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  • 1.
    Acevski, Robert
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Tidebrant, Niklas
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Familjefaktorer som påverkar barns och ungdomars frukt och grönsaksintag.2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Frukt och grönsaksintaget har minskat i både rika och fattiga länder. Konsekvenserna av ett för lågt intag kan vara övervikt och fetma som i sin tur kan leda till hjärt- och kärl sjukdomar, cancer och diabetes typ 2. Det har visat sig att det finns flera olika faktorer i hemmet som gör att det har blivit ett minskat intag. I tidigare forskning finns det tydliga samband mellan familjen och ett minskat intag av frukt och grönsaker hos barn och ungdomar. Syfte: Syftet med studien var att undersöka vilka faktorer i familjen som påverkar barn och ungdomars intag av frukt och grönsaker. Metod: Metoden som användes var en litteraturstudie och de databaser som användes vid databassökning var Ebsco och Pubmed. Resultat: De tre faktorer som hade störst betydelse för frukt och grönsaksintaget var: Socioekonomisk status, Matkultur och Föräldrars som förebilder. En låg socioekonomisk status visade på ett mindre intag av frukt och grönsaker. I familjer med låg socioekonomisk var tillgängligheten och kunskapen om frukt och grönt lägre hos familjerna. Tidigare gjorda interventioner visar att det finns metoder för att öka intaget hos barn och ungdomar. Implikationer: Genom att höja kunskapen om betydelsen av frukt och grönsaker går det att förbygga problem med framtida hälsa.

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  • 2.
    Ahlborg, Mikael
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Social capital and inequalities in mental health among young adolescents in Sweden2022Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis was to explore social capital and inequalities in mental health among young adolescents in Sweden. This is a compilation thesis comprising four studies. Studies I and II are quantitative studies of crosssectional data from the Swedish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey. The aim of Study I was to investigate socioeconomic inequalities in health using both a subjective and an objective measure of socioeconomic status among Swedish adolescents. The findings showed that subjective socioeconomic status robustly and independently predicted mental health problems, poor life satisfaction and poor general health perception. The association between objective socioeconomic status and mental health was weakened, and even reversed, when subjective socioeconomic status was accounted for in regression models. A Latent Profile Analysis was applied in Study II with the aim of identifying distinct profiles of family, school and peer social capital in a nationally representative sample of adolescents and to explore health outcomes in those profiles. The findings showed that five distinct profiles best represented the data for 11 and 15-year olds, while a four-profile model was optimal for 13-year olds. Significant inequalities were identified between profiles when these were examined in terms of mental health problems and life satisfaction. The design of Study III was a qualitative semi-structured interview study. The aim was to explore social capital from the perspective of adolescents in relation to mental health. Adolescents spoke of having access to a safe space, feeling connected to others and predictability as important aspects of social relationships and networks in relation to mental health. The aim of Study IV was to identify and evaluate the design and psychometric properties of instruments for assessing social capital specifically developed and validated for self-reporting among adolescents (10-19 years). The design was a systematic review, in which 20 instruments were identified. The results revealed a lack of instruments that covered both the multidimensionality of social capital and contextual relevance in relation to adolescents. The conclusion from this thesis is that social capital may be useful for identifying vulnerable individuals and for differentiating between the natural imbalance of adolescence and what may lead to serious illness. Longitudinal research and refinement of the operationalization of the concept are, however, needed to enhance the understanding of these findings.

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  • 3.
    Ahlborg, Mikael
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Nygren, Jens M.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Svedberg, Petra
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Social Capital in Relation to Mental Health—The Voices of Adolescents in Sweden2023In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 20, no 13, article id 6223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The social environment that adolescents interact in has undoubtedly changed over the past decades. The latent constructs of social capital that have been described in theory may be universal, but it is necessary to reveal sociocultural specific pathways and manifestation in order to validly operationalize social capital for adolescents. There is a call for qualitative data to enhance our understanding of social capital for adolescents today and the specific sociocultural context they live in. The aim of this study was to explore social capital from the perspective of adolescents in relation to mental health. Twenty-three semi-structured interviews were conducted in a school setting with a sample of adolescents aged 11 and 15 years. Qualitative content analysis was applied, and analysis remained on a manifest level. From having adolescents describe their social relations and networks in relation to mental health, three main categories were formed: accessing a safe space, with sub-categories of trusting enough to share, having someone close to you, and being part of an inclusive and honest environment; feeling connected to others, with sub-categories of hanging out and having things in common; and maintaining control, with sub-categories of deciding for yourself, dealing with change, and having social skills. Having access to a safe space is vital for adolescents’ mental health, by providing resources such as mutual trust, honesty, and unconditional access. Feeling connected to others is important in close relationships and reveals the glue that holds networks together, but also links to sociability in a wider sense. Predictability in adolescents’ social relationships and networks, influenced by internal and external factors, may be a resource of increasing importance in todays’ society and an interesting subject for intervention and future research on social capital and adolescent mental health. © 2023 by the authors.

  • 4.
    Ahlborg, Mikael
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Nyholm, Maria
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Nygren, Jens M.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Svedberg, Petra
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Current Conceptualization and Operationalization of Adolescents’ Social Capital: A Systematic Review of Self-Reported Instruments2022In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 19, no 23, article id 15596Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a great heterogeneity in the conceptualization and operationalization of social capital in empirical research targeting adolescents. There has not yet been an attempt to systematically map and psychometrically evaluate the existing instruments for measuring social capital that have been developed and validated for adolescent samples. The aim of this systematic review was to identify and evaluate the design and psychometric properties of self-reported instruments for social capital, specifically developed and validated for use among adolescents. The design of this study was a systematic review guided by the COSMIN methodology for systematic reviews of Patient Reported Outcome Measures. The search included six electronic databases and no time frame was applied. Twenty studies were identified as describing the development and validation of a social capital instrument for adolescent samples. The results reveal common denominators, but also great variation in the design and validation of the instruments. Adolescents were only involved in the development procedures of four instruments. There is a lack of social capital instruments that cover both the multidimensionality of social capital and contextual relevance in relation to adolescents. Careful examination of instruments should thus precede a decision when designing studies and further instrument development involving the target group is encouraged. © 2022 by the authors.

  • 5.
    Ahlborg, Mikael
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Svedberg, Petra
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Nyholm, Maria
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Morgan, Antony
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Glasgow Caledonian University in London, London, United Kingdom.
    Nygren, Jens M.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Into the realm of social capital for adolescents: A latent profile analysis2019In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 2, article id e0212564Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Recent reports of increasing prevalence of frequent health complaints and mental health problems among adolescents call for directing more attention on determinants of adolescent health. The relationship between health and social capital has gained increased attention since the early 2000’s and research at review level confirms the importance of social capital for health outcomes, despite methodological heterogeneity. The aim of this study was to identify distinct profiles of family, school and peer social capital in a nationally representative sample of adolescents and to explore health outcomes in those profiles.

    Method

    Cross-sectional data from the Swedish Health Behaviour of School-aged Children 2013/14 was used for this study. The analytical sample consisted of 7,804 adolescents aged 11-, 13- and 15-years. Items representing sense of belonging and emotional support were assessed in three contexts; family, school and among peers. Latent profile analyses (LPA) were run to determine social capital profiles. Health outcomes included frequent health complaints and life satisfaction, while socioeconomic status and genders were included as predictors.

    Results

    The results show that five distinct profiles best represent the data for 11- and 15-year olds, while a four-profile model was optimal for 13-year olds. Some profiles were recurrent between age groups but unique profiles were also found. Health outcomes were significantly different between profiles depending on levels of social capital in the different contexts.

    Conclusions

    This study provides novel insight into how social capital co-occurs among adolescents within the contexts of family, school and peers and how this translates into differences in health outcomes. The national representativeness of the sample increases the implications of the results and contributes to meaningful insights that help explain the interactions of social capital in multiple contexts, complementing what is previously known about the relationship with adolescent health. © 2019 Ahlborg et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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    published2019
  • 6.
    Ahlborg, Mikael
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Svedberg, Petra
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Nyholm, Maria
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Morgan, Antony
    Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, United Kingdom.
    Nygren, Jens M.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Socioeconomic inequalities in health among Swedish adolescents - adding the subjective perspective2017In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 17, article id 838Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Socioeconomic inequalities in adolescent health predict future inequalities in adult health. Subjective measures of socioeconomic status (SES) may contribute with an increased understanding of these inequalities. The aim of this study was to investigate socioeconomic health inequalities using both a subjective and an objective measure of SES among Swedish adolescents.

    Method

    Cross-sectional HBSC-data from 2002 to 2014 was used with a total sample of 23,088 adolescents aged 11–15 years. Three measures of self-rated health (dependent variables) were assessed: multiple health complaints, life satisfaction and health perception. SES was measured objectively by the Family Affluence Scale (FAS) and subjectively by “perceived family wealth” (independent variables). The trend for health inequalities was investigated descriptively with independent t-tests and the relationship between independent and dependent variables was investigated with multiple logistic regression analysis. Gender, age and survey year was considered as possible confounders.

    Results

    Subjective SES was more strongly related to health outcomes than the objective measure (FAS). Also, the relation between FAS and health was weakened and even reversed (for multiple health complaints) when subjective SES was tested simultaneously in regression models (FAS OR: 1.03, CI: 1.00;1.06 and subjective SES OR: 0.66, CI: 0.63;0.68).

    Conclusions

    The level of socioeconomic inequalities in adolescent health varied depending on which measure that was used to define SES. When focusing on adolescents, the subjective appraisals of SES is important to consider because they seem to provide a stronger tool for identifying inequalities in health for this group. This finding is important for policy makers to consider given the persistence of health inequalities in Sweden and other high-income countries. ©  The Author(s). 2017

  • 7.
    Ahlborg, Tone
    et al.
    Nordic School of Public Health.
    Persson, Lars-Olof
    University of Göteborg.
    Hallberg, Lillemor R.-M.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Assessing the Quality of the Dyadic Relationship in First-Time Parents: Development of a New Instrument2005In: Journal of Family Nursing, ISSN 1074-8407, E-ISSN 1552-549X, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 19-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this research was to psychometrically evaluate the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS), modified for use with new, first-time parents by extending the items of communication, sensuality, and sexuality. A total of 820 Swedish respondents, 6 months after the birth of their first child, participated in the study. Psychometric evaluation was conducted with factor analysis. The obtained factor structure was tested with multitrait analysis program. Thirty-three itemswere found to fit into a five-factor solution, explaining 50% of the total variance. Descriptive data revealed thatmost new parentswere satisfied with their intimate relationship in general, but dissatisfied with their sexual lives. Themodified DAS, now called the Quality of Dyadic Relationship Instrument includes 33 items and seems to be a useful, updated measurement for assessing quality of the intimate relationship in new first-time parents.

  • 8.
    Aili, K.
    et al.
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden & FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Andersson, M.
    FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden & Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Haglund, Emma
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bergman, S.
    FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden & University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sleep problems and fatigue as a predictor for the onset of chronic widespread pain over a 5- and 18-year perspective: a 20-year prospective study2018In: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 77, no Suppl. 2, p. 87-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: If localised pain represent one end of a pain spectra, with overall better general health, chronic widespread pain (CWP) and fibromyalgia represent the other end of the spectra with worse general health and more comorbidities with other somatic diseases and mental illness. Sleep problems and fatigue are common among individuals reporting CWP and previous research indicate that sleep problems may be an important predictor for pain prognosis.

    Objectives: The aim of this population-based study was to investigate if sleep problems and fatigue predict the onset of CWP 5 and 18 years later.

    Methods: In order to get more stable baseline classifications of CWP, a wash-out period was used, including only individuals who had not reported CWP (according to ACR 1990 criteria for fibromyalgia) at baseline (−98) and three years prior baseline (−95). In all, data from 1249 individuals entered the analyses for the 5 year follow-up (−03) and 791 entered for the 18 year follow-up (−16). Four parameters related to sleep (difficulties initiating sleep, maintaining sleep, early morning awakening and non-restorative sleep), and one parameter related to fatigue (SF-36 vitality scale) were investigated as predictors for CWP. Binary logistic regression analysis were used for analyses.

    Results: All investigated parameters predicted the onset of CWP five years later (problems with initiating sleep (OR 1.91; 1.16–3.14), maintaining sleep (OR 1.85; 1.14–3.01), early awakening (OR 2.0; 1.37–3.75), non-restorative sleep (OR 2.27; 1.37–3.75) and fatigue (OR 3.70; 1.76–7.84)) in a model adjusted for age, gender, socio-economy and mental health. All parameters except problems with early awakening predicted the onset of CWP also 18 years later. In all, 785 individuals did not report any of the sleeping problems at baseline (fatigue not included), 268 reported one of the problems, 167 two, 128 three and 117 subjects reported to have all four sleep problems. Reporting all four sleep problems was significantly associated with CWP at follow-up at both time points when adjusting for age, gender, socio economy and mental health (OR 4.00; 2.03–7.91 and OR 3.95; 1.90–8.20); adjusting for age, gender, socio economy and number of pain regions (OR 2.94; 1.48–5.82 and OR 2.65; 1.24–5.64) and in a model adjusting for age, gender, socio economy and pain severity (OR 2.97;1.53–5.76; and OR 3.02;1.47–6.21) for the 5 year and 18 year follow-up respectively, compared to not reporting any of the sleep problems at baseline.

    Conclusions: Both sleeping problems and fatigue predicts the onset of CWP 5- and 18 years later. The results highlight the importance of the assessment of sleep quality in the clinic.

  • 9.
    Aili, Katarina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport. Spenshult Research and Development Center, FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden & Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Maria L.E.
    Spenshult Research and Development Center, FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden & Lunds Universitet, Lund, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Spenshult Research and Development Center, FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden & Lunds Universitet, Lund, Sweden & University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark & Syddansk Universitet, Graasten, Danmark.
    Haglund, Emma
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Spenshult Research and Development Center, FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Larsson, Ingrid
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing. Spenshult Research and Development Center, FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Sleep problems and fatigue as predictorsfor the onset of chronic widespread painover a 5- and 18-year perspective2018In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Previous research suggests that sleep problems may be an important predictor for chronic widespread pain (CWP). With this study we investigated both sleep problems and fatigue as predictors for the onset of CWP over a 5-year and an 18-year perspective in a population free from CWP at baseline.

    Methods: To get a more stable classification of CWP, we used a wash-out period, including only individuals who had not reported CWP at baseline (1998) and three years prior baseline (1995). In all, data from 1249 individuals entered the analyses for the 5-year follow-up and 791 entered for the 18-year follow-up. Difficulties initiating sleep, maintaining sleep, early morning awakening, non-restorative sleep and fatigue were investigated as predictors separately and simultaneously in binary logistic regression analyses.

    Results: The results showed that problems with initiating sleep, maintaining sleep, early awakening and non-restorative sleep predicted the onset of CWP over a 5-year (OR 1.85 to OR 2.27) and 18-year (OR 1.54 to OR 2.25) perspective irrespective of mental health (assessed by SF-36) at baseline. Also fatigue predicted the onset of CWP over the two-time perspectives (OR 3.70 and OR 2.36 respectively) when adjusting for mental health. Overall the effect of the sleep problems and fatigue on new onset CWP (over a 5-year perspective) was somewhat attenuated when adjusting for pain at baseline but remained significant for problems with early awakening, non-restorative sleep and fatigue. Problems with maintaining sleep predicted CWP 18 years later irrespective of mental health and number of pain regions (OR 1.72). Reporting simultaneous problems with all four aspects of sleep was associated with the onset of CWP over a five-year and 18-yearperspective, irrespective of age, gender, socio economy, mental health and pain at baseline. Sleep problems and fatigue predicted the onset of CWP five years later irrespective of each other.

    Conclusion: Sleep problems and fatigue were both important predictors for the onset of CWP over a five-year perspective. Sleep problems was a stronger predictor in a longer time-perspective. The results highlight the importance of the assessment of sleep quality and fatigue in the clinic. © The Author(s). 2018

  • 10.
    Aili, Katarina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Arvidsson, Susann
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Olsson, Maria
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jarfelt, Marianne
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nygren, Jens M.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Health-related quality of life in adults treated for paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: a cross-sectional and longitudinal cohort study2022In: BMJ Open, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 12, article id e048325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is the most common form of cancer in children. Although treatment methods have improved and resulted in significant improvement of survival and reduction in late effects and late mortality risk, the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of survivors might be affected. To introduce new interventions in clinical practice with the potential to support positive HRQOL outcomes, more knowledge is needed on how HRQOL in this group is constructed and stimulated. The purpose of this study is to investigate how HRQOL is affected in adults treated for paediatric ALL, in a long-term perspective and possible factors influencing this relationship.

    Methods and analysis: This cohort of young adult ALL survivors allows for investigations of factors influencing HRQOL outcomes on a national level. Eligible participants are obtained from the Swedish Childhood Cancer quality registry. Data collection includes both a follow-up of data collected in 2012 (n=224) and recruitment of new eligible participants to the cohort (n=601). The cohort will cover survivors of paediatric ALL, diagnosed between 1985 and 2007, at an age between 0 and 15 years. Data will be collected using validated, multidimensional, self-administered instruments, designed to measure HRQOL (SF-36), social support, sense of coherence and resilience.

    Ethics and dissemination: The study will be carried out in accordance with the ethics permit obtained from the Swedish ethics review authority (Dnr 2019-05181). Dissemination of study results will take place through research articles and reports to the national patient organisation and the national network for consultancy nurses for this target group and to the working group for the Swedish national long-term care programme for childhood cancer. Results will also reach practical application within the follow-up clinic for adult childhood cancer survivors at Sahlgrenska Hospital in Gothenburg. © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2022. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.

  • 11.
    Aili, Katarina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). RandD Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden & Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Lund University, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund, Sweden.
    Haglund, Emma
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). RandD Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Larsson, Ingrid
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). RandD Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Passive coping strategies but not physical function are associated with worse mental health, in women with chronic widespread pain – a mixed method study2019In: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 78, no Suppl 2, p. 2159-2159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Chronic widespread pain (CWP) is a common condition (approximately 10% prevalence), that affects women twice as often as men. There is a lack of knowledge in how different coping strategies relates to health status during CWP development in a general population.

    Objectives: To explore different ways of coping with CWP and to relate the different coping strategies to health-related factors, before and after developing CWP.

    Methods: A sequential explorative mixed methods study including 19 women 45-67 of age, who had reported CWP in a survey 2016, but not in 1995. Individual interviews were analysed with a phenomenographic approach, and resulted in four categories of coping strategies. These categories were further explored with regard to four dimensions of health status (physical function, bodily pain, vitality and mental health) as measured by SF-36 (0-100, a lower score indicates more disability) and sleep problems measured both in 1995, and 2016.

    Results: The qualitative analysis revealed four categories representing different coping strategies, where each woman was labelled by the most dominant category; the mastering woman, the persistent woman, the compliant woman and the conquered woman. The first two categories emerged as being active coping strategies, and the latter two as passive. Women with passive strategies reported significantly lower vitality (median 57.5 vs 75, p=0.007) and worse mental health (median 54 vs 93, p=0.021) in 1995, before they had developed CWP compared with those with active coping strategies. No differences were seen between the groups on physical function, bodily pain or sleep.

    In 2016, there were still a difference between the passive and active group regarding mental health (median 56 vs 80, p=0.022), but not for vitality (median 35 vs 40, p=0.707). No differences were seen between the groups on physical function or bodily pain. All eight women with passive strategies reported problems with sleep in 2016, as compared to 6 of the 11 women with active strategies (p=0.045).

    Conclusion: Women that reported CWP in 2016, but not in 1995, described both active and passive coping strategies. The qualitative findings were associated with differences in vitality and mental health already in 1995, before they had developed CWP. Further, those with passive coping strategies reported worse health with regard to mental health and sleep problems in 2016. Interestingly, the groups did not differ in bodily pain or physical function neither in 1995 nor in 2016, which implicates the importance for the clinician to take the typical coping strategy into consideration, when meeting these patients in clinical settings. © Aili, Bergman, Bremander, Haglund & Larsson 2019. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.

  • 12.
    Aili, Katarina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Stockholm, Sweden & RandD Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    RandD Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden & Institute of Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy, Primary Health Care Unit, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Haglund, Emma
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). RandD Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Adding information on widespread pain to the start back screening tool when identifying low back pain patients at increased risk for poor prognosis2019In: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 78, no Suppl 2, p. 1457-1457Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Aili, Katarina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). RandD Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden & Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Campbell, Paul
    Research Institute for Primary Care and Health Sciences, Keele University, Keele, United Kingdom & Midlands Partnership NHS Foundation Trust, Stafford, United Kingdom.
    Michaleff, Zoe
    Research Institute for Primary Care and Health Sciences, Keele University, Keele, United Kingdom.
    Strauss, Victoria
    University of Oxford, CSM, NDORMS, Oxford, United Kingdom.
    Jordan, Kelvin
    Research Institute for Primary Care and Health Sciences, Keele University, Keele, United Kingdom &Centre for Prognosis Research, Keele University, Keele, United Kingdom.
    Bremander, Ann
    RandD Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden & University of Southern Denmark, Department of Regional Health Research, Odense, Denmark.
    Croft, Peter
    Research Institute for Primary Care and Health Sciences, Keele University, Keele, United Kingdom & Centre for Prognosis Research, Keele University, Keele, United Kingdom.
    Bergman, Stefan
    RandD Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden & Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Long term trajectories of chronic widespread pain: a 21-year prospective cohort latent class analysis2019In: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 78, no Suppl 2, p. 239-239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Chronic widespread pain (CWP) is common (population prevalence of approximately 10%) and has a significant impact on the individual, healthcare, and society. Currently little is known about the actual course of CWP over time, in particular the pathways to the development and maintenance of CWP. One useful way to understand these pathways is to identify common clusters of people who share pain trajectories. Such information is clinically useful to identify factors that predict development, persistence, and resolution of CWP.

    Objectives: To identify different longitudinal pain trajectories over a period of 21 years.

    Methods: A 21-year longitudinal open-population cohort of n=1858 adults (aged 20-74) who completed surveys relating to their pain status in at least three of the five time points 1995, 1998, 2003, 2007, and 2016. Pain status (presence of persistent pain) was ascertained from a report of painful regions (0-18) on a pain mannequin and categorised into: NCP (No chronic pain), CRP (Chronic regional pain) and CWP (chronic widespread pain). Latent Class Growth Analysis (LCGA) was carried out based on these categories. Participants were assigned to a trajectory cluster where the posterior probability was the highest. Model fit was assessed by statistical indices and clinical interpretations of clusters.

    Results: LCGA identified five clusters describing different pathways of NCP, CRP and CWP over the 21 years. The cluster “Persistent NCP” was the most common pathway (n = 1052, 57%) representing those with no chronic pain over the whole time period. The “Persistent CRP or Migration from CRP to NCP” cluster included 411 individuals (22%) representing a group with stable or improving regional pain. In the groups who were shown to increase pain status, the “Migration from NCP to CRP or CWP” cluster included 92 individuals (5%), and there were 184 individuals (10%) in the cluster “Migration from CRP to CWP” representing a group with regional pain who developed CWP. The final cluster “Persistent CWP” included 119 individuals (6%) representing those with stable CWP throughout the time period. Figure 1 presents the mean number of pain sites over time by cluster.

    Conclusion: This study showed that whilst half of adults report no chronic pain over 21 years, a substantial proportion develop CWP or have persistent CWP over this time period. Whilst a common trajectory was movement from chronic regional pain to no chronic pain, a pattern of improving CWP was not seen suggesting this is an uncommon trajectory. This is the first study to show long-term trajectories for CWP, and further work is now required to understand factors that may identify individuals at risk of worsening pain status and factors that might promote improvement. These identified pathways of chronic pain over a lifespan improve the understanding of long-term development of chronic pain and chronic widespread pain. © Aili et al. 2019. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.

  • 14.
    Aili, Katarina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare. Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hellman, Therese
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Svartengren, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Danielsson, Katarina
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Including a Three-Party Meeting Using the Demand and Ability Protocol in an Interdisciplinary Pain Rehabilitation Programme for a Successful Return to Work Process2022In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 19, no 24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Demand and Ability Protocol (DAP) is used in three-party meetings involving an employee, an employer, and a representative from the rehabilitation team. The aim of this study is to investigate the inclusion of an intervention using the DAP in an interdisciplinary pain rehabilitation programme (IPRP) compared to usual care. This non-randomised controlled trial included patients assigned to an IPRP in Sweden. The intervention group received a DAP intervention targeting their work situation in addition to the usual care provided by the IPRP. The control group received IPRP only. Outcome measures were collected from the Swedish Quality Registry for Pain Rehabilitation. Results demonstrated improvements in both groups regarding self-reported anxiety, depression and EQ5D. Sleep was improved in the intervention group but not in the control group. No statistical differences in outcomes were observed between the groups. In conclusion, adding the DAP intervention to IPRP seemed to have the potential to improve sleep among the patients, which may indicate an overall improvement regarding health outcomes from a longer perspective. The results were less clear, however, regarding the work-related outcomes of sickness absence and workability. © 2022 by the authors.

  • 15.
    Almgren, Johanna
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Löfström, Emma
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Hallands Hospital Halmstad, Halmstad, Sweden; Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Malmborg, Julia S
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Nygren, Jens M.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Undén, Johan
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Department of Operation and Intensive Care, Hallands Hospital Halmstad, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Larsson, Ingrid
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare. Spenshult Research and Development Centre, Halmstad, Sweden; Section of Rheumatology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Patients' Health Experiences of Post COVID-19 Condition – A Qualitative Study2022In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 19, no 21, article id 13980Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Patients who suffer from long-term symptoms of COVID-19, described as post COVID-19 condition, are a new and large group of patients. There is a lack of knowledge concerning health experiences in this patient group. The aim of this study was to explore patients' health experiences of post COVID-19 condition. Data collection was performed through 14 semi-structured interviews. The qualitative content analysis resulted in six sub-categories, three categories, and an overall theme. Patients experienced symptoms of varying duration-ranging from 5-21 months. The results showed that patients' health experiences of post COVID-19 condition moved between uncertainty and new insights. This was shown by patients experiencing: (1) loss of abilities, including losing smell and taste and lacking energy, (2) loss of control, including being foreign to oneself and seeking answers, and (3) revaluation of life, including accepting the transformed body and prioritizing health. This study illustrates that patients living with post COVID-19 condition need to be treated with flexibility, based on each individual's unique challenges and experiences of the symptoms and the consequences for their health. © 2022 by the authors.

  • 16.
    Almquist-Tangen, Gerd
    et al.
    Child Health Care Unit, Halmstad, Sweden & Department of Paediatrics, Institute of Clinical Sciences at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Dahlgren, Jovanna
    Department of Paediatrics, Institute of Clinical Sciences at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindholm, Annelie
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Roswall, Josefine
    Department of Paediatrics, Institute of Clinical Sciences at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Alm, Bernt
    Department of Paediatrics, Institute of Clinical Sciences at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Consuming milk cereal drinks at one year of age was associated with a twofold risk of being overweight at the age of five2019In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 108, no 6, p. 1115-1121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: We previously reported that consuming milk cereal drinks at six months of age was associated with a high body mass index (BMI) at 12 and 18 months. This study examined the association between daily consumption at 12 months of age and BMI at the age of five.

    Methods: We followed up 1870/2666 (70%) children recruited at birth in 2007–2008 for the Swedish longitudinal population‐based Halland Health and Growth Study a mean of 5.09 ± 0.28 years. Feeding practices were obtained from parental questionnaires, and anthropometric data were collected by child health nurses.

    Results: At five years, 11.6% were overweight and 2.3% were obese. Milk cereal drinks were consumed by about 85% and 10% at one and five years of age, respectively. Consumption at 12 months was associated with almost double the risk of being overweight at five years of age (adjusted odds ratio 1.94, 95% confidence interval 1.08–3.50). Other risk factors were a family history of obesity, low paternal educational level and paternal smoking.

    Conclusion: Consuming milk cereal drinks daily at 12 months was associated with a twofold risk of being overweight at five years. These findings may affect the counselling guidelines used at child healthcare centres. Copyright © 2019 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved

  • 17.
    Almquist-Tangen, Gerd
    et al.
    Child Health Care Unit, Region Halland, Kungsbacka, Sweden & Department of Paediatrics, Institute for Clinical Sciences at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Strömberg, Ulf
    Research and Development Department, Halland, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Holmén, Anders
    Research and Development Department, Halland, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Alm, Bernt
    Child Health Care Unit, Region Halland, Kungsbacka, Sweden & Department of Paediatrics, Institute for Clinical Sciences at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Roswall, Josefine
    Department of Paediatrics, Halland Hospital, Halmstad, Sweden & Department of Paediatrics, Institute for Clinical Sciences at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Research and Development Centre, Spenshult Hospital, Oskarström, Sweden.
    Dahlgren, Jovanna
    Department of Paediatrics, Institute for Clinical Sciences at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Influence of neighbourhood purchasing power on breastfeeding at four months of age: a Swedish population-based cohort study2013In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 13, no 1, article id 1077Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Parental socioeconomic status (SES) is an important determinant in child health, influencing beneficial factors such as breastfeeding. A better understanding of the influence of neighbourhood-level SES measures, relating to spatial determinants, might lead to targeted actions to promote breastfeeding during infancy.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study analysis the association between breastfeeding at four months of age and neighbourhood purchasing power, taking account of individual-level variables including maternal age, smoking and parental level of education. Data were obtained from a prospective population- based cohort study recruited from birth in 2007-2008 in the Halland region, southwestern Sweden. Questionnaire data on the individual-level variables and the outcome variable of breastfeeding at four months (yes/no) were used (n=2,407). Each mother was geo-coded with respect to her residential parish (there are 61 parishes in the region) and then stratified by parish-level household purchasing power. It emerged that four neighbourhood characteristics were reasonable to use, viz. <10%, 10-19%, 20-29% and ≥ 30% of the resident families with low purchasing power.

    RESULTS: The proportion of mothers not breastfeeding at four months of age showed a highly significant trend across the neighbourhood strata (p=0.00004): from 16.3% (< 10% with low purchasing power) to 29.4% (≥ 30% with low purchasing power), yielding an OR of 2.24 (95% confidence interval: 1.45-3.16). After adjusting for the individual-level variables, the corresponding OR=1.63 (1.07-2.56) was significant and the trend across the strata was still evident (p=0.05). A multi-level analysis estimated that, in the neighbourhoods with ≥ 30% of the families with low purchasing power, 20% more mothers than expected, taking account of the individual-level factors, reported no breastfeeding at four months of age (≥ 95% posterior probability of an elevated observed-to-expected ratio).

    CONCLUSION: The neighbourhood purchasing power provided a spatial determinant of low numbers of mothers breastfeeding at four months of age, which could be relevant to consider for targeted actions. The elevated observed-to-expected ratio in the neighbourhoods with the lowest purchasing power points toward a possible contextual influence. © 2013 Almquist-Tangen et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  • 18.
    Almqvist-Tangen, Gerd
    et al.
    Child Healthcare Team, Region Halland, Sweden & Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Arvidsson, Susann
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Alm, Bernt
    Child Healthcare Team, Region Halland, Sweden & Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden & Research and Development Centre Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Roswall, Josefine
    Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden & County Hospital, Region Halland, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Dahlgren, Jovanna
    Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nevonen, Lauri
    Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden & Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    What makes parents act and react? Parental views and considerations relating to ‘child health’ during infancy2017In: Journal of Child Health Care, ISSN 1367-4935, E-ISSN 1741-2889, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 415-423Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lifestyle factors and behaviours are adopted very early in life and tend to persist throughout life. Considering that the parents are the primary gatekeepers for their child’s health, there is a need to gain more knowledge and deeper understanding about what causes parents to act and react in order for early preventive efforts to have any effect. The aim was to explore the parental views and considerations concerning ‘child health’ among parents with infants 8–10 months old. The sample was strategic and 16 parents (aged 23–41) were recruited from three child health centres in Sweden. Open-ended interviews were conducted and a qualitative, manifest content analysis approach was utilized. The parents described the subject ‘child health’ as a large, multifaceted concept. Three categories emerged during data analysis: developing a sixth sense, being affected by perceptions and believing health and ill health as a continuum. The parents perceived food and feeding issues as one of the most worrying aspects and a significant indicator of ‘child health’. In order to meet the parents on their turf, the ‘healthy health message’ conveyed needs to take the parental perspective into consideration rather than attempting to educate the parents from predetermined assumption, belief and values. © The Author(s) 2017

  • 19.
    Andersson, Erica
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Ungdomars upplevelser av skolidrott som motivation till fysisk aktivitet2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Obesity is currently a major problem in children and adolescents, especially because of physical inactivity and poorer eating habits. The school is an important element in the promotion of child and adolescent habits of physical activity. School sports are also important for children and adolescent´s habits of physical activity in a lifelong perspective. The aim of the study was to highlight adolescent´s experience of school sports as motivation for physical activity. Qualitative interviews were used as data collection methods, followed by content analysis method of analysis. The sample in the study was a strategic choice, a total of nine students from grades three to two high schools in southwestern Sweden participated. The analysis of the data collection resulted in three main categories with four subcategories. The first main category was Knowledge as motivation, with subcategories Knowledge of Physical Activity and Knowledge of the health conept. The second main category was Participation and acknowledgment, with the subcategories To get positive feedback/respond and To be involved in decison-making. The last main category was Lack of personal interest. Overall theme of the results was Teachers create opportunities for physical activity. This is because the overall result of the study was that the teachers had a crucial role in the informants' experiences of physical education as a motivational and inspirational to physical activity. Continued research in this area may advantageously be to also find out the PE teachers' attitudes towards creating conditions for motivation to physical activity among students who are not interested in the topic in their teaching.

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  • 20.
    Andersson, Erica
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Andersson, Sandra
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Sociala och mediala orsaker påverkar utvecklingen av Anorexia Nervosa bland unga kvinnor: En litteraturstudie2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Mental illness among young woman is a public health problem. Anorexia nervosa is categorized as a mental illness. Young woman affected by Anorexia nervosa, wich for example may be due to earlier life events that gave rise to mental imbalance in their everyday lives. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the socio-cultural reasons that contribute to the development of Anorexia nervosa among girls and young women 12-25 years. METHOD: The study is a literature review, based on 21 differens aricles. The method has been to look up earlier research in the area through various databases on the internet. Databases that have been used is pubmed and psycinfo. The articles were divided into different themes, with main category and subcategory. RESULTS: The results of the study was divided into two main categories each with two subcategories. Social causes for the occurrence of Anorexia nervosa: School and youth culture and the second was lack of family relationship. Media reasons in the emergence of Anorexia nervosa: Media image of the feminine ideal and negative inspiration on the internet. Socio-cultural reasons, medial reasons, family reasons, and cultural reasons. IMPLICATION: For example, one can study the various reason in a more specific level, and studying each factors separately. The study can also be used as a form of inspiration that reinforces the importance of health promotion activities for mental illness is the focus.

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  • 21.
    Andersson, Hanna
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Ohlsson, Elin
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Hälsofrämjande åtgärder på arbetsplatser-: Enkätstudie bland stora och medelstora företag i Halmstad kommun2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine how enterprises in Halmstad municipality, Sweden, worked with health promotion. A survey, in the form of a questionnaire was performed on large- and medium-sized enterprises in Halmstad. The respondents can be described as staff responsible for health promotion and work environmental issues. The results show that of 34 companies, 31 offer health promotion benefits, 23 actively work on improving the work environment by introducing ergonomic measures and 21 works with health services. The analysis indicates that by having these benefits and services in place, the absence due to sickness decreases while the employee’s health status increases. However, the study also found that there were difficulties in promoting health in these enterprises; mainly lack of time, economy and lack of motivation among employees. To further improve health promotion in work places we recommend educating responsible staff in particular and employees in general.

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  • 22.
    Andersson, Lena
    et al.
    The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden & Nordic School of Public Health, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Staland Nyman, Carin
    The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Krantz, Gunilla
    The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Associations between general self efficacy, barriers to care and self-reported mental illness—a population-based study2010In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 20, no Suppl. 1, p. 69-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Mental illness is an increasing health problem globally. However, many individuals do not seek health care although evidence-based care is available. Research has shown that self efficacy is associated with various health outcomes and it is of importance to investigate if it also is associated mental illness. Early detection promotes recovery and decreases suicide risk.

    Aim

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether low levels of self efficacy is associated with a higher degree of mental illness and whether level of self-efficacy influence health seeking behaviour.

    Methods

    This is a cross-sectional study based on data from the Health Assets study, with data collected in 2008 in West Sweden. The study population is a randomly selected population sample of 4027 individuals, aged 18–65 years. Data collection was done by a postal questionnaire and the response rate was 50.4%. Bi-and multivariate analyses were employed to investigate associations and results were stratified on sex, age, civil status, education and social support.

    Results

    A total number of 1361 (36%) out of 3811 individuals answered ‘Yes’ on the question ‘Have you ever felt so mentally ill that you had (felt a need) to seek care’. A total of 33% of the women answering yes were found in the lowest quartile of the general self efficacy scale, 20% in the highest quartile. Corresponding figures for men were 30 and 23% respectively. The most common reason stated for not seeking health care was a belief that the mental health problem would disappear by itself. Others reasons mentioned were beliefs that health care would not help, they did not know were to go or they felt ashamed for showing others they suffered from mental illness.

    Conclusion

    Mental illness is a serious health problem and access to care needs to be improved. Health promotion should also include individual traits/characteristics such as self efficacy and health-seeking behaviour.

  • 23.
    Andersson, Lena
    et al.
    The Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Department of Social Medicine, PO Box 453, SE-405 30 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Staland Nyman, Carin
    The Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Department of Social Medicine, PO Box 453, SE-405 30 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Spak, Fredrik
    The Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Department of Social Medicine, PO Box 453, SE-405 30 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Hensing, Gunnel
    The Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Department of Social Medicine, PO Box 453, SE-405 30 Göteborg, Sweden.
    High incidence of disability pension with a psychiatric diagnosis in western Sweden. A population-based study from 1980 to 19982006In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 343-353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Regional differences in Sweden in the prevalence of disability pension with a psychiatric diagnosis are unexplained, in spite of the significant impact on the population's health, rehabilitation systems, and the health care system. The purpose of this study was to describe the pattern of disability pensions with a psychiatric diagnosis and to analyze the impact of age and gender. We examined the incidencerates in one urban and one semi-rural region and compared these to national rates. The study sample was drawn from employed persons between 16-64 years of age who, because of their sickness insurance coverage, would be eligible to access disability pensions should it be necessary. Analysis of annual incidences and standardized morbidity ratios were made for 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, and 1998. Data ondisability pension cases were collected from the National Social Insurance registers. In the urban region we found that the proportion of men and women clearly outnumbered the national average: approximately twice the number of persons between 16-64 years of age with apsychiatric diagnosis were receiving a disability pension. In the semi-rural region there were fewer men overall on disability pensionswith psychiatric disorders, but in 1980, 1985, and 1995 women clearly outnumbered men. Access to psychiatric care, unemployment, alcohol dependence, and previous sickness absence are suggested as possible factors that might affect the rates of disability pension in different geographical settings. © 2006 IOS Press. All rights reserved.

  • 24.
    Andersson, Lena
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Twum-Antwi, Akwasi
    Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada.
    Nyman, Carin
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    van Rooyen, Dalena
    Nelson Mandela University, Port Elizabeth, South Africa.
    Prevalence and socioeconomic characteristics of alcohol disorders among men and women in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa2018In: Health & Social Care in the Community, ISSN 0966-0410, E-ISSN 1365-2524, Vol. 26, no 1, p. e143-e153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is growing concern about alcohol problems in low- and middle-income countries. More research is required, particularly among the younger generation. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of alcohol disorders and associated socioeconomic characteristics among young men and women living in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. This was a cross-sectional population-based study of 977 participants (52% male and 48% female) aged 18–40, the majority of whom lived in low-income areas. Data collection was carried out in 2012 by trained fieldworkers. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (DSM-IV) was used to investigate the prevalence of alcohol dependence (increased tolerance to alcohol, failed attempt to cut down, risk of physical and mental effects) and alcohol abuse (harmful use, consistent intoxication, risk behaviour, physically hazardous, social problems). A high 12-month prevalence of alcohol dependence was found (26.5% in total; 39.0% among men and 19.1% among women) as well as of alcohol abuse (9% in total; 19.0% among men and 6.0% among women). Few socioeconomic differences emerged among the men, except older men (OR 1.94, CI 1.11–3.42) and those supported by social grants (OR 2.28, CI 1.06–4.93), who presented higher odd ratios for alcohol dependence than the reference groups. Among the women, more differences emerged: women who were widowed/single (OR 2.35, CI 1.20–4.62), had no education (OR 3.41, CI 1.04–11.21), had a low income (OR 3.26, CI 1.55–6.80) and had no social support from friends when ill presented higher odd ratios (OR 1.73, CI 1.07–2.80). In the adjusted model, marital status and low income remained statistically significant. With regard to alcohol abuse, fewer socioeconomic differences emerged. Interventions need to address the early onset of alcohol misuse in order to meet both current needs and long-standing mental and physical illness. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd

  • 25.
    Andersson, Robin
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Effects of a Mobile Phone-based Mindfulness Intervention for Teachers, and how Mindfulness Trait Correlates with Stress, Wellbeing, Burnout, and Compassion2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Objectives The aim of the study was to examine effects of mindfulness on stress, wellbeing, compassion and burnout, conducting a brief mobile phone-based mindfulness intervention on teachers. Methods Fifty-five teachers from private and public schools, including pre-school, elementary school, middleschool, secondary- and upper secondary school and adult education school was recruited. 25 teachers completed pre- and post-test (mindfulness, N=20, relaxation, N=5). High dropouts in control led to exclusion of this group in pre- to posttest analysis. The mindfulness treatment comprised of ten minutes of mindfulness meditation for ten sessions at a time and place convenient to the teacher. Results Findings showed that the mindfulness group significantly improved mindfulness trait, and wellbeing, a trend of increased compassion was also found. Overall stress, and teacher-specific stress decreased significantly in the mindfulness group. Burnout showed no significant differences. Correlation tests including all teachers at pre-test showed that high mindfulness trait was associated with higher compassion, wellbeing, and lower levels of stress and burnout. At post-test, high mindfulness trait was associated with higher compassion, wellbeing, and lower levels of burnout and stress, however, not teacher-specific stress. Increases in mindfulness trait from pre- to posttest was related to improvements in all five health outcomes. Conclusions This mobile phone-based mindfulness intervention showed significant improvements on several health outcomes on teachers. Findings indicate that mindfulness trait may explain the change in health outcomes. The current study argues for the need of considering teacher-specific context in digital interventions to improve adherence and preventing dropouts.

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  • 26.
    Arlid, Jonas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Nilja, Nicklas
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Olofsson, Nina
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Fysisk aktivitet som hälsofrämjande åtgärd för barn och ungdomar med särskilda behov: En intervjustudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund/Syfte: Ett av Folkhälsoinstitutets 11 målområden är fysisk aktivitet, målområdet innefattar att främja fysisk aktivitet bland befolkningen. Ett steg i detta arbete är att rekommendera fysisk aktivitet 30-60 minuter om dagen. Hallands Idrottsförbund bedriver olika projekt för att kunna erbjuda barn med särskilda behov möjlighet att bli fysiskt aktiv i en idrottsförening i samarbete med bland annat Barn och ungdoms psykiatri, Region Halland och habiliteringen. Syftet med studien var att beskriva erfarenheter av fysisk aktivitet som hälsofrämjande metod för barn och ungdomar med särskilda behov.

    Metod: En kvalitativ metod användes och 6 intervjuer genomfördes på olika arbetsplatser bland personer som jobbar med hälsofrämjande åtgärder och insatser för barn och ungdomar. Intervjuerna transkriberades från ljudfil till text och analyserades till en temaanalys.

    Resultat: Temaanalysen resulterade i tre olika teman. Det första temat var betydelsen av barn och ungdomars hälsofrämjande arenor, här visade det sig att skolan och föreningslivet är de två viktigaste arenorna för att nå ut till barn och ungdomar med hälsofrämjande arbete. Det andra temat var motivation och stöd till barn och ungdomar där det framkom att motiverande samtal är en tänkbar metod för att motivera äldre barn till fysisk aktivitet. Stöd från omgivningen är även en viktig komponent för att motivera barn och ungdomar till fysisk aktivitet. Det tredje temat var hinder och behov i arbetet. Här beskrevs fördelar och nackdelar inom det aktuella området exempelvis hur ekonomin kan vara ett hinder både för föräldrar och föreningar. Det framkom även att kompetensen hos de ledare som arbetar med barn och ungdomar behövs utvecklas.

    Implikation: Vi vill med hjälp av denna studie belysa olika hinder och behov samt vad som är viktigt att tänka på inom det hälsofrämjande arbetet med barn och ungdomar exempelvis utökade resurser inom föreningslivet och stöd från omgivningen. Ett steg i att hitta tänkbara lösningar för att gagna fortsatt arbete inom det aktuella området är att underlätta för föräldrar att erbjuda sina barn fysisk aktivitet genom ekonomiskt och praktiskt stöd.

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    Fysisk aktivitet som hälsofrämjande åtgärd för barn och ungdomar med särskilda behov
  • 27.
    Arvidsson, Susann
    et al.
    Department of Research and Development, Spenshult Hospital for Rheumatic Diseases, Oskarström, Sweden.
    Arvidsson, Barbro
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Fridlund, Bengt
    School of Health Sciences and Social Work, Växjö University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Department of Research and Development, Spenshult Hospital for Rheumatic Diseases, Oskarström, Sweden.
    Chronic musculoskeletal pain and sleep disturbances as predictors for lower vitality measured by the short form 36 (SF-36) - A eight-year follow up study2006In: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 65, no Suppl. 2, p. 656-656Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Subjects with chronic musculoskeletal pain or sleep disturbances have been shown to have a poor healthstatus as measured by the SF-36 health survey. Fatigue is commonly reported by subjects with chronic musculoskeletal pain and sleep disturbances. There is little known about the temporal relationship between chronic pain, sleep disturbances and changes of vitality.

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of chronic musculoskeletal pain and sleep disturbances with regard to changes in vitality as measured by SF-36 over an eight year period.

    Method: An eight year follow up of 2 425 subjects aged 20-74 from the general population that in 1995 answered the same postal questionnaire. The questionnaire assessed chronic musculoskeletal pain, sleep disturbances, and included the SF-36 health survey. Pain was considered "chronic" if persistent for three months or more. Sleep disturbances assessed were difficulty in falling asleep, frequent awakenings, early awakenings and not feeling rested. Main outcome measure was change of vitality as measured by SF-36 in those that at baseline reported vitality over the median value. Statistical analyses were done with use of logistic regression. Besides the studied variables, the logistic regression analyses also controlled for gender, age, socio-economic group, and the use of analgesics and sleeping pills.

    Results: At baseline 1212 subjects reported a vitality score on SF-36 above the median score of 75. There were 943 subjects (78%) responding at the eight-year follow up. Chronic pain at baseline predicted (OR=1,64, 95% CI 1,14-2,36%, p=0,01) worsening of vitality over time. Loss of vitality was also predicted by moderate problems with falling asleep (OR=2,17, 95% CI 1,31-3,60%, p<0,01), and problems with not feeling rested (moderate problems OR=2,08, 95% CI 1,23-3,50%, p=0,01, and major problems OR=4,76, 95% CI 1,53-14,78%, p=0,01).

    Conclusion: Loss of vitality in SF-36 over an eight-year period was predicted by chronic musculoskeletal pain, problems with falling asleep and problems with not feeling rested. Problems with frequent awakenings and early awakenings did not predict lower value of vitality over an eight-year period. It could thus be important to attend to sleeping problems and especially the feeling of not being rested in subjects with chronic musculoskeletal pain.

  • 28.
    Baigi, Amir
    et al.
    FoU-enheten, Primärvården Halland.
    Bergh, Håkan
    FoU-enheten, Primärvården Halland.
    Haraldsson, Katarina
    FoU-enheten, Primärvården Halland.
    Lindgren, Eva-Carin
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Lydell, Marie
    FoU-enheten, Primärvården Halland.
    Månsson, Jörgen
    FoU-enheten, Primärvården Halland.
    Wendt, Eva
    FoU-enheten, Primärvården Halland.
    Hälsa på lika villkor? Hallands resultat från en nationell folkhälsoenkät2005Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    N/A

  • 29.
    Baigi, Amir
    et al.
    Primary Health Care Halland, Falkenberg.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Marklund, B.
    Göteborg University.
    Oden, A.
    Statistics, Göteborg.
    Cardiovascular mortality focusing on socio-economic influence: the low-risk population of Halland compared to the population of Sweden as a whole2002In: Public Health, ISSN 0033-3506, E-ISSN 1476-5616, Vol. 116, no 5, p. 285-288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between mortality from cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and socioeconomic status (SES) in Sweden and to estimate to what extent the difference between a province with low mortality and the rest of Sweden was dependent on socio-economic factors. A population-based retrospective study with a historical prospective approach was performed covering a 10-y period in the province of Halland, Sweden, as well as Sweden as a whole. Altogether 1654 744 men and 1592 467 women were included, of whom 45 394 men and 43 403 women were from Halland, distributed according to SES. Multivariate analysis with Poisson regression was used. Relative risks with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Both men and women with a low SES showed a significantly higher risk of death from CVD in Sweden as a whole. The risk was 23% higher for male blue-collar workers and 44% higher for female blue-collar workers when compared to their white-collar counterparts. The level of mortality in Halland was 14% lower compared to the country as a whole when only age was taken into account. When the socio-economic variable was also included, this figure was 8%. The results show the substantial significance of social differences with respect to CVD mortality. The effect of SES seems to be more important than that of geographical conditions when the latter are isolated from socio-economic influence.

  • 30.
    Baigi, Amir
    et al.
    Primary Health Care Research and Development Unit, Halland County Council, Falkenberg, Sweden.
    Marklund, Bertil
    Department of Primary Health Care, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    The association between socio-economic status and chest pain, focusing on self-rated health in a primary health care area of Sweden2001In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 420-424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Study objective: The study objective was to determine, first, the association between men's and women's chest pain and their socio-economic status (occupation, smoking) and, secondly, the association between their socio-economic status and self-rated health, in a primary health care area. Design and setting: A population-based cross-sectional survey was made in a primary health care area of Sweden. Primarily based on occupation according to Swedish standards, 4,238 men and women were divided into two socio-economic groups; blue-collar and white-collar workers. Methods: Odds ratios with 95% Cl were calculated by multivariate logistic regression, controlling for the variable age as confounding factor. Student's t-test was used to compare self-rated health, and the chi (2)-test to determine any difference in smoking habits between the two groups. Main results: Both male and female blue-collar workers showed significantly more chest pain when excited than white-collar workers. In six of eight health indices, they also reported significantly worse self-rated health than the white-collar workers. Conclusions: These findings show that there are socio-economic inequalities in self-reported chest pain. Furthermore, socio-economic status has a major influence on self-rated health, acting across the working life of both sexes.

  • 31.
    Bank, Petra
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
     Hinder och problem med metoden FaR inom Primärvården.:  En intervjustudie.2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Metoden fysisk aktivitet på recept började användas 2001 inom primärvården, med avsikten att öka fysisk aktivitet bland befolkningen. Syftet med denna studie var att beskriva förskrivarnas upplevelser av hinder och problem, med att använda metoden FaR inom primärvården. Kvalitativ metod valdes och 12 intervjuer genomfördes. Data analyserades med hjälp av innehållsanalys. Resultatet som framkom bildade tre huvudkategorier; metoden, förskrivarna och samverkan. Resultatet visade, att trots att metoden ansågs vara bra, fanns det aspekter som behövde förbättras. Hjälpmedlen användes i liten utsträckning, tid och arbete behövdes för att väl förankra metoden på arbetsplatsen. Förskrivarna behöver motiveras för att kunna hjälpa patienten på bästa vis och även andra aktörer i samhället behövs i arbetet med att öka den fysiska aktiviteten bland befolkningen. Slutsatsen blev att metoden behövs inom primärvården, men att tydliga riktlinjer krävs om hur arbetet ska implementeras och användas praktiskt i vardagen. Även kontinuerliga påminnelser behövs för att arbetet ska fortgå, till exempel tävlingar och föreläsningar som sätter extra fokus på metoden. Aktivitetskatalogen behöver utvecklas och om möjlighet finns, även införa en prisreducering, så att alla oavsett ekonomisk situation, har chans att delta. Ett större samarbete med andra aktörer utanför hälso- och sjukvården krävs, för att möjliggöra och synliggöra arbetet, detta för att öka hälsan bland befolkningen. Slutligen så bör förskrivarna få större möjligheter att få vara med och utforma metoden, för att kunna eliminera det motstånd som finns.

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  • 32.
    Bektas, Selma
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Lindberg, Tyra
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Nilsson, Emma
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Pappor i samverkan i utkanten av staden: En kvalitativ studie om pappors upplevelser av en samverkansgrupp i ett socioekonomiskt utsatt område.2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Tidigare forskning om socioekonomiskt utsatta områden visar att det krävs förenade krafttag från inte bara myndigheter utan även civilsamhällets aktörer. Sådana krafttag medverkar till ett långsiktigt och förebyggande arbete mot minskad utsatthet och ökad hälsa för medborgarna. Därför undersöker denna studie en strategisk samverkansgrupp för pappor som idag verkar i ett av Göteborgs socioekonomiskt utsatta områden. Syftet med studien var att undersöka pappors upplevelser av en strategisk samverkansgrupp i ett utsatt område, ur ett hälsopedagogiskt perspektiv.

    I studien används en kvalitativ metod där tio pappor intervjuas om sina upplevelser. Resultatet visar bland annat att samverkan bidrar till pappors ökade delaktighet i beslutsfattandeprocesser, samt utökade sociala nätverk. Samtidigt indikerar resultatet att samverkansgruppen är en community of practice (CoP) som gör det möjligt att skapa ett större socialt kapital som byggs upp av förtroendebaserade relationer. Det ger förutsättningar till att lärande kan äga rum och utvecklar både kollektivt och individuellt empowerment. Likaså förstås gruppens sociala kapital i samband med utökat empowerment som hälsofrämjande- och lärandeprocesser. Pappornas empowerment ses genom deras upplevelser av utökat självförtroende via kollektiva och individuella handlingar. Det i sin tur genererar ny kunskap som upplevs positivt vad gäller identiteten som pappa och medborgare i området.

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  • 33.
    Bengtsson, Anna
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Äldre individers upplevelser av vad som bidrar till den egna hälsan och välbefinnandet2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are four main factors contributing to good ageing: social community, meaningful occupation and participation, physical activity and good eating habits. The purpose of this study was to describe what elderly people experience contribute to their own health and well-being. Qualitative semi structured interviews were conducted with 15 people aged 75 or more. The interviews were analyzed with qualitative content analysis. Three main categories emerged under the latent theme of “feeling of having access to and control over resources making it possible to live a continued active and meaningful life as an elderly”: “living in a good physical environment”, “feeling of meaningfulness” and “feeling of independence”. It was important to the informants to have a good home and a nice neighbourhood. Meaningfulness came from social sense of community and belonging, meaningful activities and a positive attitude and faith. Independence consisted of feeling well and healthy and adapting activities as well as having a good economy and access to transportation. Access and control over these conditions made it possible to keep living an active and meaningful life. The result is in accordance to previous research within the area. It is important that health promoting efforts for the elderly has a comprehensive view and that all needs of the elderly are met as far as possible. Future research could investigate the subject in elderly with a lower self-perceived health.

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  • 34.
    Berget, Bente
    et al.
    NORCE, Kristiansand, Norge; Universitetet i Sørøst-Norge, Vestfold, Norge.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Lidfors, Lena
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet (SLU), Skara, Sverige.
    Djurens betydelse för människans hälsa2022In: Vård, omsorg och rehabilitering utomhus: teori, praktik och nya perspektiv / [ed] Å. Engström; P. Juuso; M. Liljegren; L. Lundmark Alfredsson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2022, 1:1, p. 261-283Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 35.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Research and Development Centre, Spenshult, Oskarström, Sweden.
    Psychosocial aspects of chronic widespread pain and fibromyalgia2005In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 27, no 12, p. 675-683Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To study the impact on health status as measured by SF-36 in groups of subjects having chronic musculoskeletal pain with different degree of generalization: No chronic pain (NCP), chronic regional pain (CRP), chronic widespread pain (CWP), CWP with a stricter 'Manchester' definition (CWP-M), and clinically defined fibromyalgia (FM). The study also examines the association between psychosocial and lifestyle background variables, and these pain-groups.

    METHOD: A cross-sectional study with a postal survey to 3928 subjects, constituting a representative sample of the adult general population, followed by clinical examination in a selected group of subjects with CWP. CWP and FM were diagnosed according to ACR 1990 fibromyalgia criteria. Health status was measured by SF-36 Health Survey.

    RESULTS: Patients with CWP, CWP-M, and FM were found to present with more severe impairment of health status than the other two population groups. Several psychosocial factors, such as belonging to a lower socio-economic group, being an immigrant, living in a compromised housing area, having lower educational level, experiencing lower social support and having a family history of chronic pain, were associated with the populations with CWP and FM.

    CONCLUSIONS: The spectrum of impact on health and association to background variables, with respect to a stricter definition of CWP, indicates that these factors are important to attend to in the understanding and management of CWP and FM.

    © 2005 Taylor & Francis Group Ltd.

  • 36.
    Bergman, Stefan
    et al.
    Primary Care Centre Hertig Knut, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Herrström, Per
    Högström, K.
    Petersson, Ingemar F.
    Svensson, Björn
    Jacobsson, Lennart T.
    Chronic musculoskeletal pain, prevalence rates, and sociodemographic associations in a Swedish population study2001In: Journal of Rheumatology, ISSN 0315-162X, E-ISSN 1499-2752, Vol. 28, no 6, p. 1369-1377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of chronic regional and widespread musculoskeletal pain in a sample of the general adult population and study the association to age, sex, socioeconomic class, immigration, and housing area.

    METHODS: A cross sectional survey with a postal questionnaire to 3928 inhabitants on the west coast of Sweden.

    RESULTS: The age and sex adjusted prevalence of chronic regional pain (CRP) was 23.9% and chronic widespread pain (CWP) 11.4% among 2425 subjects who responded to the complete questionnaire. Odds ratio (OR) for CWP showed a systematic increasing gradient with age and was highest in the age group 59-74 yrs (OR 6.36, 95% CI 3.85-10.50) vs age group 20-34 yrs. CWP was also associated with female sex (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.41-2.61), being an immigrant (OR 1.83, 95% CI 1.22-2.77), living in a socially compromised housing area (OR 3.05, 95% CI 1.48-6.27), and being an assistant nonmanual lower level employee (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.09-3.38) or manual worker (OR 2.72, 95% CI 1.65-4.49) vs being an intermediate/higher nonmanual employee. OR for CRP showed a systematic increasing gradient with age and was highest in the age group 59-74 yrs (OR 2.22, 95% CI 1.62-3.05) vs age group 20-34 yrs. CRP was also associated with being a manual worker (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.19-2.23) vs being an intermediate/higher nonmanual employee.

    CONCLUSION: Chronic musculoskeletal pain is common in the general population. Sociodemographic variables were overall more frequently and strongly associated with CWP than with CRP, which indicates different pathophysiology in the development or preservation of pain in the 2 groups.

  • 37.
    Bergman, Stefan
    et al.
    Research and Development Centre, Spenshult, Oskarström, Sweden.
    Jacobsson, Lennart T.H.
    Herrström, Per
    Petersson, Ingemar F.
    Health status as measured by SF‐36 reflects changes and predicts outcome in chronic musculoskeletal pain: a 3‐year follow up study in the general population2004In: Pain, ISSN 0304-3959, E-ISSN 1872-6623, Vol. 108, no 1-2, p. 115-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The SF-36 is a well-validated health status instrument measuring eight different health concepts. One aim of this study was to compare health status as measured by SF-36 in subjects from the general population with no chronic pain (NCP), chronic regional pain (CRP), and chronic widespread pain (CWP). A second aim was to assess if SF-36 could reflect changes in pain status over time. A third aim was to study if health status at baseline, measured by SF-36, could predict pain status 3 years later. The study was designed as a 3-year follow up with a postal questionnaire, including the SF-36 health survey, to 2357 subjects from the general population aged 20-74 years. The results were controlled for age, sex, co-morbidity, and socio-economic status. At baseline, all eight health concepts of SF-36 discriminated between subgroups with NCP, CRP and CWP. Changes in SF-36 over the 3-year follow up time coincided with improvement or deterioration of pain status. Baseline SF-36 scores predicted pain outcome 3 years later. These results support that both physical and mental aspects of health status as measured by SF-36 are affected by the burden of musculoskeletal pain, are sensitive to changes in pain status, and also predict the further development of pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 38.
    Bertilsson, Monica
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Nyman, Carin
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare. Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Hahn, M.
    Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands.
    de Rijk, A.
    Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands.
    Managers´ attitudes towards common mental health problems differ across sectors: a Swedish study2023In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 33, no Supplement_2, article id ckad160.1317Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Bjurberg, Cornelia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Särman, Hanna
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Samband mellan fysisk respektive kognitiv aktivitet och kognitiva funktioner i en äldre population2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to examine the association between regular physical and cognitive activity and cognitive functioning in an older population. More specifically the association between regular physical activity in terms of total amount of exercise, exercise intensity (vigorous / moderate strenuous and walks), plus total amount of time spent sitting during a day and the cognitive functions; executive function, processing speed and analytical thinking. Twenty-eight participants between 65-85 years of age (MD = 75.52, SD = 5.15) partook in the present study, of which 14 were women and 14 were men. The participants were recruited at local gyms and public meeting places and answered a questionnaire including background questions (gender, age, educational level), their physical activity habits (International Physical Activities Questionnaire, IPAQ) and cognitive activity habits (Florida Cognitive Activities Scale, FCAS). After answering the questions, the participants performed cognitive tests to measure the three cognitive functions; executive function (through Trail Making Test B, TMT B), processing speed (through Trail Making Test A, TMT A, and Symbol Digit Modalities Test, SDMT) and analytical thinking (through Cognitive Reflection Test, CRT). Model 2 with the predictors' total physical activity and cognitive activity was significant and explained 36% of the variance in TMT A. Model 3 with the predictor vigorous strenuous physical activity was significant and explained 11% of the variance in CRT Correct. Model 7 with the predictors' vigorous strenuous physical activity, moderate strenuous physical activity and walks was significant and explained 25% of the variance in CRT Correct. Positive significant associations were found between cognitive activity and processing speed, as well as between walks and analytical thinking. Finally negative significant associations between vigorous strenuous activity and analytical thinking was found. No significant results were found for executive functions in the present study. The results from the current study suggests that higher degrees of cognitive activity is related to better processing speed, more walks are related to better analytical thinking, and that a higher degree of vigorous physical activity is related to poorer ability of analytical thinking.

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  • 40.
    Björn, Wihlborg
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Malin, Yderhag
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Ledarskap: en viktig nyckel till hälsa i arbetslivet: En litteraturstudie om transformativt ledarskap2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Psykosocial hälsa har en stor roll i bestämmandet av hälsa på arbetsplatser, svag psykosocial hälsa kan kopplas till försämrad allmän hälsa samt förhöjd sjukfrånvaro. Samtidigt visar forskning på hur transformativt ledarskap kan påverka arbetsmiljön och anställda vilket resulterade studiens syfte.

    Syfte: Syftet var att undersöka transformativt ledarskaps påverkan på anställdas psykosociala hälsa och arbetsmiljö.Metod: Studiedesign som antogs var en systematisk litteraturstudie där sju databaser genomsöktes och totalt 19 vetenskapliga artiklar som svarade på syftet användes. Alla artiklar genomgick granskning av vetenskaplig kvalité och en kvalitativ innehållsanalys som resulterade i tre kategorier.

    Resultat: Tre kategorier hittades och de benämns som medför positiva effekter på psykosocial hälsa, betydelse för den psykosociala arbetsmiljön samt hälsovinster i ett större perspektiv. Resultatet indikerar att transformativt ledarskap kan användas som ett kraftfullt salutogent verktyg för hälsopromotion på arbetsplatsen och att ledarskapet kan skapa bättre förutsättningar för förbättrad psykosocial hälsa.

    Implikation: Ytterligare forskning krävs för att kartlägga transformativt ledarskap i skilda kulturella, geografiska och praktiska kontexter samt att kvalitativa studier kan ge en mer nyanserad bild av effekterna och på så vis kan ge en tydligare indikation på hur integreringen av transformativt ledarskap kan ske i organisationer och verksamheter.

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  • 41.
    Blomberg, My
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Higher education as a pathway to establishment and improved health and well-being in Sweden: Experiences of female immigrants2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This qualitative study focuses on the health and well-being of female immigrants in Sweden, exploring opportunities for establishment in a new society. Building on previous research that highlights social capital and empowerment as significant factors for successful establishment in a new society and long-term health and well-being, this study aims to explore if higher education can promote female immigrants’ establishment into Swedish society. Interviews were used to explore female immigrants’ experiences of higher education and establishment in Swedish society. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the empirical material. Higher education was found to promote establishment into Swedish society, ultimately leading to health and well-being. Pursuing higher education was perceived as a means of achieving personal fulfillment and success while fostering new social connections. Important factors in pursuing higher education included favorable living conditions, personal motivation, and a positive educational attitude. The study provides insights into female immigrants’ experiences of how higher education can promote integration and contribute to increased health and well-being in a new country. However, more research is needed to attain a deeper understanding of the driving factors for female immigrants pursuing higher education in Sweden, considering their migrant background, and living conditions. 

  • 42.
    Blomqvist, Marjut
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Carlsson, Ing-Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Sandgren, Anna
    Center for Collaborative Palliative Care, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Health Effects of an Individualized Lifestyle Intervention for People with Psychotic Disorders in Psychiatric Outpatient Services: A Two Year Follow-Up2019In: Issues in Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 0161-2840, E-ISSN 1096-4673, Vol. 40, no 10, p. 839-850Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    People with psychotic disorders experience to a great extent avoidable physical illnesses and early mortality. The aim of the study was to investigate the potential effects for this group of participating in a lifestyle intervention. A multi-component nurse-led lifestyle intervention using quasi-experimental design was performed. Changes in biomedical and clinical measurements, self-reported health, symptoms of illness and health behavior were investigated. Multilevel modeling was used to statistically test differences in changes over time. Statistically significant changes were found in physical activity, HbA1c and waist circumference. A lifestyle intervention for people with severe mental illness can be beneficial for increasing physical activity. © 2019 Blomqvist et al. Published with license by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

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  • 43.
    Blomqvist, Marjut
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Carlsson, Ing-Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Sandgren, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Center for Collaborative Palliative Care , Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Växjö, Sweden.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Health Risks among People with Severe Mental Illness in Psychiatric Outpatient Settings2018In: Issues in Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 0161-2840, E-ISSN 1096-4673, Vol. 39, no 7, p. 585-591Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Life expectancy is greatly reduced in patients with schizophrenia, and cardiovascular diseases are a leading cause of mortality. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and to investigate the relationships between self-rated health, sense of coherence, CVD risk, and body mass index (BMI) among people with severe mental illness (SMI) in psychiatric outpatient settings. Nearly 50% of the participants were exposed to moderate/high risk of CVD and over 50% were obese. The results showed no statistically relationships between the subjective and objective measures (Bayes factor <1) of health. The integration of physical health into clinical psychiatric nursing practice is vital. © 2018 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  • 44.
    Blomster, Carola
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Johansson, Maria
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Kvinnors erfarenheter av våld i en nära relation: En litteraturstudie2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Intimate partner violence is a public health problem. 12 422 cases of indoor assault in the intimate partnership against women over 18 were reported in 2010. An average of 30 women dies each year in Sweden due to physical violence. 17 of them are killed by their current or former partner. Psychological violence may be constituted by threats, control and harassment and can be difficult to identify. Sexual violence can be abuse during sex and compulsion into various sexual acts. Intimate partner violence occurs in all social classes and children are affected directly or in-directly by domestic violence. The government has presented a plan of action with measures and efforts to, among other things, fight men’s violence against women. The police are trained to better treat and help vulnerable women. Women and children can receive help and support from nonprofit organizations. Aim: The aim of this study was to describe women’s experiences of violence in an intimate partnership. Method: The method that was used in this study was based on facts from literature. The Databases that were used was Academic Search Elite and PsycINFO. Result: The nice and charming man that women met proved over time to be a violent man. The violence came stealthy and it increased gradually in the relationship. Women blamed themselves for the violence. They were ashamed of their situation and tried to keep up an appearance. Pregnancy did not seem to be any protection against the violence. Women experienced both that there was support around them and that the support did not came them to the benefit. Protected identity became an alternative for some women. Implication: The complex and growing problem of intimate partner violence needs to be a frequent topic on the agenda. It is of great importance that further research is conducted in Sweden in this area and that the knowledge will be transformed into practical tools in the community.

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  • 45.
    Bolse, Kärstin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Flemme, Inger
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Ivarsson, Anita
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jinhage, Britt-Marie
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Carroll, Diane
    Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston.
    Edvardsson, Nils
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg.
    Hamilton, Glenys A.
    Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Life situation related to the ICD implantation: self-reported uncertainty and satisfaction in Swedish and US samples2002In: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, ISSN 1474-5151, E-ISSN 1873-1953, Vol. 1, no 4, p. 243-251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to describe changes in the life situation related to the ICD implantation of Swedish and US samples with regard to uncertainty and satisfaction. The life situation was measured by reference to the uncertainty caused by the condition and satisfaction with the life situation. Inferential statistics were used to analyse changes within and between the Swedish and US samples. Uncertainty showed a statistically significant difference between the Swedish and US samples before as well as after the ICD implantation. A higher level of uncertainty was indicated for the US sample prior to the ICD implantation and for the Swedish sample following the implantation. In the Swedish sample, satisfaction with life showed a statistically significant difference within the socio-economic domain, indicating a higher degree of satisfaction 3 months after implantation. Satisfaction within the domains of health and functioning, socio-economics and psychological-spiritual showed a statistically significant difference between the Swedish and US samples both before and after ICD implantation, indicating a higher degree of satisfaction in the US sample. The previous study shows that the ICD-patient's life situation is changed after the implantation and that it is necessary to provide the patient with information and education based on their own preconditions. The fact that US sample was investigated at a later stage after ICD implantation than the Swedish sample may have influenced the results of the study.

  • 46.
    Bothmer, Margareta von
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Studenters hälsovanor – hur ser de ut? Är studenter motiverade att leva hälsosamt?2004In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 81, no 4, p. 319-333Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Tvärsnittsstudie av studenters självskattade hälsa i relation till hälsovanor, motivation och personlighetsvariabler.

  • 47.
    Bramsved, Rebecka
    et al.
    Department of Pediatrics, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Regber, Susann
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health promotion and disease prevention.
    Mehlig, K.
    Section for Epidemiology and Social Medicine, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Novak, D.
    Department of Pediatrics, Shalgrenska Academy, University of Gotehburg, Sweden.
    Lissner, L.
    Section for Epidemiology and Social Medicine, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Mårild, S.
    Department of Pediatrics, Shalgrenska Academy, University of Gotehburg, Sweden.
    Parental education and income: independent and combined effects on children's growth and weight status2016Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 48.
    Bramsved, Rebecka
    et al.
    Department of Pediatrics, Institute of Clinical Sciences, The Queen Silvia Children’s Hospital, The Sahlgrenska Academy at Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Regber, Susann
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Novak, Daniel
    Department of Pediatrics, Institute of Clinical Sciences, The Queen Silvia Children’s Hospital, The Sahlgrenska Academy at Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Mehlig, Kirsten
    Section for Epidemiology and Social Medicine (EPSO), Institute of Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy at Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lissner, Lauren
    Section for Epidemiology and Social Medicine (EPSO), Institute of Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy at Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Mårild, Staffan
    Department of Pediatrics, Institute of Clinical Sciences, The Queen Silvia Children’s Hospital, The Sahlgrenska Academy at Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Effects of family disposable income on development of height and BMI from birth up to eight years of age2016In: European Obesity Summit (EOS) – Joint Congress of EASO and IFSO-EC: ABSTRACTS, Freiburg: S. Karger, 2016, Vol. 9, p. 44-44Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Low socioeconomic position (SEP) is a known risk factor for development of obesity in childhood. e level of parental education is commonly used as proxy for SEP, but family disposable income is likely to also be of importance for SEP. e aim of this study was to determine the e ects of family disposable income on BMI and height trajectories from birth up to eight years of age, and the development of obesity at eight years of age.

    Methods: Growth data from birth to eight years age were collected for 3030 Swedish children. Register data on family disposable income was re- trieved from Statistics Sweden, and dichotomized for the analysis by the median value for the group. Register-derived information on parental ed- ucation and national background, maternal BMI, age and smoking status were considered as covariates in longitudinal mixed models and regres- sion analyses.

    Results: Mean birth weight was lower in families of lower income, 3.51 kg (SD 0.54) vs. 3.60 kg (SD 0.53) for children of higher-income parents, p < 0.0001. By age 5.5 years and 8 years, however, a reversed relation between groups was seen, where the children of lower income families showed signi cantly higher mean BMI. is di erence was no longer sig- ni cant when adjusting for covariates. Considering height, lower income was strongly related to lower height at 5.5 and 8 years, di erences were strengthened a er adjusting for confounders, -0.44 cm (95% CI -0.75,- 0.13) for age 5.5 years and -0.56 cm (95% CI -0.88, -0.23) at 8 years. e OR of obesity at 8 years age was 1.69 (95% CI 1.05–2.7) for the group of low income compared to the group of high income.

    Conclusions: Low family disposable income is related to increased risk of childhood obesity at 8 years of age. is could be attributed to a di erent growth pattern compared to children of high income. Our ndings that children of lower family income had lower mean birth weight and dis- played lower height later in childhood suggest that these children might have an unfavourable metabolic pro le and increased risk of developing the metabolic syndrome. © 2016 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg 

  • 49.
    Bremander, Ann
    et al.
    Spenshult Hosp Rheumat Dis, Ctr Res & Dev, S-31392 Oskarström, Sweden .
    Bergman, Stefan
    Spenshult Hosp Rheumat Dis, Ctr Res & Dev, Oskarström, Sweden .
    Arvidsson, Barbro
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Perception of multimodal cognitive treatment for people with chronic widespread pain: changing one's life plan2009In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 31, no 24, p. 1996-2004Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose.

    The aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of chronic widespread pain patients' perception of a multimodal treatment with a cognitive approach.

    Methods.

    A reformulated grounded theory study based on interviews with 16 participants in the programme was conducted at the end of a 6-month treatment period.

    Results.

    The result describes a conceptual model of the informants' perception of the treatment. The core category 'changing one's life plan' comprised of three categories: 'changing one's perception of life', 'depending on support' and 'managing one's life'. Changing one's perception of life could be deep and overwhelming 'overall life changes' or more superficial 'life adjustments'. Support by health professionals and the patient group were of importance. At the end of the rehabilitation program managing one's life was perceived as either 'reorientation' or 'stagnation'. The informants who experienced overall life changes achieved reorientation with support by others, while those who experienced life adjustments did not change their way of managing one's life to any great extent.

    Conclusion.

    The core category changing one's life plan included the categories; changing one's perception of life, depending on support and managing one's life. Informants experiencing overall life changes were more likely to achieve reorientation than those who experienced life adjustments

  • 50.
    Broomé, Sabina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Johansson, Angelica
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Effekt av kosttillskotten, vassle- och kaseinprotein: En litteraturstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den fysiska aktiviteten bland motionärer är allt mer prestationsinriktad. Vassle- och kaseinprotein är de mest använda kosttillskotten och används i syfte att öka muskeltillväxt och påskynda återhämtning efter träning. Studiens syfte var att belysa förekomst och effekter av proteintillskotten, vassle och kasein ur ett folkhälsoperspektiv. En systematisk databassökning gjordes i tre olika databaser, PubMed, SportDiscus och Cinahl. 16 artiklar publicerade i vetenskapliga tidskrifter användes i analysen. Databearbetningen bestod av en dataanalys där tre teman framkom; kroppsliga effekter, motstridiga effekter i samband med fysisk aktivitet samt att felkonsumtion av vassle- och kaseinprotein kan ge hälsorisker. Det huvudsakliga resultatet i studien var att proteintillskotten, vassle och kasein inte påverkar prestation i samband med fysisk aktivitet däremot har vassle- och kaseinprotein effekt på muskelmassa, muskelskador och återhämtningsförmåga. Relevanta framtida forskningsprojekt skulle kunna vara att studera proteintillskott under längre perioder för att se långtidseffekter och reella effekter av användning av proteintillskotten samt studera det exakta innehållet i proteintillskotten då faktisk kunskap saknas.

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