    © 2005 Taylor & Francis Group Ltd.

  • 19.
    Bergman, Stefan
    et al.
    Primary Care Centre Hertig Knut, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Herrström, Per
    Högström, K.
    Petersson, Ingemar F.
    Svensson, Björn
    Jacobsson, Lennart T.
    Chronic musculoskeletal pain, prevalence rates, and sociodemographic associations in a Swedish population study2001In: Journal of Rheumatology, ISSN 0315-162X, E-ISSN 1499-2752, Vol. 28, no 6, p. 1369-1377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of chronic regional and widespread musculoskeletal pain in a sample of the general adult population and study the association to age, sex, socioeconomic class, immigration, and housing area.

    METHODS: A cross sectional survey with a postal questionnaire to 3928 inhabitants on the west coast of Sweden.

    RESULTS: The age and sex adjusted prevalence of chronic regional pain (CRP) was 23.9% and chronic widespread pain (CWP) 11.4% among 2425 subjects who responded to the complete questionnaire. Odds ratio (OR) for CWP showed a systematic increasing gradient with age and was highest in the age group 59-74 yrs (OR 6.36, 95% CI 3.85-10.50) vs age group 20-34 yrs. CWP was also associated with female sex (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.41-2.61), being an immigrant (OR 1.83, 95% CI 1.22-2.77), living in a socially compromised housing area (OR 3.05, 95% CI 1.48-6.27), and being an assistant nonmanual lower level employee (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.09-3.38) or manual worker (OR 2.72, 95% CI 1.65-4.49) vs being an intermediate/higher nonmanual employee. OR for CRP showed a systematic increasing gradient with age and was highest in the age group 59-74 yrs (OR 2.22, 95% CI 1.62-3.05) vs age group 20-34 yrs. CRP was also associated with being a manual worker (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.19-2.23) vs being an intermediate/higher nonmanual employee.

    CONCLUSION: Chronic musculoskeletal pain is common in the general population. Sociodemographic variables were overall more frequently and strongly associated with CWP than with CRP, which indicates different pathophysiology in the development or preservation of pain in the 2 groups.

  • 20.
    Bergman, Stefan
    et al.
    Research and Development Centre, Spenshult, Oskarström, Sweden.
    Jacobsson, Lennart T.H.
    Herrström, Per
    Petersson, Ingemar F.
    Health status as measured by SF‐36 reflects changes and predicts outcome in chronic musculoskeletal pain: a 3‐year follow up study in the general population2004In: Pain, ISSN 0304-3959, E-ISSN 1872-6623, Vol. 108, no 1-2, p. 115-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The SF-36 is a well-validated health status instrument measuring eight different health concepts. One aim of this study was to compare health status as measured by SF-36 in subjects from the general population with no chronic pain (NCP), chronic regional pain (CRP), and chronic widespread pain (CWP). A second aim was to assess if SF-36 could reflect changes in pain status over time. A third aim was to study if health status at baseline, measured by SF-36, could predict pain status 3 years later. The study was designed as a 3-year follow up with a postal questionnaire, including the SF-36 health survey, to 2357 subjects from the general population aged 20-74 years. The results were controlled for age, sex, co-morbidity, and socio-economic status. At baseline, all eight health concepts of SF-36 discriminated between subgroups with NCP, CRP and CWP. Changes in SF-36 over the 3-year follow up time coincided with improvement or deterioration of pain status. Baseline SF-36 scores predicted pain outcome 3 years later. These results support that both physical and mental aspects of health status as measured by SF-36 are affected by the burden of musculoskeletal pain, are sensitive to changes in pain status, and also predict the further development of pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 21.
    Björn, Wihlborg
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Malin, Yderhag
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Ledarskap: en viktig nyckel till hälsa i arbetslivet: En litteraturstudie om transformativt ledarskap2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Psykosocial hälsa har en stor roll i bestämmandet av hälsa på arbetsplatser, svag psykosocial hälsa kan kopplas till försämrad allmän hälsa samt förhöjd sjukfrånvaro. Samtidigt visar forskning på hur transformativt ledarskap kan påverka arbetsmiljön och anställda vilket resulterade studiens syfte.

    Syfte: Syftet var att undersöka transformativt ledarskaps påverkan på anställdas psykosociala hälsa och arbetsmiljö.Metod: Studiedesign som antogs var en systematisk litteraturstudie där sju databaser genomsöktes och totalt 19 vetenskapliga artiklar som svarade på syftet användes. Alla artiklar genomgick granskning av vetenskaplig kvalité och en kvalitativ innehållsanalys som resulterade i tre kategorier.

    Resultat: Tre kategorier hittades och de benämns som medför positiva effekter på psykosocial hälsa, betydelse för den psykosociala arbetsmiljön samt hälsovinster i ett större perspektiv. Resultatet indikerar att transformativt ledarskap kan användas som ett kraftfullt salutogent verktyg för hälsopromotion på arbetsplatsen och att ledarskapet kan skapa bättre förutsättningar för förbättrad psykosocial hälsa.

    Implikation: Ytterligare forskning krävs för att kartlägga transformativt ledarskap i skilda kulturella, geografiska och praktiska kontexter samt att kvalitativa studier kan ge en mer nyanserad bild av effekterna och på så vis kan ge en tydligare indikation på hur integreringen av transformativt ledarskap kan ske i organisationer och verksamheter.

  • 22.
    Blomqvist, Marjut
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Carlsson, Ing-Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Sandgren, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Center for Collaborative Palliative Care , Department of Health and Caring Sciences , Växjö , Sweden.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Health Risks among People with Severe Mental Illness in Psychiatric Outpatient Settings2018In: Issues in Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 0161-2840, E-ISSN 1096-4673, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Life expectancy is greatly reduced in patients with schizophrenia, and cardiovascular diseases are a leading cause of mortality. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and to investigate the relationships between self-rated health, sense of coherence, CVD risk, and body mass index (BMI) among people with severe mental illness (SMI) in psychiatric outpatient settings. Nearly 50% of the participants were exposed to moderate/high risk of CVD and over 50% were obese. The results showed no statistically relationships between the subjective and objective measures (Bayes factor <1) of health. The integration of physical health into clinical psychiatric nursing practice is vital. © 2018 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  • 23.
    Blomster, Carola
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Johansson, Maria
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Kvinnors erfarenheter av våld i en nära relation: En litteraturstudie2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Intimate partner violence is a public health problem. 12 422 cases of indoor assault in the intimate partnership against women over 18 were reported in 2010. An average of 30 women dies each year in Sweden due to physical violence. 17 of them are killed by their current or former partner. Psychological violence may be constituted by threats, control and harassment and can be difficult to identify. Sexual violence can be abuse during sex and compulsion into various sexual acts. Intimate partner violence occurs in all social classes and children are affected directly or in-directly by domestic violence. The government has presented a plan of action with measures and efforts to, among other things, fight men’s violence against women. The police are trained to better treat and help vulnerable women. Women and children can receive help and support from nonprofit organizations. Aim: The aim of this study was to describe women’s experiences of violence in an intimate partnership. Method: The method that was used in this study was based on facts from literature. The Databases that were used was Academic Search Elite and PsycINFO. Result: The nice and charming man that women met proved over time to be a violent man. The violence came stealthy and it increased gradually in the relationship. Women blamed themselves for the violence. They were ashamed of their situation and tried to keep up an appearance. Pregnancy did not seem to be any protection against the violence. Women experienced both that there was support around them and that the support did not came them to the benefit. Protected identity became an alternative for some women. Implication: The complex and growing problem of intimate partner violence needs to be a frequent topic on the agenda. It is of great importance that further research is conducted in Sweden in this area and that the knowledge will be transformed into practical tools in the community.

  • 24.
    Bolse, Kärstin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Flemme, Inger
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Ivarsson, Anita
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jinhage, Britt-Marie
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Carroll, Diane
    Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston.
    Edvardsson, Nils
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg.
    Hamilton, Glenys A.
    Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Life situation related to the ICD implantation: self-reported uncertainty and satisfaction in Swedish and US samples2002In: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, ISSN 1474-5151, E-ISSN 1873-1953, Vol. 1, no 4, p. 243-251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to describe changes in the life situation related to the ICD implantation of Swedish and US samples with regard to uncertainty and satisfaction. The life situation was measured by reference to the uncertainty caused by the condition and satisfaction with the life situation. Inferential statistics were used to analyse changes within and between the Swedish and US samples. Uncertainty showed a statistically significant difference between the Swedish and US samples before as well as after the ICD implantation. A higher level of uncertainty was indicated for the US sample prior to the ICD implantation and for the Swedish sample following the implantation. In the Swedish sample, satisfaction with life showed a statistically significant difference within the socio-economic domain, indicating a higher degree of satisfaction 3 months after implantation. Satisfaction within the domains of health and functioning, socio-economics and psychological-spiritual showed a statistically significant difference between the Swedish and US samples both before and after ICD implantation, indicating a higher degree of satisfaction in the US sample. The previous study shows that the ICD-patient's life situation is changed after the implantation and that it is necessary to provide the patient with information and education based on their own preconditions. The fact that US sample was investigated at a later stage after ICD implantation than the Swedish sample may have influenced the results of the study.

  • 25.
    Bothmer, Margareta von
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Studenters hälsovanor – hur ser de ut? Är studenter motiverade att leva hälsosamt?2004In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 81, no 4, p. 319-333Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Tvärsnittsstudie av studenters självskattade hälsa i relation till hälsovanor, motivation och personlighetsvariabler.

  • 26.
    Bramsved, Rebecka
    et al.
    Department of Pediatrics, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Regber, Susann
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health promotion and disease prevention.
    Mehlig, K.
    Section for Epidemiology and Social Medicine, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Novak, D.
    Department of Pediatrics, Shalgrenska Academy, University of Gotehburg, Sweden.
    Lissner, L.
    Section for Epidemiology and Social Medicine, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Mårild, S.
    Department of Pediatrics, Shalgrenska Academy, University of Gotehburg, Sweden.
    Parental education and income: independent and combined effects on children's growth and weight status2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Bramsved, Rebecka
    et al.
    Department of Pediatrics, Institute of Clinical Sciences, The Queen Silvia Children’s Hospital, The Sahlgrenska Academy at Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Regber, Susann
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Novak, Daniel
    Department of Pediatrics, Institute of Clinical Sciences, The Queen Silvia Children’s Hospital, The Sahlgrenska Academy at Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Mehlig, Kirsten
    Section for Epidemiology and Social Medicine (EPSO), Institute of Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy at Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lissner, Lauren
    Section for Epidemiology and Social Medicine (EPSO), Institute of Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy at Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Mårild, Staffan
    Department of Pediatrics, Institute of Clinical Sciences, The Queen Silvia Children’s Hospital, The Sahlgrenska Academy at Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Effects of family disposable income on development of height and BMI from birth up to eight years of age2016In: European Obesity Summit (EOS) – Joint Congress of EASO and IFSO-EC: ABSTRACTS, Freiburg: S. Karger, 2016, Vol. 9, p. 44-44Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Low socioeconomic position (SEP) is a known risk factor for development of obesity in childhood. e level of parental education is commonly used as proxy for SEP, but family disposable income is likely to also be of importance for SEP. e aim of this study was to determine the e ects of family disposable income on BMI and height trajectories from birth up to eight years of age, and the development of obesity at eight years of age.

    Methods: Growth data from birth to eight years age were collected for 3030 Swedish children. Register data on family disposable income was re- trieved from Statistics Sweden, and dichotomized for the analysis by the median value for the group. Register-derived information on parental ed- ucation and national background, maternal BMI, age and smoking status were considered as covariates in longitudinal mixed models and regres- sion analyses.

    Results: Mean birth weight was lower in families of lower income, 3.51 kg (SD 0.54) vs. 3.60 kg (SD 0.53) for children of higher-income parents, p < 0.0001. By age 5.5 years and 8 years, however, a reversed relation between groups was seen, where the children of lower income families showed signi cantly higher mean BMI. is di erence was no longer sig- ni cant when adjusting for covariates. Considering height, lower income was strongly related to lower height at 5.5 and 8 years, di erences were strengthened a er adjusting for confounders, -0.44 cm (95% CI -0.75,- 0.13) for age 5.5 years and -0.56 cm (95% CI -0.88, -0.23) at 8 years. e OR of obesity at 8 years age was 1.69 (95% CI 1.05–2.7) for the group of low income compared to the group of high income.

    Conclusions: Low family disposable income is related to increased risk of childhood obesity at 8 years of age. is could be attributed to a di erent growth pattern compared to children of high income. Our ndings that children of lower family income had lower mean birth weight and dis- played lower height later in childhood suggest that these children might have an unfavourable metabolic pro le and increased risk of developing the metabolic syndrome. © 2016 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg 

  • 28.
    Bremander, Ann
    et al.
    Spenshult Hosp Rheumat Dis, Ctr Res & Dev, S-31392 Oskarström, Sweden .
    Bergman, Stefan
    Spenshult Hosp Rheumat Dis, Ctr Res & Dev, Oskarström, Sweden .
    Arvidsson, Barbro
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Perception of multimodal cognitive treatment for people with chronic widespread pain: changing one's life plan2009In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 31, no 24, p. 1996-2004Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose.

    The aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of chronic widespread pain patients' perception of a multimodal treatment with a cognitive approach.

    Methods.

    A reformulated grounded theory study based on interviews with 16 participants in the programme was conducted at the end of a 6-month treatment period.

    Results.

    The result describes a conceptual model of the informants' perception of the treatment. The core category 'changing one's life plan' comprised of three categories: 'changing one's perception of life', 'depending on support' and 'managing one's life'. Changing one's perception of life could be deep and overwhelming 'overall life changes' or more superficial 'life adjustments'. Support by health professionals and the patient group were of importance. At the end of the rehabilitation program managing one's life was perceived as either 'reorientation' or 'stagnation'. The informants who experienced overall life changes achieved reorientation with support by others, while those who experienced life adjustments did not change their way of managing one's life to any great extent.

    Conclusion.

    The core category changing one's life plan included the categories; changing one's perception of life, depending on support and managing one's life. Informants experiencing overall life changes were more likely to achieve reorientation than those who experienced life adjustments

  • 29.
    Broomé, Sabina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Johansson, Angelica
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Effekt av kosttillskotten, vassle- och kaseinprotein: En litteraturstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den fysiska aktiviteten bland motionärer är allt mer prestationsinriktad. Vassle- och kaseinprotein är de mest använda kosttillskotten och används i syfte att öka muskeltillväxt och påskynda återhämtning efter träning. Studiens syfte var att belysa förekomst och effekter av proteintillskotten, vassle och kasein ur ett folkhälsoperspektiv. En systematisk databassökning gjordes i tre olika databaser, PubMed, SportDiscus och Cinahl. 16 artiklar publicerade i vetenskapliga tidskrifter användes i analysen. Databearbetningen bestod av en dataanalys där tre teman framkom; kroppsliga effekter, motstridiga effekter i samband med fysisk aktivitet samt att felkonsumtion av vassle- och kaseinprotein kan ge hälsorisker. Det huvudsakliga resultatet i studien var att proteintillskotten, vassle och kasein inte påverkar prestation i samband med fysisk aktivitet däremot har vassle- och kaseinprotein effekt på muskelmassa, muskelskador och återhämtningsförmåga. Relevanta framtida forskningsprojekt skulle kunna vara att studera proteintillskott under längre perioder för att se långtidseffekter och reella effekter av användning av proteintillskotten samt studera det exakta innehållet i proteintillskotten då faktisk kunskap saknas.

  • 30.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Lundgren, Lina
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Olsson, Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Ett fysiologiskt perspektiv på fysisk aktivitet och hälsa2010In: Hälsa & Livsstil: forskning och praktiska tillämpningar / [ed] Lillemor R-M Hallberg, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2010, 1, p. 87-112Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Brännén, Angela
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Bursell, Anna
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Efter hjärtinfarkt: -att lyckas med livsstilsförändringar2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Många personer drabbas årligen av hjärtinfarkt, ofta rekommenderas livsstilsförändringar i rehabiliteringsfasen. Det är en utmaning för hälso- och sjukvårdspersonal att motivera och stödja patienten i deras strävan mot en förbättrad livsstil. Syftet med studien var att belysa de faktorer som underlättar respektive försvårar patientens livsstilsförändringar efter en hjärtinfarkt. Studien genomfördes som en litteraturstudie och baserades på 12 vetenskapliga artiklar. I resultatet framkom sex kategorier. Dessa var socialt stöd, professionellt stöd, rehabiliteringsprogram, självcentrerat perspektiv, existentiellt perspektiv samt miljö. I omvårdnaden är det viktigt att hänsyn tas till den enskilda individen vid livsstilsförändringar, det krävs då både medvetenhet och kunskap från hälso- och sjukvårdspersonal. De sex kategorier som framkom ger kunskap som underlättar arbetet med patienter som drabbats av hjärtinfarkt. Beträffande framtida forskning vore det intressant att se vad som påverkar den eventuella varaktigheten av livsstilsförändringar, då följsamheten är viktig för att undvika att patienten drabbas av ytterligare hjärtinfarkter.

  • 32.
    Börnhorst, Claudia
    et al.
    Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology – BIPS, Bremen, Germany.
    Siani, Alfonso
    Unit of Epidemiology and Population Genetics, Institute of Food Sciences, National Research Council, Avellino, Italy.
    Russo, Paola
    Unit of Epidemiology and Population Genetics, Institute of Food Sciences, National Research Council, Avellino, Italy.
    Kourides, Yannis
    Research and Education Institute of Child Health, Strovolos, Cyprus.
    Sion, Isabelle
    Department of Public Health, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    Molnár, Denés
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary.
    Moreno, Luis A.
    Rodríguez, Gerardo
    GENUD (Growth, Exercise, Nutrition and Development) Research Group, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain.
    Ben-Shlomo, Yoav
    School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.
    Howe, Laura
    School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom, MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit at the University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.
    Lissner, Lauren
    Section for Epidemiology and Social Medicine, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Mehlig, Kirsten
    Section for Epidemiology and Social Medicine, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Regber, Susann
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Bammann, Karin
    Institute for Public Health and Nursing Research (IPP), Faculty for Human and Health Sciences, University Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Foraita, Ronja
    Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology – BIPS, Bremen, Germany.
    Ahrens, Wolfgang
    Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology – BIPS, Bremen, Germany, Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Tilling, Kate
    School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.
    Early Life Factors and Inter-Country Heterogeneity in BMI Growth Trajectories of European Children: The IDEFICS Study2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 2, article id e0149268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Starting from birth, this explorative study aimed to investigate between-country differences in body mass index (BMI) trajectories and whether early life factors explain these differences.

    Methods

    The sample included 7,644 children from seven European countries (Belgium, Cyprus, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Spain, Sweden) participating in the multi-centre IDEFICS study. Information on early life factors and in total 53,409 repeated measurements of height and weight from 0 to <12 years of age were collected during the baseline (2007/2008) and follow-up examination (2009/2010) supplemented by records of routine child health visits. Country-specific BMI growth curves were estimated using fractional polynomial mixed effects models. Several covariates focussing on early life factors were added to the models to investigate their role in the between-countries differences.

    Results

    Large between-country differences were observed with Italian children showing significantly higher mean BMI values at all ages ≥ 3 years compared to the other countries. For instance, at age 11 years mean BMI values in Italian boys and girls were 22.3 [21.9;22.8; 99% confidence interval] and 22.0 [21.5;22.4], respectively, compared to a range of 18.4 [18.1;18.8] to 20.3 [19.8;20.7] in boys and 18.2 [17.8;18.6] to 20.3 [19.8;20.7] in girls in the other countries. After adjustment for early life factors, differences between country-specific BMI curves became smaller. Maternal BMI was the factor being most strongly associated with BMI growth (p<0.01 in all countries) with associations increasing during childhood. Gestational weight gain (GWG) was weakly associated with BMI at birth in all countries. In some countries, positive associations between BMI growth and children not being breastfed, mothers’ smoking during pregnancy and low educational level of parents were found.

    Conclusion

    Early life factors seem to explain only some of the inter-country variation in growth. Maternal BMI showed the strongest association with children’s BMI growth.

  • 33.
    Canivet, Catarina
    et al.
    Division of Social Medicine and Global Health, Department of Clinical Sciences Malmö, Malmö University Hospital, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Choi, BongKyoo
    Center for Occupational and Environment Health, University of California, Irvine, USA.
    Karasek, Robert
    Department of Work Environment, University of Massachusetts, Lowell, USA.
    Moghaddassi, Mahnaz
    Division of Social Medicine and Global Health, Department of Clinical Sciences Malmö, Malmö University Hospital, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Staland Nyman, Carin
    Unit of Social Medicine, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Östergren, Per-Olof
    Division of Social Medicine and Global Health, Department of Clinical Sciences Malmö, Malmö University Hospital, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Can high psychological job demands, low decision latitude, and high job strain predict disability pensions?: A 12-year follow-up of middle-aged Swedish workers2012In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 86, no 3, p. 307-319Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate whether job strain, psychological demands, and decision latitude are independent determinants of disability pension rates over a 12-year follow-up period. Methods: We studied 3,181 men and 3,359 women, all middle-aged and working at least 30 h per week, recruited from the general population of Malmö, Sweden, in 1992. The participation rate was 41 %. Baseline data include sociodemographics, the Job Content Questionnaire, lifestyle, and health-related variables. Disability pension information was obtained through record linkage from the National Health Insurance Register. Results: Nearly 20 % of the women and 15 % of the men were granted a disability pension during the follow-up period. The highest quartile of psychological job demands and the lowest quartile of decision latitude were associated with disability pensions when controlling for age, socioeconomic position, and health risk behaviours. In the final model, with adjustment also for health indicators and stress from outside the workplace, the hazard ratios for high strain jobs (i.e. high psychological demands in combination with low decision latitude) were 1.5 in men (95 % CI, 1.04-2.0) and 1.7 in women (95 % CI, 1.3-2.2). Stratifying for health at baseline showed that high strain tended to affect healthy but not unhealthy men, while this pattern was reversed in women. Conclusions: High psychological demands, low decision latitude, and job strain were all confirmed as independent risk factors for subsequent disability pensions. In order to increase chances of individuals remaining in the work force, interventions against these adverse psychosocial factors appear worthwhile. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  • 34.
    Carlsson, Björn A.
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Center for Sport and Health Science (CIHF).
    Johnson, UrbanHalmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Center for Sport and Health Science (CIHF).Josefsson, KarinHalmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Center for Sport and Health Science (CIHF).Stambulova, NataliaHalmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Center for Sport and Health Science (CIHF).
    Proceedings of the Nordic Conference 2008: Health, Participation and Effects of Sport and Exercise2008Conference proceedings (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 35.
    Clausson, Eva K.
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad.
    Einberg, Eva-Lena
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Teider, Karin
    Vänersborgs kommun.
    Dokumentation av elevers hälsa2012In: Skolsköterskans hälsofrämjande arbete / [ed] Eva K. Clausson och Siv Morberg, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2012, 1, p. 121-136Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Daggenstedt, Anna
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Leandersson, Erica
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Studenters attityder till användande av alkohol och narkotika2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund/syfte: Det har visats att studenters alkohol-och narkotikakonsumtion ökat de senaste åren. Studenter har visats ha en större potential till att få ett alkohol- och narkotikamissbruk. Syftet med denna studie var att belysa studenters attityder till användandet av alkohol och narkotika. Metod: En kvalitativ metod användes och fem intervjuer genomfördes med studenter på en högskola i sydvästra Sverige. Intervjuerna transkriberades och materialet analyserades sedan genom en temaanalys. Resultat: Vid analysen framkom det tre olika teman; skapa sociala relationer, krav från andra studenter och risk för missbruk. Under de tre olika temana framkom det att alkohol är en stor del av studentlivet. Vidare upplevs det i vissa lägen finnas mer negativa erfarenheter av alkohol än narkotika. Implikation: Resultatet i föreliggande studie visar att sociala relationer och krav från andra studenter påverkar studenters konsumtion av alkohol och narkotika. Det resultat som har tagits fram kan i samarbete med olika aktörer användas för att skapa temadagar och gruppaktiviteter.

  • 37.
    Dahl, Oscar
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Upplevelsen av arbetsrelaterad stress i relation till socioekonomisk status och hjärt- och kärlsjukdomar: En litteraturstudie2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Job strain is a common problem and it has been shown that different factors causes stress. Stress is also the basis for the state of several health problems, including cardiovascular disease. Socioeconomic status is also something that is associated with both stress and cardiovascular disease. Because of insufficient research regarding whether job strain, socioeconomic status and cardiovascular disease correlates, it was of interest to investigate this. Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the experience of job strain in relation to socioeconomic status and cardiovascular disease. Method: The method that was used was a literature study and databases used for data collection was PubMed and PsycInfo. Results: Individuals with low socioeconomic status experienced higher job strain than individuals with high socioeconomic status. Individuals with low socioeconomic status experienced low job control and job insecurity, while those with high socioeconomic status perceived greater social support at work. High demands and low job control and imbalance between effort and reward could lead to cardiovascular disease, and it also affected blood pressure and metabolic syndrome. Low job control, low social support, high work fatigue, working overtime and active and passive jobs could lead to cardiovascular disease. People with low socioeconomic status had a greatest risk of developing cardiovascular disease. The risk of dying from cardiovascular disease was high for individuals with low socioeconomic status. Implication: This knowledge can be used to inform management and individuals at risk how to reduce the risk of stress and cardiovascular disease. To control this problem in the future it requires an increased knowledge in the field.

  • 38.
    Danås, Anna
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Wiman, Virginia
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Preferences and Experiences towards HIV/AIDS- Education among                        Secondary School Students: – A questionnaire study in Dodoma region, Tanzania.2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to investigate secondary school students´ preferences and experiences towards HIV/AIDS- education. A cross- sectional study was carried out in Dodoma region on five different secondary schools. Data was collected by a self-administered questionnaire, which was completed by 380 informants. The sample was made from the independent variables; gender, school location and school ownership. The result showed that 93 % of the students thought they need more information about HIV/AIDS. Only 51 % of the students felt that they had enough knowledge about HIV/AIDS to protect themselves from being infected by the virus. Half of all the students felt that there is a lack of support from the school to students living with HIV/AIDS. The students selected teachers, parents and doctor or health worker as the key persons in the HIV/AIDS- education. The conclusion is that there is a need of more information about HIV/AIDS among secondary school students. To reach out with the message to the students, the key persons have to interact and struggle towards the same goal. Further research should have a qualitative approach to examine secondary school students´ preferences and experiences towards HIV/AIDS- education.

  • 39.
    Engström, Lou
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Vad är hälsa och ohälsa på arbetsplats?2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Increased ill health in the workplace in terms of increased workload, stress and pressure from employers is common in Sweden today, which may lead to a future variety of medical conditions and disabilities. Aim: The aim of the present study was to describe what employees at companies in the health industry experienced as a health and illhealth on a workplace. Method: A qualitative approach was used in which the interviews were based on an interview guide. The method of analysis was thematic analysis in which three themes emerged. Results: Tree themes emerged; a social interaction with colleagues, good leadership, and access to health care and movement. The findings of the study indicated that the tasks themselves were not as important as the social interaction and the leadership so that the workplace was perceived as healthy. Implication: Suggestions for further research is to try to get more equal number of men and women engaged in further study and to develop the questions in the interview more to answer the purpose better. Furthermore, the health factors reported in the results could still be a good foundation to refer to, for interventions in the workplace or for the overall development of a healthy workplace within a specific company.

  • 40.
    Eriksson, Lena
    et al.
    Department of Philosophy, Linguistics and Science of Theory, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sager, Morten
    Department of Philosophy, Linguistics and Science of Theory, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Staland Nyman, Carin
    Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hensing, Gunnel
    Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Expertise and post-normal science in the development of the Swedish sickness certification decision-support tool2012In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 2, no Suppl. 2, p. 98-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    In Sweden, large variations were identified in sick-leave duration also in episodes with the same diagnoses. A decision support was developed to ensure more uniform assessment of sick leave. The present qualitative study aimed at examining the process of construction and development of the new decision support.

    Methods

    Qualitative analyses of data from interviews and documents were performed. Participants (n = 15) in in-depth interviews were medical and insurance experts from the Social Insurance Agency involved in the development of the decision-support. Interviews with the medical experts focused on how well their specific medical field of expertise fitted the format suggested for the decision support and how a ‘‘standard patient’’ looked like in their clinical everyday work. For both groups of interviewees, issues regarding assessment of work capacity were discussed. The documentary analysis was done reading investigations, memos, reports and minutes. Themes identified in the interviews were compared with the overall documentary analysis and constituted the basis for an epistemic analysis.

    Results

    The analyses showed that the decision-support was developed under a tight schedule and with strict templates for its format. The decision support was built around diagnostic categories and a majority of the experts that were used were specialized in medicine. A difficulty in the process was according to participants to produce standardised medical assessments of how a particular illness was expected to affect patients’ work capacity rather than how the illness affected the patient. The evidential basis for such assessments was scant. Findings show that conditions that were not somatic or could not be ‘measured objectively’ proved extra problematic, since much of the assessment in these situations hinges on physicians’ experience-based expertise combined with their understanding of the circumstances of individual patients.

    Conclusion

    The analysis indicates that ‘work capacity’ does not fall squarely within the remit of medical expertise, but is an example of ‘post-normal science’ that requires a broad range of experts from different fields both inside and outside of science coming together to pool their knowledge and build new expertise.

  • 41.
    Eriksson, Linn
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Baigi, Amir
    Primary Health Care Research and Development, Halland County Council, Falkenberg.
    Lindgren, Eva-Carin
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Ett generellt skolbaserat hälsopromotivt program: en studie om skolungdomars mat- och rörelsevanor, tilltro till egen förmåga och syn på kroppsligt utseende2010In: Aktuell beteende- och samhällsvetenskaplig idrottsforskning, ISSN 0284-4672, p. 54-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is a one year case study of a programme promoting physical activity and healthy eating habits in a secondary school. The aim was to describe and evaluate a school-based health promoting programme on interest in and participation in physical education (PE), eating habits and physical exercise habits, Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance and self-efficacy for boys and girls before and after the programme. One hundred and sixty-four participants completed questionnaires in December 2007 and December 2008. The results showed increased interest and active participation in PE in girls and an opposite among boys at the post-test. Fewer boys reported regular eating habits after the programme. Girls scored higher on the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire subdomain awareness of a slimness ideal, and boys on the subdomain awareness of a muscular body as well as on the subdomain muscular appearance at the post-test. The results from this study cannot be generalized. Instead, the findings can be used for future research and to develop school-based health promotion programs. Conclusions and implications are discussed in the article.

  • 42.
    Eriksson, Linn
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Baigi, Amir
    Primary Health Care Research and Development, Council Halland, Falkenberg, Sweden.
    Marklund, Bertil
    Primary Health Care Research and Development, Council Halland, Falkenberg, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Eva-Carin
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Social physique anxiety and sociocultural attitudes toward appearance impact on orthorexia test in fitness participants2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 389-394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates how scores on the Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS) and the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire (SATAQ) relate to Bratman's orthorexia test (BOT) scores with regard to age, sex, and self-reported exercise frequency and duration in a sample of Swedish participants in fitness center activities. A total of 251 participants (166 women and 85 men) completed the SPAS, the SATAQ, and a questionnaire focusing on exercise frequency and duration. The results indicated that the SATAQ subdomain internalization could itself explain the variation in BOT results. In women, the results indicated that exercise frequency, followed by SPAS score and the SATAQ subdomains internalization and awareness, could together explain the variation in BOT results. Fitness centers could make a point of emphasizing that some physical ideals are neither healthy nor realistic, thus strengthening member self-image and preventing social physique anxiety, eating disorders, and negative attitudes toward appearance.

  • 43.
    Flemme, Inger
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Bolse, Kärstin
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Ivarsson, Anita
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg.
    Jinhage, Britt-Marie
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg.
    Sandstedt, Bengt
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg.
    Edvardsson, Nils
    Associate Professor, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Life situation of patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator: a descriptive longitudinal study2001In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 563-572Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to describe changes in the life situation of patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator over a period of 1 year. A sample of 56 consecutive patients took part in the study.

    Life situation was measured through uncertainty in illness, satisfaction, and fear of the life situation. Descriptive statistics were used to present results, and analytical statistics were used to map out changes over time.

    Overall uncertainty showed a decrease over time. A statistically significant difference was found within the domain uncertainty related to information (P < 0.001).

    Satisfaction increased within the domains health-functioning, socio-economic, psychological–spiritual, and family.

    The ability to act within the domain health-functioning showed a statistical significance (P < 0.05).

    The domain life changes within fear in the life situation decreased and showed a statistical significance (P < 0.05).

    The overall life situation showed increased satisfaction as well as lower uncertainty and fear in the life situation.

    The research indicates that patients need more information about changes in the life situation after the implantable cardioverter defibrillator-implantation. The study encourages more humanistic, holistic research about patients’ life situations as well as more education in teaching skills for health care personnel.

  • 44.
    Gustafsson, Calle
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Lindberg, Mattias
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Engagemang i Föreningsaktivitet, Stress ochSociala Relationer bland Högskolestudenter: - en enkätstudie2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Extracurricular participation, social relationships and stress is often mentioned together and are related to each other. Because of insufficient research of the correlation between these three, there was an interest to study this subject. The aim for this study was to investigate the degree of extracurricular participation among college students and also to investigate potential correlations between extracurricular participation, social relationships and stress. The method for this study was deductive whit a quantitative approach. A questionnaire about extracurricular participation, social relationships and stress was performed among 230 college students. The result showed that withdrawal from extracurricular activities was more common among students than to begin. Students who were active in sport associations experienced lower stress than students that did not participate in sport associations. The result also showed correlations between the student’s satisfaction with their friends and how they reported stress. Students who felt that their friends show them a big interest also reported lower stress. Also students who meet their friends on daily basis reported lower stress. A conclusion could be that entering college has a negative influence on extracurricular participation. Involvement in sport activities and to have satisfying social relationships has a positive influence on students stress. This knowledge can be used for work and guidance of stressed college students. This study can also inform colleges that physical extracurricular participation can have a positive influence on student’s mental health.

  • 45.
    Gustafsson, Sewerin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Hasselgren, Viktor
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Unga vuxnas vanor och attityder till alkohol och bilkörning: En enkätstudie bland högskolestudenter2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Each year 125 people die in Sweden in alcohol related traffic accidents and even more get injured. This cause major financial costs for the society and suffering among those who get affected. Young adults are overrepresented in the statistics over alcohol related accidents. The aim of the study was to examine young adult college students’ (age 18-24) experience and attitudes towards drinking and driving. A questionnaire study was made with 269 participants on the college. The participants were chosen from a convenience sample. The results of the study showed that there were differences between men and women’s experience and attitudes. The men had a greater tendency to take risks than the women. You could see tendencies that the adolescents in the college were negatively deviant in comparison to the young adults in the country. A new study on the college with a larger, random selection ought to be done for it to be possible to make a comparison with other studies.

  • 46.
    Haglind-Sangré, Martin
    et al.
    Halmstad University.
    Källänge Nilsson, Niklas
    Halmstad University.
    Interventioner för att minska stillasittande på arbetsplatsen: En litteraturstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Stillasittande framställs allt mer som en oberoende riskfaktor och är ett vanligt förekommande fenomen på arbetsplatsen. Detta är sammankopplat med en förhöjd risk för de stora folksjukdomarna, exempelvis hjärt- och kärlsjukdomar samt olika cancerformer. Syftet var att undersöka interventioner för att motverka långvarigt stillasittande på arbetsplatsen. Detta examensarbete är en litteraturstudie och tio stycken vetenskapliga artiklar inkluderades. Artiklarna hämtades från databaserna Pubmed och Cinahl, genom sökorden ”sedentary behavior”, ”sedentary behaviour”, ”sitting time” och ”workplace”. Vid databearbetningen genomfördes en temaanalys och tre kategorier fastställdes, ”e-hälsa avbryter stillasittande”, ”arbetsstationer reducerar tid i stillasittande” och ”multikomponenta interventioner påverkar stillasittande i större utsträckning”. De huvudsakliga resultaten tyder på att vid interventioner med e-hälsa som tillvägagångssätt, förekom ökningar i antal pauser från långvarigt stillasittande. Vidare kunde olika arbetsstationer tydligare minska tiden i stillasittande och därmed även öka tiden i stående ställning. Slutligen påvisade de multikomponenta interventionerna mest kompletta förbättringar gällande stillasittande beteenden inom flera avseenden. Därmed påvisades multikomponenta interventioner överlag vara mer fördelaktiga och kompletta. I framtiden bör forskningen framförallt inrikta sig på att kartlägga interventioners effektivitet på längre sikt, i syfte att säkerställa bibehållandet av förbättrat stillasittande beteende.

  • 47.
    Haglund, Emma
    et al.
    Section of Rheumatology, Dept. of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Spenshult R & D center, Oskarström, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Section of Rheumatology, Dept. of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund & & Spenshult R & D center, Oskarström, Sweden.
    Petersson, I.F.
    Section of Rheumatology, Dept. of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Dept. of Orthopedics, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Section of Rheumatology, Dept. of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Spenshult R & D center, Oskarström, Sweden.
    Self-reported disease characteristics do not explain why younger women with SpA are less physically active than older women with the disease2014In: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 73, no Suppl. 2, p. 159-159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Exercise is a commonly used treatment for patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA) but younger women reach WHOs recommended level of physical activity (PA) to a less extent than peers in the general population (Haglund, 2012).

    Objectives To study if self-reported disease characteristics in patients with SpA can explain why younger women are less physically active than older women with the disease.

    Methods In a cross-sectional population based cohort study in southern Sweden, 1121 women (51.7% of the total SpAScania cohort) were identified by a health care register and responded to a questionnaire survey in 2009. The primary outcome was self-reported level of physical activity (PA) based on the WHOs recommendation. Self-reported pain (VAS), global health (VASglobal, BASG),health related quality of life (EQ-5D), disease activity (BASDAI), physical function (BASFI), self-efficacy pain and symptoms (ASES), anxiety (HADa), depression (HADd), education level, smoking habits and reported severity of the skin disease psoriasis (NRS) were reported. Younger (≤35 years of age, n=127) and older women (>35, n=994) and the disease subgroups AS/USpA (n=441) and PsA (n=680) were compared with regard to characteristic symptoms. T-test and chi-square test was used to analyze group differences, exact p-values are reported.

    Results Out of the 1121 women in the cohort, 1094 answered the questions concerning PA. There were no significant differences between younger/older women with AS/USpA reaching recommended level of PA (71% vs. 77%, p=0.23). In younger women with PsA there was a trend to not reaching the recommended level of PA to the same extent (58% vs. 70%, p=0.06).

    When comparing younger and older women concerning characteristic variables, there were significant worse self-reported VASglobal (3.9 vs. 4.5, p=0.004), BASDAI (4.2 vs 4.8, p=0.008), BASFI (2.4 vs. 3.8, p<0.001), BASG (3.6 vs. 4.4, p=0.001), ASES pain (53 vs. 49, p=0.02), ASES symptom (59 vs. 55, p=0.04) and HAD depression (3.7 vs. 4.6, p=0.04) in the older women.

    When stratified on the disease subgroups, VASglobal (3.8 vs. 4.3, p=0.05) and BASFI (2.6 vs. 3.6, p=0.002) were significantly worse for older women with AS/USpA (n=372) compared to the younger group (n=69). Older women with PsA (n=622) reported significantly worse VASpain (3.9 vs. 4.7, p=0.02), BASFI (2.2 vs. 3.9, p<0.001), BASG (3.5 vs. 4.5, p=0.004), ASES pain (54 vs. 57, p=0.01) and symptom (61 vs. 53, p=0.01), HAD depression (3.8 vs. 4.7, p=0.04) compared to the younger group (n=58). There was an inverse relationship regarding severity of psoriasis, were younger women with PsA have a tendency to report a more severe skin disease (3.9 vs. 3.2, p=0.09). When comparing characteristics for young women reaching or not reaching healthy PA, no differences were found.

    Conclusions Young women with SpA do not reach recommended level of PA in the same extend as in the population. There were no explanations found when comparing common self-reported variables in younger and older women with SpA in a defined cohort. The relationship needs to be studied further also from a qualitative aspect.

  • 48.
    Hallberg, Lillemor
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Hakeberg, Magnus
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Odontol, Dept Behav & Community Dent, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Hallberg, Ulrika
    Nordic Sch Publ Hlth, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Facing a moral dilemma - introducing a dental care insurance within the Public Dental Service2012In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 149-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Through the reform entitled "Dental care insurance dental care at a fixed price", patients are offered a dental insurance, a capitation plan, that ensures that they can visit the dentist regularly during a period of three years at a fixed price per month (Frisktandvard). This insurance may be offered to all patients. The aim of this study was to generate a theory explaining the main concern for the staff at the public dental service when they have to introduce and advocate dental care insurance to patients. Interview data from 17 persons, representing different professions within the public dental service, were collected and analyzed simultaneously in line with guidelines for grounded theory. The results indicated that dentists/dental hygienists experienced several difficult standpoints concerning the implementation of the dental insurance, somewhat of a moral dilemma. The staff generally had a "cautiously positive attitude" to the forthcoming dental care insurance, but had perceptions how and when the patients should be offered the insurance and what that may mean to the clinic. The respondents reflected about the economic aspects for the clinic and how the oral health may be affected over time for the patients.

  • 49.
    Hallberg, Lillemor R.-M.
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Strandmark, K. Margaretha
    Division of Social Science, Department of Public Health, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Health consequences of workplace bullying: experiences from the perspective of employees in the public service sector2006In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 109-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to explore the perceived health consequences of workplace bullying. Open interviews were conducted with 22 informants; 20 bully victims and two persons working with bullying prevention. Data was assessed and analysed simultaneously in line with grounded theory methodology. A conceptual model was grounded in data, describing experiences of deteriorating psychological and physical health following bullying and efforts of returning to a “normal” life. The core category, “remaining marked for life”, illuminates the manner in which bullying was perceived as a psychic trauma or a traumatic life event causing the bullied person to be marked forever. The model includes five additional categories: “feeling guilt, shame and diminishing self-esteem”, “developing symptoms and reactions”, “getting limited space of action”, “working through the course of events” and “trying to obtain redress”. Bullying included the spreading of rumours and repeated insults aimed at changing the image of the victim and resulting in feelings of guilt, shame and diminishing self-esteem. Physical and psychosomatic symptoms gradually emerge and medical treatment and sick listing follow. The longer the bullying continues, the more limited the possibility to change the situation and the victim has a more limited space of action. Returning to a “normal” life was possible, but presupposed that the victim had worked through of the course of events. The bullied person also tried to obtain redress, such as through monetary compensation or professional confirmation. Despite this, bullying left an internal scar: the bully victim was marked for life.

  • 50.
    Haraldsson, Katarina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Lindgren, Eva-Carin
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Baigi, Aamir
    Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Lydell, Marie C.
    Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Marklund, B.
    Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Evaluation of a school-based adolescent health promotion programme with focus on well-being related to stress2008In: Proc. European Conference on Public Health: ”Health and innovation in Europe”, Centro Congressos de Lisboa 5-8 November 2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
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