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  • 1.
    Algotsson, Marcus
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Construct validity and test-retest reliability of a rotational maximum strength test and rotational power test in 1080 Quantum2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Explosive rotational movements are parts of many sports such as golf, tennis and baseball. Rotational strength and power tests exist, but valid and reliable tests to measure standing rotational strength and standing rotational power are lacking. 1080 Quantum is a machine wich can measure, speed, force and power and has several different resistance modes was used for testing rotational power and strength in this study. Aim: The aim was to investigate the validity and reliability of two new standing Quantum rotational tests; one measuring maximal rotational strength (1RM) and one measuring rotational power. Methods: Fifteen subjects, 8 men and 7 women, with at least one year of experience of resistance training participated in the study. The two new tests were: the Quantum power rotational test (PRT) and the Quantum 1RM rotational test (1RMRT). Testing occured during two sessions and during the first session construct validity of the two new rotational tests was assessed with a standing medicine ball throw (MB) and a sitting rotational power test (SRT). During the second session PRT and 1RMRT were tested for test-retest reliability. To study construct validity á priori hypothesis were stated and data were analyzed with Spearman´s correlation coefficent (rs). Intra correaltion coefficient (ICC) was used for test-retest reliability for PRT and 1RMRT. Results: Priori hypotheses were all fullfilled. Correlations found were considered good between PRT and MB (rs=0.80), moderate between PRT and SRT (rs=0.52), excellent between 1RMRT and MB (rs=0.90), moderate between 1RMRT and SRT (rs=0.73) and good between PRT and 1RMRT (rs=0.81). Excellent test-retest reliability was found for PRT (ICC=0.94, 95% CI (0.80-0.99)) and 1RMRT (ICC=0.98, 95% CI (0.92-0.99)) Conclusion: The two new rotational tests performed in 1080 Quantum both assessed construct validity and test-retest reliability. PRT can be used to measure standing rotational power and 1RMRT can be used to measure standing rotational maximum strength.

  • 2.
    Bergenblad, Jonas
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Validation study of a portable accelerometer to measure muscular power output: Correlation between the Beast Sensor and the linear encoder MuscleLab2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background: The ability to produce a high power output can be the deciding factor in determining which athlete wins or loses in a sporting event. Power output can be measured in an exercise like the squat or bench press. The use of a force plate, or a force plate paired with a linear position transducer is considered the gold standard when measuring power output in an exercise like the squat or bench press. Linear position transducers or linear encoders have also been considered valid methods. Power output can also be measured by accelerometers.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test the concurrent validity of the accelerometer Beast Sensor by measuring average power in explosive squatting and bench pressing at 40 % and 80 % of one repetition maximum (1RM). The linear encoder MuscleLab was used as criterion.

    Methods: 17 test subjects, five women and 12 men (average age 28 years) were recruited. Fifteen of the subjects completed two test sessions. The first session determined their 1RM. The second session took place 7-14 days later and measured average power output during two sets of three repetitions at 40 % and 80 % of the subjects 1RM in explosive squats and bench presses. The average power output of the repetitions was measured simultaneously by Beast Sensor and MuscleLab. For the Beast Sensor to be considered valid, a correlation coefficient of 0.9 or higher needed to be reached.

    Results: Beast Sensor demonstrated high or very high correlations with MuscleLab for average power output of explosive squats at 40 % of 1RM (rs = 0.91), and for explosive bench presses at 40 % (rs = 0.86) and 80 % of 1RM (rs = 0.74). However, for explosive squats at 80 % of 1RM, the correlation was low (rs = 0.42). All correlations were statistically significant with p-values of < 0.01. Beast Sensor was considered valid for squats at 40 % of 1RM, but neither at 80 % of 1RM in squats, nor at 40 % or 80 % of 1RM in bench presses.

    Conclusion: Beast Sensor showed high or very high correlations with the criterion MuscleLab in three of the four assessed data variables. Only the correlation for average power output of the explosive squats at 40 % of the subject’s 1RM reached the required correlation coefficient of 0.9 or higher for the Beast Sensor to be considered valid. Except for at 40 % of 1RM in squats, Beast Sensor missed a substantial amount of repetitions. Further studies examining the reliability of the Beast Sensor are therefore needed. 

  • 3.
    Bergman, Lina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Algotsson, Marcus
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Effekten av 6 veckor unilaterala knäböj, med eller utan isokinetiskt motstånd, på power och sprinttid på is hos manliga ishockeyspelare2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Ice-hockey are physically demanding. To be able to perform during a game it is required thatthe players have a high maximum leg strength and power. A bilateral squat is a valid and widespread exercise for improving muscle strength and power in the legs. Even more specific forice-hockey is the unilateral squat. During an isokinetic movement the velocity is pre-set andtherefore constant, while the force can be altered during the movement. Most isokineticsystems have been designed for unilateral training, but in terms of isokinetic multi-jointexercises, such as the squat, there seems to be no research until this day.The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of six weeks unilateral strength training(squat), either through traditional or isokinetic training, on power-output and 17.3 m sprinttime on ice among male junior ice-hockey players.20 elite male ice-hockey players, 18-19 years of age, was randomly divided in two differenttraining groups. One group (QG) did isokinetic unilateral squats in 1080 Quantum, with anangle of 110o degrees in the knee joint. The other group (SG) did traditional unilateral squatsin a Smith-machine, also with an angle of 110o degrees in the knee joint. The period oftraining was set to six weeks. Both groups participated in pre- and post-tests consisting ofsprint on ice and peak power in unilateral and bilateral jump squats.A significant improvement was seen with QG in peak power performed on both legs(p=0,004). SG had a significant improvement in unilateral squat performed on the right leg(p=0,018). A tendency to significant improvement was seen with QG in the ice-sprint(p=0,059).Isokinetic unilateral squat in a Smith-machine with a concentric velocity set to 0,2m/sec andan eccentric velocity set to 4,0m/sec with a maximum force is an effective exercise toimprove power-output on two legs, perhaps also to improve sprint ability on ice, among icehockeyplayers. It is difficult to draw conclusion about the results from this study whetherisokinetic unilateral squats is an effective method to improve the power compared totraditional unilateral squats in a Smith-machine with maximum speed.

  • 4.
    Bergqvist, Mathias
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Comparison of ground reaction force and knee angle between parkour precision landing and traditional landing2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Parkour is a sport which has developed its own landing technique, precision landing (PL), which has shown to reduce vertical ground reaction forces (vGRF) in comparison to a more traditional landing (TL). However previous studies lacks control for intra group knee flexion between the TL and PL techniques. Aim. The aim of this study was to analyse the biomechanical differences between a parkour precision landing with a traditional landing in four knee flexion groups (Stiff landing (SL), 25-50o, 50-75o and 75-100o), comparing vGRF, time to peak force and average rate of force development (avgRFD) between both landing techniques within each group as well as between the groups. Method. 42 participants were recruited to participate in a single session of a randomized, experimental study. Participants were randomly placed into one of four groups and performed a practice session of the two different landing techniques at the knee flexion angle given. All participants performed 5 approved landings with a TL technique and thereafter 5 approved landing using PL. Results. A significant increase of vGRF was found with TL compared to PL within all groups (p ≤ 0.05). Reduced time to peak force and increased avgRFD was found in TL compared to PL across all groups (p = 0.01) with the exception of 25-50o (p = 0.27 for time to peak force and p = 0.73 for avgRFD). Conclusion. The results of current study shows that PL reduces vGRF, time to peak force and avgRFD compared to TL in recreationally trained individuals. The results varied when compared between knee flexion groups, however results shows that 50-75o seems to be the more optimal range of knee flexion in terms of reducing ground reaction forces.

  • 5.
    Bergqvist, Mathias
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Hip strength in Swedish soldiers: A correlation study between gluteus medius muscle strength and development of valgus during 2000 meter run with external load2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 6.
    Björk, Julia
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    The effect of a weight lifting belt and the use of valsalva maneuver on power output and velocity in a squat2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A squat is a common exercise that is used in many areas of strength training and for different purposes and the literature is inconclusive when it comes to whether the weight lifting belt (WB) affects performance and/or is injury-preventing. The use of breathing techniques is common during heavy lifting and therefore the practice of the breathing teqnice; valsalva maneuver (VM) may be of interest to study and if this along with the WB can provide some advantages in power output and velocity. Aim: The specific aim of the study was to evaluate whether the velocity in the eccentric and the concentric phase of the squat, and the peak velocity in the concentric phases are affected in power output through the use of the VM when the subjects use or did not use a WB. Method: Fifteen subjects (10 men and 5 women) volunteered freely to participate and did a total of 12 squats divided in four different sets with three repetitions each on 75% of their self-reported one repetition maximum (1RM). The first two sets were either with or without WB and the third and fourth sets were either with or without the practice of the VM. The three conditions (with WB, with WB + VM and VA only) were compared to each other and to the control group (without any instructions and no WB) in terms of power output and velocity in the eccentric, concentric and peak velocity in the concentric phase of the squat. Result: There was no significant difference in power output when comparing the four different test conditions. The velocity in the eccentric, concentric and peak velocity in the concentric phase did not have a significant difference between the different test conditions. Conclusions: This study shows a different output compared to previous literature. The WB and the practice of VM did not affect the power output and velocity in a squat, alone or together. 

  • 7.
    Björk, Julia
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Upper- & lower body strength and its correlation to performance in swimming2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To learn how to swim with proper technique takes fairly large amount of time and practice to learn and anelite swimmer spends 6-7 days training for improving aerobic capacity, anaerobic capacity and strength training for energy saving technique. Freestyle is the fastest swimming style and is performed in many different distances, 50m is classified as a sprint and the 400m as a middle-distance. The research is inconclusive if there is a correlation in the lower body and the time in 50m and 400m and mostly in the middle distance which gives this study the importance reducing these uncertainties. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the strength of the correlation between the upper- and lower body muscle strengthwith time in 50m and 400m freestyle and to analyze which of the variables of height, sex, upper- and lower body strength contribute to velocity in sprint and middle distance in competitive swimmers. Method:A total of 14 participants (3 men and 11 women) participated in the study. The participants were tested at three occasions. The first was to determine their three-repetition maximum (3RM) in the squat and lat-pulldown. The second occasion was the collection the time in 50m freestyle and the third was to collect the time in 400m freestyle. Relative strength (kg/kg BW; %) and absolute strength (kg) in 1RM was calculated and correlated with the time in 50m and 400m freestyle. Analysis was done to see which variables of height, sex, relative strength in the squat and lat-pulldown contribute the most to the time in freestyle. Result: The result show that there was a high correlation between the absolute strength in the squat and the time in 50m (r=-0.769) a moderate correlation in the absolute strength in lat-pulldown and the 50m freestyle sprint (r=-0.513). There was also a moderate correlation for the relative strength in the lat-pulldown and 50m freestyle (r=-0.599). The 400m correlate with the relative strength in both lat-pulldown(r=-0.563) and the squat (r=-0.555). The lat-pulldown contributed most to the time in 50m freestyle as well as the male sex. Conclusions: The absolute strength in the squat had a high correlation to the time in 50m freestyle swim. The 400m there was a moderate correlation to the relative strength in the squat and lat-pulldown showing that for the overall performance in middle-distance the relative strength has the advantage over absolute strength. The relative and absolute strength in upper body correlated to both 50m and 400m freestyle and could therefore strengthen the importance of upper body strength in sprint and middle distance as previous researchers has stated. The upper body strength is the best predictor of time in 50m.

  • 8.
    Boon, Hanneke
    et al.
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section for Integrative Physiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sjögren, Rasmus J.O.
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section for Integrative Physiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Massart, Julie
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section for Integrative Physiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Egan, Brendan
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section for Integrative Physiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kostovski, Emil
    Section for Spinal Cord Injury, Sunnaas Rehabilitation Hospital, Nesoddtangen, Norway; Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway & Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Iversen, Per Ole
    Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway & Department of Hematology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
    Hjeltnes, Nils
    Section for Spinal Cord Injury, Sunnaas Rehabilitation Hospital, Nesoddtangen, Norway.
    Chibalin, Alexander V
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section for Integrative Physiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Widegren, Ulrika
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section for Integrative Physiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zierath, Juleen R.
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section for Integrative Physiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    MicroRNA-208b progressively declines after spinal cord injury in humans and is inversely related to myostatin expression2015In: Physiological Reports, E-ISSN 2051-817X, Vol. 3, no 11, article id e12622Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of long‐term physical inactivity on the expression of microRNAs involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass in humans are largely unknown. MicroRNAs are short, noncoding RNAs that fine‐tune target expression through mRNA degradation or by inhibiting protein translation. Intronic to the slow, type I, muscle fiber type genes MYH7 and MYH7b, microRNA‐208b and microRNA‐499‐5p are thought to fine‐tune the expression of genes important for muscle growth, such as myostatin. Spinal cord injured humans are characterized by both skeletal muscle atrophy and transformation toward fast‐twitch, type II fibers. We determined the expression of microRNA‐208b, microRNA‐499‐5p, and myostatin in human skeletal muscle after complete cervical spinal cord injury. We also determined whether these microRNAs altered myostatin expression in rodent skeletal muscle. A progressive decline in skeletal muscle microRNA‐208b and microRNA‐499‐5p expression occurred in humans during the first year after spinal cord injury and with long‐standing spinal cord injury. Expression of myostatin was inversely correlated with microRNA‐208b and microRNA‐499‐5p in human skeletal muscle after spinal cord injury. Overexpression of microRNA‐208b in intact mouse skeletal muscle decreased myostatin expression, whereas microRNA‐499‐5p was without effect. In conclusion, we provide evidence for an inverse relationship between expression of microRNA‐208b and its previously validated target myostatin in humans with severe skeletal muscle atrophy. Moreover, we provide direct evidence that microRNA‐208b overexpression decreases myostatin gene expression in intact rodent muscle. Our results implicate that microRNA‐208b modulates myostatin expression and this may play a role in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass following spinal cord injury. © 2015 The Authors

  • 9.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Olsson, M Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Bengtsson, Oscar
    Petersson, Johan
    Maximal strength in one leg squat correlates with acceleration capacity and agility2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: In many intermittent team sports capacities such as speed, agility and explosiveness are important for performance and are evaluated by sprint-, agility- and strength tests. Earlier studies have shown strong correlations between strength in the two leg squat exercise and sprint performance in various distances but not in sprint performance in agility. Studies evaluating squat strength predominantly perform tests on two legs even when they test athletes involved in intermittent sports where sprinting and agility are common features. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between maximal strength in a one leg squat (Bulgarian split squat) and acceleration capacity in various sprint distances and agility.

    METHODS: The test group consisted of 19 men (mean age 24 ± 2 years ) with experience in intermittent team sports. Acceleration capacity was assessed by sprint tests at 5, 10 and 20 meters and agility was evaluated using the zigzag agility test. The timing was made using photocells (Muscle lab,Ergotest Technology,Norway). The Bulgarian split squat was performed in a smith machine with the barbell on the shoulders to a depth of 110 degrees between tibia and femur.

    RESULTS: The results show significant correlation between maximal strength in the Bulgarian split squat and sprint capacity in the 5 and 10 meter sprint test (Rp= -0,56; p<0.01) as well as the agility test. Maximal strength relative to bodyweight showed significant correlation with the 5 and 20 meter sprint (Rp=-0,62; p< 0,01) as well as the agility test. The zigzag agility test also showed significant correlation between all distances in the sprint tests (p<0.01).

    CONCLUSION: The results from this study show that there maximal strength in one leg correlate significantly with both acceleration capacity and agility. Implementing one leg exercises in the strength and conditioning routine can be useful for athletes in intermittent sports wanting to improve agility and short sprinting capacity. Further implications is that the Bulgarian split squat could be a more functional test for agility performance than the squat on two legs which  predominantly is being used today.

  • 10.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Olsson, M Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Westerberg, Martin
    Maximal multiple repetitions in free weight strength training with different bar sizes2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: An individual’s grip strength is vital for performance of physical demanding tasks such as give some other example here? As well as strength training with free weights. Performing strength training with a thicker grip around the bar may enhance the strength of the grip in the athlete without other special routines for grip strength development. The purpose of this study was a) to examine the difference in performance in multiple repetitions in two strength training exercises using two different sizes on the bar, b) to investigate correlations between hand grip strength and the amount of repetitions performed with two different sizes of the  bar and c) to correlate hand size with the amount of performed repetitions with two different bar sizes.

    METHODS: Fifteen male participants (24 ± 4 years) with at least one year of strength training experience performed bench press and a prone lying rowing exercise with two different bar sizes (normal Olympic lifting bar with and with out Fat Gripz™). The participants performed test of maximal number of repetitions at a level of 80% of one repetition maximum (1RM), hand size was measured as well as maximum grip strength (using JAMAR).

    RESULTS: The use of a thicker diameter bar resulted in 22 % (p<0.01) reduction of weight performance in number of performed repetitions in the bench press compared to the normal diameter of the bar.  When performing lying bench row a 66 % (p<0.01) reduction in number of performed repetitions was seen with the thicker diameter of the bar. There was no significant correlation between hand size and the submaximal strength test (rp = 0,33 ; p = 0,23) or grip strength and submaximal strength test (rp = 0,31 ; p = 0,27).

    CONCLUSION: The results from this study indicated that the size of the bar diameter influences the performance in maximal number of repetitions in a prone lying rowing exercise and bench press.  Further studies have to be done to analyses the effect of strength training with thicker bar.

     

  • 11.
    Cato, Hampus
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Correlation Between 3000-meter Running Performance, Yo-Yo IR1 & Submaximal Treadmill Jogging Test2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Physiologic functional capacity through maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max) can be measured in many different ways depending on sport and qualities needed to be assessed.In handball a demanding 3000 meter (m) running test is used to evaluate V̇O2max. If this test is sport specific or if it could be replaced by a less strenuous test is unknown. Aim: The aim ofthis study was to compare performance on 3000-meter running with predicted V̇O2max from a submaximal treadmill jogging test (SMTJ) and performance of the Yo-Yo intermittentrecovery test 1 (IR1). Methods: Male handball players (n = 12) performed the 3000 m running test, the Submaximal Treadmill Jogging test and the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery test level 1. Measurements in seconds (s), ml ∙ kg-1 ∙ min-1 and meters where collected and correlated using Pearson r, interclass correlation. Results: A strong significant linear correlation (p < 0.01) was found between performance in 3000 m running (s) and Yo-Yo IR1 performance (m), r = - 0.724 (r2 = 0.524). A weak, not significant linear correlation (p > 0.05)was found between performance in 3000 m running (s) and predicted V̇O2max from submaximal treadmill test (ml ∙ kg-1 ∙ min-1), r = - 0.309 (r2 = 0.095). Conclusion: According to this study the 3000 m running test could be replaced by the Yo-Yo IR1 test or vice versa in adolescent male handball players. The submaximal treadmill test used in this study had several potential errors in estimating V̇O2max, this is probably the reason why only a weak correlation was found between the SMTJ and the 3000 m running test.

  • 12.
    Engberg, Amanda
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    The effect of load carriage on aerobic capacity and ventilatory threshold in Swedish soldiers2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Working within the military as a ground combat solider is very physically demanding. Soldiers are required to handle situations ranging from peacekeeping to counterinsurgency and combat, while faced with the task of load carriage either in form of the military gear or other additional loads. Therefore, a good aerobic and anaerobic fitness is necessary. The aerobic and anaerobic fitness can be assessed with a wide range is methods such as measuring the peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), ventilator threshold, blood lactate concentration and heart rate. However research is rather spares regarding the effects of load carriage on the aerobic capacity.

    Aim: The aim of the current study was to investigate if military gear affects VO2peak, ventilatory threshold, blood lactate concentration and heart rate in ground combat soldiers.

    Methods: A total of eight soldiers (seven men and one woman) participated in the current study. All participants completed two biological calibrations and VO2max tests (one without and one with military gear) using a modified Bruce protocol, where VO2 (L/min), absolute and relative VO2peck (L/min and ml/kg/min respectively), heart rate (beats/min) and blood lactate concentration (mM/L) were assessed. After the completion of the tests, the soldier’s individual ventilatory threshold (VT) was visually located using the V-slope method. The Wilcoxon test was used for the not normally distributed variables (blood lactate concentration and stage when VT occurred) and the paired sample t-test for the others. The significance level was set to 0.05.

    Results: The results showed that the soldier had 10.6 % lower absolute VO2peak and 23.7 % lower relative VO2peak while wearing military gear compared to without (p=0.002 and p=0.001 respectively). The soldiers also had 11.8 % higher VO2 at VT with military gear (p=0.003) and reached a higher percentage of the VO2peak (p=0.023) at VT. The blood lactate concentration was significantly higher when marching at 5.4 km/h and a trend of a higher blood lactate concentration while standing was observed without military gear compared to with military gear.

    Conclusion: The findings from the present study shows that performing load carriage in form of the military gear significantly decreased the VO2peak. Wearing a military gear also increased the VO2 at the individual VT and made the soldier reach a higher percentage of the VO2peak at VT. These results can act as guidance when recruiting and training soldiers, along with providing important information to other professions and sports that involve load carriage. 

  • 13.
    Engberg, Amanda
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    The weight lifting belt’s impact on power output, velocity and range of motion in a squat2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background: Using a weight lifting belt when performing a variety of resistance exercises is becoming more and more common. The purpose of using a weight lifting belt is its supposed ability to reduce compressive forces on the lumbar spine and enhancement of athletic performance. Although the weight lifting belt has been proven to increase the intra abdominal pressure that helps reduces the shear forces during a squat, little is known about the weight lifting belts effect on the performance.

    Studies have suggested that wearing a weight lifting belt during a squat can increase the vertical velocity and range of motion. Few studies have focused on the power output, but improvements have been seen while wearing a weight lifting belt when performing a deadlift. Variables such as power, velocity and range of motion are of importance for an athlete when making individual training plans as well as measuring the progress. Therefore more research is needed to identify the actual influence of the weight lifting belt on the performance.

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to examine if weight lifting belts have an impact on an athletes ability to develop power, velocity or improve range of motion in a squat.

    Methods: Fifteen healthy men and women familiar with the squat exercise participated in the study. During the study they performed six repetitions of the squat divided into two sets, one set without a weight lifting belt and one with a weight lifting belt. Power and velocity were measured during every squat with a linear encoder and videotapes were made to later calculate the angles in the hip- and knee joints at the lowest position of the exercise.

    Results: No significant differences were found in power (p = 0.25) or concentric and eccentric velocity (p = 0.61, p = 0.16) with or without a weight lifting belt. Range of motion in the knee joint was greater when not wearing a weight lifting belt (p = 0.03), but no differences in the hip angles were found (p = 0.70).

    Conclusion: The result from the current study shows that when performing a squat the weight lifting belt has little to no effect on power, velocity or range of motion. Although a noticeable change in range of motion of the knee joint were observed, further studies on larger populations are needed to determine if it is of clinical value. 

  • 14.
    Forsström, Jonas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Svensson, Robert
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Periodisk fasta i kombination med styrketräning ökar muskelmassa och minskar fettvikt hos yngre vuxna2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background: Today's sedentary lifestyle with increased intake of energy giving substances results in a constant anabolic hormonal onset. This leads to increased obesity and other lifestyle diseases. It is recommended that individuals adhere to a high meal frequency at regular intervals throughout the day. This has been questioned with competing alternatives involving a former lifestyle as long as 10 000 years ago, when the meal frequency could not be planned in the same way as today.

    Objective: To investigate the effects of two 24 - hour periodic total restriction of consumption of energy giving substances, with the implementation of physical strength training and its effect on lean body mass (LBM) and fat mass in young individuals.

    Method: Two 24 hour periods of intermittent fasting in combination to three separate weight training sessions took place weekly for seven weeks. Body measurements involving body fat percentage, fat mass in kilograms (kg), body perimeters in centimeters (cm), LBM and total body weight in kg was measured before and after the study. Seven participants completed the study. The group included two men and five women (n = 7).

    Results: All participants increased their LBM, the mean increase was 1.3 kg. The largest increase was 2.6 kg, and was found among two of the participants. All participants reduced their body fat percentage. The highest reduction was 4.8 %, the lowest reduction was 1 %. The average decrease in fat weight was 2 kg. The largest reduction in fat weight was 4.2 kg, and the lowest reduction was 0.64 kg.

    Conclusion: Intermittent fasting during two separate 24-hour periods per week can serve as a tool in reducing body fat / fat mass while increasing muscle mass if done in combination with weight training three times during the same week. This finding questions the earlier research and claims about the importance of maintaining a consistently high meal frequency.

  • 15.
    Hedin, Dennis
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Relationships of pain experience and aerobic capacity in individuals with chronic pain2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Chronic pain is defined as pain for at least 3 months and is highly prevalent in society (10-30%). Individuals with chronic pain are more sensitive to pressure pain and have a disturbed pain perception. Physical activity (PA) has been shown to be a helpful method to treat and decrease disability in these individuals, but the knowledge about the relationship between chronic pain, PA and aerobic capacity is less understood. The aim of this study was to investigate if pain experience is associated with aerobic capacity and physical activity in a population with chronic pain in comparison to a pain free reference group.

    Method: 146 men and women between 40 and 70 years old participated. Pressure pain sensitivity was measured with an Algometer on eight points and aerobic capacity was measured with Ekblom-Bak submaximal test on a bicycle ergometer. A questionnaire was used to gather information about self-reported PA, pain regions and fear-avoidance.

    Result: Individuals with chronic pain had significantly lower pain thresholds (p=0.028) and higher fear-avoidance score (p=0.001), but no difference in aerobic capacity compared to pain-free individuals (p=0.344). Women had lower thresholds compared to men in both chronic pain and pain-free group (p<0.001 and p=0.008). There were no association between aerobic capacity and self-reported moderate PA (r=0.001) or in vigorous PA (r=0.173). Low VO2max has more pain regions (p=0.017) and lower pain thresholds (p=0.001) compared with high VO2max, but no difference in fear-avoidance score (p=0.234).

    Conclusion: Individuals with chronic pain had a higher sensitivity to pressure pain and a higher fear-avoidance compared to pain-free individuals, but no difference in aerobic capacity. There were no associations between self-reported PA and aerobic capacity, and individuals with low VO2max had more pain regions and lower pain thresholds compared with individuals with high VO2max, but no differences in fear-avoidance was found.

  • 16.
    Horwath, Oscar
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Paulsen, Gøran
    The Norwegian Olympic and Paralympic Committee and Confederation of Sports, Oslo, Norway & Department of Physical Performance, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Esping, Tobias
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Seynnes, Olivier
    Department of Physical Performance, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Olsson, M. Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Isokinetic resistance training combined with eccentric overload improves athletic performance and induces muscle hypertrophy in young ice hockey players.2019In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, ISSN 1440-2440, E-ISSN 1878-1861, Vol. 22, no 7, p. 821-826Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the combined effects of slow isokinetic resistance training and eccentric overload and compare it to traditional resistance training on strength, power, body composition and muscle hypertrophy in young ice hockey players.

    DESIGN: Experimental, randomized trial.

    METHODS: Twenty-two resistance-trained ice hockey players (18±1year) were assigned to either isokinetic resistance training and eccentric overload (ISO/ECC; n=11) or traditional resistance training (TRAD; n=11). Participants underwent supervised progressive resistance training for 8 weeks (2-3 sessions/week) involving lower body multiple-joint exercises (heavy squats and explosive jump squats). The ISO/ECC group performed their training using a computerized robotic engine system (1080 Quantum synchro, Sweden), whereas the TRAD group performed the same resistance exercises with isotonic loading. Before and after the intervention, participants were evaluated in 1RM back squat, loaded jump squats, sprint- and jump performance, body composition and muscle thickness using ultrasound measurement.

    RESULTS: Similar moderate increases in 1RM back squat and power output in the jump squats were found in both the ISO/ECC and TRAD groups (11-17%, P<0.01), whereas only the ISO/ECC group showed improvements in drop jump performance (9.8%, P=0.01). Moreover, similar trivial changes in body composition were observed in both groups, while only the ISO/ECC training group increased muscle thickness in the vastus intermedius (P=0.01) and rectus femoris muscles (P=0.03).

    CONCLUSIONS: Both modalities effectively increased maximal strength and power output, whereas isokinetic resistance training, combined with eccentric overload, improved drop jump performance and induced greater muscle hypertrophy than traditional training in young ice hockey players. © 2019 Sports Medicine Australia

  • 17.
    Häggblom, Jenny
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Do Compression Garment Maintain Muscular Power from a Strenuous Exercise Session?: A randomized controlled trial2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background Compression garments have gained interest over the past ten years, especially when investigating the recovery from a strenuous strength session. Since compression garments have increased in popularity over the past years, scientific results regarding possible benefits are still lacking. 

     

    Aim The aim of the current study was to investigate the recovery from an eccentric exercise session with regards to physiological performance and perceived feelings of muscle soreness, fatigue and recovery in recreational athletes after wearing customized compression garments for 24-hours.

     

    Method Thirteen recreational athletes (age 24.7±4.0 years (mean ± SD), length 171.3±7.0 cm, weight 70.8±9.4 kg), participated in this randomized crossover designed study. After a familiarization trial, participants completed two rounds of testing and exercise in both a control (CON) and a compression condition (CG). Garments were worn for 24-hours post exercise in the compression condition whereas regular clothing were used in the control condition. Performance variables of Wingate Anaerobic cycle Test, agility t-test and broad jump were assessed as well as subjective feelings of muscle soreness, both at baseline and 24-hours post a lower body eccentric exercise session.

     

    Results Muscle soreness was significantly higher 24 hours post recovery (p=0.02) compared to baseline but no difference was seen between groups (p>0.05). There was a significant difference in perceived recovery (increased in CG, p=0.012) and fatigue (increased in CON, p=0.04) between conditions 24-hours post recovery. Physiological performance measured with Wingate, agility t-test and broad jumps were not different among either group or time (p>0.05). Perceived sleep quality was not different from pre-workout or between groups (p>0.05).

     

    Conclusion Based on our findings in the current study, there seems to be no physiological benefit in performance 24-hours after wearing customized compression garments compared to a control condition. However, there seems to be a psychological benefit from wearing the garments with a reduced feeling of fatigue and an improved recovery

  • 18.
    Ivarsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Helgesson, Fredrik
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Stein, Tobias
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Fotbollsskador hos manliga amatörspelare i Halland säsongen 2009: En jämförelse mellan division två, tre och fyra2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Fotboll är en intressant idrott att utforska ur skadeperspektiv då det är en av de mest skadedrabbade idrotterna. Fotbollsskador uppkommer antingen akut eller över tid och åtskiljs beroende om de inträffar under träning eller match. Tidigare studier av elitspelare visar att skador främst inträffar under match i form av akuta skador. De visar också att överbelastningsskador är mer träningsrelaterade och att flertalet av dem inträffar under försäsongen. Skadeincidensen beskrivs i antalet skador per 1000 tränings- respektive matchtimmar. Elitnivå har högre incidens än amatörnivå, framförallt under match. Sextio till nittio procent av alla skador drabbar nedre extremitet. Studier visar att de mest skadedrabbade kroppsdelarna är knän, lår och fotleder men även att ljumsk- och vadskador ofta förekommer.

    Syftet med studien var att jämföra olika divisioner inom den manliga amatörfotbollen, för att se hur spelnivån kan inverka på skadebilden. Undersökningen avsåg säsongen 2009 och genomfördes i Halland med spelare från division två, tre och fyra involverade. En enkät användes för att samla in information om spelarnas skadehistorik. Totalt inkluderades 79 spelare i undersökningen och av dessa var 39 skadade och tillsammans hade de 49 skador. Vid beräkning av konfidensintervall för samtliga enkätsvar framkom inga signifikanta skillnader mellan divisionerna. Sextioen procent av skadorna var akuta och 39 % överbelastningsskador. De akuta skadorna var vanligast i division två och tre medan överbelastningsskador var vanligast i division fyra. Den totala skadeincidensen var 7,92 per 1000 matchtimmar och 2,92 per 1000 träningstimmar. Division tre hade högst skadeincidens för match med 10,63 skador och division fyra hade högst skadeincidens för träning med 4,09 skador. Av alla skador resulterade 30,6 % i en frånvaro mellan 1-7 dagar, 32,7 % mellan 8-28 dagar och 36,7 % mer än 28 dagar. Skadorna var främst lokaliserade till knä, lår och fot. Mittfältare var mest skadedrabbade följt av försvarare, anfallare och målvakter. I division två och fyra inträffade skadorna främst under för- och vårsäsongen medan det i division tre var vanligast med skador under höstsäsongen.

  • 19.
    Kadi, Fawzi
    et al.
    Department of Physical Education and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Camilla
    Institute of Physiology and Pharmacology, Department of Physiology, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Larsson, Britt
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Jennie
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Larval, Maria
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Billig, Håkan
    Institute of Physiology and Pharmacology, Department of Physiology, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET). Institute of Physiology and Pharmacology, Department of Physiology, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    The effects of physical activity and estrogen treatment on rat fast and slow skeletal muscles following ovariectomy2002In: Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility, ISSN 0142-4319, E-ISSN 1573-2657, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 335-339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decreased estrogen production is associated with changes in the skeletal, cardiovascular and muscular systems. At the level of skeletal muscles, it has been shown that a reduction in force production occurs at menopause but the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of ovariectomy on myosin heavy chain (MyHC) composition. Additionally, we studied the effects of physical activity and the combined effects of physical activity and estrogen treatment on MyHC content in ovariectomised (OX) animals. Twenty-five rats were randomly assigned to five different groups: controls, runners, OX, ovariectomised runners and ovariectomised runners receiving estrogen. Exercise consisted of voluntary running for 5 weeks. Two muscles were analysed: m. extensor digitorum longus, EDL, (fast muscle) and m. soleus (slow muscle). MyHC content was analysed on 8% gel electrophoresis. The level of running activity is reduced in OX animals and estrogen administration is associated with the normalisation of the level of physical activity. Ovariectomy induces a shift from fast to slow MyHC isoforms in both the soleus and EDL. When OX animals are allowed to run, alterations in MyHC isoforms are still observed in the EDL but not in the soleus. When physical activity is combined with estrogen treatment no alterations are observed in both muscles. In conclusion, this study shows that ovariectomy induces alterations in the contractile properties of skeletal muscles and that physical activity in combination with estrogen treatment are associated with the maintenance of slow and fast muscle characteristics.

  • 20.
    Kowalik, Raph
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    A review of surface Electromyography used to determine sincerity of effort in Functional Capacity Evaluations2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 21.
    Kroos, G.
    et al.
    Dept. of Exercise and Sport Sciences, Univ. of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Hansen, A
    Dept. of Exercise and Sport Sciences, Univ. of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Hanskov, D J A
    Dept. of Exercise and Sport Sciences, Univ. of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Olsson, M Charlotte
    Dept. of Exercise and Sport Sciences, Univ. of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Olsen, K.
    Dept. of Exercise and Sport Sciences, Univ. of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Hellsten, Y.
    Dept. of Exercise and Sport Sciences, Univ. of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Gene expression of angiogenic factors in muscle tissue during age-related development of hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats2008In: Abstracts 25th Conference of the European Society for Microcirculation: Integrating Vascular Biology and Medicine: Basic and Clinical Science / [ed] Akos Koller, Basel: S. Karger, 2008, Vol. 45, p. 120-120Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Essential hypertension has been associated with capillary rarefaction but little is known about the cellular mechanisms underlying this process. We examined the gene expression of angiogenic factors during age-related development of hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Wild-type Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats served as controls. White gastrocnemius muscle was obtained and blood pressure was monitored at 5, 10 and 15 weeks of age. In the SHR group, systolic blood pressure increased from 5 to 10 and 15 weeks of age and the levels were higher than in the WKY group at 10 and 15 weeks (~70%; P<0.05). The mRNA content for MMP-2 was overall lower (P<0.05) in SHR compared to WKY. VEGFmRNA increased (p<0.05) from 5 to 10 weeks in SHR and there was a general increase (P<0.05) in the VEGF receptor flt-1. There was a trend for a lower content of eNOS and CYP 2C11 in the SHR than in WKY group. There were no alterations in the mRNA content of KDR, AMP 5'- nucleotidase, or Cytochrome P450 4A. The results show that the age-related development of hypertension from 5 to 15 weeks in SHR rats is not associated with major changes in mRNA content of the herein included angiogenic factors.

  • 22.
    Larsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Swedish Armed Forces, Eksjö, Sweden.
    Olsson, M. Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Denker, Magnus
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden .
    Self-rated physical work demands for ground combat soldiers2018In: PES 2018: 3rd International Conference on Physical Employment Standards, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Marx, James O
    et al.
    Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, United States.
    Olsson, M Charlotte
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Uppsala University Hospital, 751 85 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Larsson, Lars
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Uppsala University Hospital, 751 85, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Scaling of skeletal muscle shortening velocity in mammals representing a 100,000-fold difference in body size2006In: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology, ISSN 0031-6768, E-ISSN 1432-2013, Vol. 452, no 2, p. 222-230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To fully understand the effect of scaling on skeletal muscle shortening velocity (V 0), it is important to know which phenotypic characteristics drive the changes between species. The purpose of the current investigation was to compare the effects of body mass and femur length, as an estimate of total limb length, on V 0 in species that cover a 100,000-fold range of body masses. Using the slack test procedure, V 0 was determined for fibers expressing types I and IIa myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms in the mouse, rat, dog, human, horse, and rhinoceros under identical experimental conditions. A significant scaling effect on V 0 was detected when compared to body mass (type I fibers, r=0.95, p<0.01; type IIa fibers, r=0.83, p<0.05). However, the horse's V 0 for both fiber types was faster than the human's, despite having a 5-fold greater body mass than the human. When V 0 was scaled vs limb length, the strength of the relationships improved in fibers expressing both types I and IIa MyHC (r=0.98, p<0.001, and r=0.89, p<0.05, respectively) and scaled with the expected relationship, with the species with the shorter femur, the horse, having the faster V 0. A similar effect can be seen with stride frequency scaling more closely with limb length than body mass. These results suggest that limb length, not body mass, is a more relevant factor driving the scaling effect on skeletal muscle shortening velocity.

  • 24.
    Möller, Malin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Sander, Erik
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Effekt av olika stretchmetoder på agility och rörlighet hos elitinnebandyspelare2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In many sports such as floor ball static stretching (SS) is commonly used as part of the warm up to increase performance even though SS has shown to have a negative impact on activities involving strength, power, sprint and agility.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate if different stretching methods SS, dynamic stretching (DS) and no stretching (IS) as a part of the warm up affected agility and/or flexibility (ROM) of the hamstring in male elite floor ball players and if the possible effect lasted up to 10 minutes in the test occasion.

    Methods: At three different days the different stretching methods (SS, DS and IS) were tested after warm up. The three stretching methods were performed at every test occasion in a randomized order on three different test groups. Agility and flexibility were tested with T-test (s) and passive straight leg raise (o) at 0 min, 5 min and 10 min after warm up. A total of 9 subjects completed the study.

    Results: At both 0 min and 5 min after completed stretching the best time on T-test (s) was performed after DS (10,20 ± 0,98 and 9,92 ± 0,49). At 10 min the best time was performed after IS (9,68 ± 0,16). No significant difference between the different stretching methods and T-test was found at neither 0 min (p = 0,93), 5 min (p = 0,90) nor 10 min (p = 0,29). At both 0 min and 5 min after completed stretching the highest values on ROM (o) was measured after SS (73,56 ± 5,79 and 71,67 ± 7,12). At 10 min highest value was measured after DS (73,44 ± 8,75 ). No significant difference between the different stretching methods and ROM was found at neither 0 min 0 min (p = 0,92), 5 min (p = 0,94) nor 10 min (p = 0,71).

    Conclusion: The results of this study lack significance but show a weak trend that SS possibly could impair agility but increase flexibility in hamstring and that the performance impairment gradually stagnates. However both DS and IS gave equal or better results on T-test in comparison to SS and with that in mind SS should be performed at a separate occasion or adjacent to the end of the activity.

  • 25.
    Nyman, Kim
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Effekten av styrketräning och energiunderskott på viktminskning hos nybörjarmotionärer2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Effekten av styrketräning och energiunderskott på viktminskning hos nybörjarmotionärer.

    Till dagens datum råder ingen strategi för hur fettförlusten kan maximeras och muskelförlusten minimeras (Katzeff et al, 1995). Lockwood (2008) visar att 50 % av individer som endast använder kostrestriktioner återfår sin ursprungliga vikt igen. Kraemer & Ratamess (2008) visar att regelbunden träning som involverar stora som små muskelgrupper i samma pass frigör mest anabola hormoner. Muskler offras av kroppen eftersom de tar energi och de kan ge energi via glukoneogenes för att ex. jaga byten. I dagens samhälle signalerar stressen ett konstant frigörande av kortisol vilket har en negativ påverkan på bl.a. muskler. Detta hormonpåslag har förstärkts i samband med energiunderskott.

    Är det möjligt att öka styrka med energiunderskott hos nybörjarmotionärer om protein tillförs för optimal kompenseringseffekt efter träningspass?

     4 av 6 överviktiga nybörjarmotionärer genomgick 8 veckor lång träningsperiod med betoning på hypertrofi, energiunderskott och mattiming i denna pilotstudie. 1RM tester har utförts på benpress i maskin, bröstmaskin samt sittande rodd med smalt grepp. Vilopuls har även tagits manuellt på morgonen av varje deltagare vid två tillfällen, före och efter träningsperioden. Testledare har tagit kroppsmått över byst, midja, rumpa samt vardera låren som utvärdering från energiunderskottet. Energiunderskottet har uppskattats till 500 kcal mindre än bibehållandet av ursprunglig vikt.

    Alla deltagare har ökat sina styrkeresultat och minskat alla kroppsmått. En person har någon extra centimeter kring låren, men kan tyda på hypertrofi. Inga signifikans test har utförts.

    BMI har minskat på alla deltagare medan kcalvärde har ökat för varje deltagare enligt BIA våg.

    Ett mål har varit att öka den basala metabolismen i vila via större muskler. Det är främst en ökad fettförbränning som är fördelaktigt för målgruppen, vilket kan uppnås genom en ökad muskelmassa och kolhydratrestriktioner. Trots att pilotstudien har behandlat fysiskt inaktiva nybörjarmotionärer har hypertrofi uppnåtts även efter 4 veckors teknikträning för ökat antal aktiva motorenheter. Inga konkreta slutsatser kan ringas in på en pilotstudie, men positiva resultat har framkommit.

  • 26.
    Olsson, Charlotte M.
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Fälth, Jenny
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Ahlebrand, August
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Sex-Differences In Bench Press Muscle Activation With Pre-Exhaustion Of Triceps Brachii2018In: Conference Abstracts, 2018, p. 67-68Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Pre-exhaustion is a resistance training method which activates a stronger single-joint muscle to momentary exhaustion directly before a multi-joint exercise including the pre-exhausted muscle. This results in greater recruitment of muscles in the multi-joint exercise to further increase muscle strength. The pre-exhaustion method in bench press has mainly been studied in men and it is uncertain if sex-differences exists. Men are stronger than women in absolute strength, especially in the upper body but if this holds true for upper body relative strength is debated. The purpose was to investigate muscle activity by surface electromyography (EMG) between women and men in bench press with and without pre-exhaustion of triceps brachii (TB) and to compare relative strength in 10RM bench press between the sexes.

    Methods: 15 women and 15 men in their 20s with weight lifting experience were recruited to the study. During the first session body composition and 10 repetition maximum (10RM) bench press were determined Participants performed both protocol A and B in a cross-over design on separate days. Protocol A began with 10 RM bench press, five minutes recovery, pre-exhaustion exercise (triceps extensions to failure) immediately followed by a second round of bench press with the same 10RM load as before pre-exhaustion. Protocol B started with triceps extensions to failure immediately before bench press at their before established 10RM, five minutes of recovery then they performed 10RM bench press again. IN both protocols, EMG electrodes were attached to TB), pectoralis major (PM) and deltoideus anterior (DA). EMG values were normalized to maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) and expressed as % MVIC.

    Results: Bench press only EMG activity in %MVIC was similar between women and men, but analysis of variance (TB interaction p=0.02) showed that women had higher %MVIC in TB after pre-exhaustion whereas muscle activity decreased in men compared to bench press without pre-exhaustion. Yet, the number of repetitions completed in bench press after pre-exhaustion of TB were the same (women 4.3 ± 2.6 vs men 3.8 ± 2.2; p=0.55). As expected, in 10RM weight men (64.0 ± 7.1 kg) were stronger than women (37.1 ± 6.5 kg; p<0.01), however when related to fat free mass no difference was evident in relative strength between women and men.

    Conclusion: Men and women have similar muscle activation patterns during a 10RM bench press, but TB pre-exhaustion followed by a bench press appears to have a greater effect on TB activation in women compared to men. Absolute strength was greater in men, but normalized to fat free mass women and men had similar upper body relative strength.

  • 27.
    Olsson, M. Charlotte
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Fälth, Jenny
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Ahlebrand, August
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Sex-Differences In Bench Press Muscle Activation With Pre-Exhaustion Of Triceps Brachii2018In: Conference Abstracts, 2018, p. 67-68Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Olsson, M Charlotte
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Department of Neuroscience, Clinical Neurophysiology, Ing 85 3 tr., 751 85 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Krüger, Martina
    University of Münster, Physiology and Biophysics Unit, Schlossplatz 5, D-48149 Münster, Germany .
    Meyer, Lars-Henrik
    University of Münster, Physiology and Biophysics Unit, Schlossplatz 5, D-48149 Münster, Germany .
    Ahnlund, Lena
    Rehabilitation Medicine, 75185 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Gransberg, Lennart
    Uppsala University, Department of Neuroscience, Clinical Neurophysiology, Ing 85 3 tr., 751 85 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Linke, Wolfgang A
    University of Münster, Physiology and Biophysics Unit, Schlossplatz 5, D-48149 Münster, Germany.
    Larsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Department of Neuroscience, Clinical Neurophysiology, Ing 85 3 tr., 751 85 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Fibre type-specific increase in passive muscle tension in spinal cord-injured subjects with spasticity2006In: Journal of Physiology, ISSN 0022-3751, E-ISSN 1469-7793, Vol. 577, no 1, p. 339-352Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Olsson, M Charlotte
    et al.
    Department of Integrative Physiology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, United States.
    Palmer, B M
    Department of Integrative Physiology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, United States.
    Stauffer, B L
    Dept. Molec., Cell.,/Devmtl. Biol., University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, United States.
    Leinwand, L A
    Dept. Molec., Cell.,/Devmtl. Biol., University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, United States.
    Moore, R L
    Department of Integrative Physiology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, United States.
    Morphological and functional alterations in ventricular myocytes from male transgenic mice with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy2004In: Circulation Research, ISSN 0009-7330, E-ISSN 1524-4571, Vol. 94, no 2, p. 201-207Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Olsson, M Charlotte
    et al.
    Department of Physiology, Univ. Wisconsin Cardiovasc. Res. C., Univ. of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI 53706, United States.
    Patel, J R
    Department of Physiology, Univ. Wisconsin Cardiovasc. Res. C., Univ. of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI 53706, United States.
    Fitzsimons, D P
    Department of Physiology, Univ. Wisconsin Cardiovasc. Res. C., Univ. of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI 53706, United States.
    Walker, J W
    Department of Physiology, Univ. Wisconsin Cardiovasc. Res. C., Univ. of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI 53706, United States.
    Moss, R L
    Department of Physiology, Univ. Wisconsin Cardiovasc. Res. C., Univ. of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI 53706, United States.
    Basal myosin light chain phosphorylation is a determinant of Ca2+ sensitivity of force and activation dependence of the kinetics of myocardial force development2004In: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology, ISSN 0363-6135, E-ISSN 1522-1539, Vol. 287, no 6, p. H2712-H2718Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31. Ribbestam, Martin
    Trampfrekvensens inverkan på energetisk kostnad under submaximalt arbete på cykel: En litteraturstudie2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 32.
    Schmelz, M.
    et al.
    Department of Physiology and Experimental Pathophysiology, University of Erlangen/Nuremberg, D-91054 Erlangen, Germany; Department of Anesthesiology, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, 61087 Mannheim, Germany.
    Schmidt, R.
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University of Uppsala, S-75185 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Weidner, C.
    Department of Physiology and Experimental Pathophysiology, University of Erlangen/Nuremberg, D-91054 Erlangen, Germany.
    Hilliges, Marita
    Department of Basic Oral Sciences, Karolinska Institute, S-14104 Huddinge, Sweden.
    Torebjörk, H. E.
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University of Uppsala, S-75185 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Handwerker, Hermann Otto
    Department of Physiology and Experimental Pathophysiology, University of Erlangen/Nuremberg, D-91054 Erlangen, Germany.
    Chemical response pattern of different classes of C-nociceptors to pruritogens and algogens2003In: Journal of Neurophysiology, ISSN 0022-3077, E-ISSN 1522-1598, Vol. 89, no 5, p. 2441-2448Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vasoneuroactive substances were applied through intradermal microdialysis membranes and characterized as itch- or pain-inducing in psychophysical experiments. Histamine always provoked itching and rarely pain, capsaicin always pain but never itching. Prostaglandin E[2] (PGE[2]) led preferentially to moderate itching. Serotonin, acetylcholine, and bradykinin induced pain more often than itching. Subsequently the same substances were used in microneurography experiments to characterize the sensitivity profile of human cutaneous C-nociceptors. The responses of 89 mechanoresponsive (CMH, polymodal nociceptors), 52 mechanoinsensitive, histamine-negative (CMi[H][i][s][-]), and 24 mechanoinsensitive, histamine-positive (CMi[H][i][s][+]) units were compared. CMi[H][i][s][+] units were most responsive to histamine and to PGE[2] and less to serotonin, ACh, bradykinin, and capsaicin. CMH units (polymodal nociceptors) and CMi[H][i][s] units showed significantly weaker responses to histamine, PGE[2], and acetylcholine. Capsaicin and bradykinin responses were not significantly different in the two classes of mechano-insensitive units. We conclude that CMi[H][i][s][+]units are "selective," but not "specific" for pruritogenic substances and that the pruritic potency of a mediator increases with its ability to activate CMi[H][i][s][+] units but decreases with activation of CMH and CMi[H][i][s] units.

  • 33.
    Stelzer, J E
    et al.
    Department of Physiology, Univ. of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI 53706, United States.
    Patel, J R
    Department of Physiology, Univ. of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI 53706, United States.
    Olsson, M Charlotte
    Department of Physiology, Univ. of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI 53706, United States.
    Fitzsimons, D P
    Department of Physiology, Univ. of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI 53706, United States.
    Leinwand, L A
    Dept. Molec., Cell., Devmtl. Biol., University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, United States.
    Moss, R L
    Department of Physiology, Univ. of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI 53706, United States.
    Expression of cardiac troponin T with COOH-terminal truncation accelerates cross-bridge interaction kinetics in mouse myocardium2004In: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology, ISSN 0363-6135, E-ISSN 1522-1539, Vol. 287, no 4, p. H1756-H1761Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Sundström, Tomas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Ronkainen, Fanny
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Olsson, M. Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Five Weeks of Plyometric Training Improve Vertical Jump Height in Female Handball Players During In-Season2010In: Nordic Conference 2010: Abstracts / [ed] Karen Søgaard, Karsten Froberg & Mette Krogh Christensen, Odense: University of Southern Denmark , 2010, p. 112-113Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Handball is a sport requiring many different physical qualities in order to perform well, one of which is good jumping ability. For handball players available time to enhance power during in-season is often restricted due to an already high training load emphasizing other aspects of the sport than jumping ability. Therefore, one aim of this study was to examine if a small amount of additional plyometric training during in-season, combining drop jumps and box jumps, could give significant improvements in vertical jump height in female handball players after five weeks of training. Generally, vertical jump height is evaluated with two-legged tests, however, the question arises if the tests are relevant in sports that predominantly use several steps and one-leg jumps such as handball. A second aim of this study was thus to develop, evaluate and validate a handball-specific test performed on one leg.

    Methods: Two Swedish female handball-teams playing in the third division were recruited. Players from one team made up the intervention-group (n = 9) and players from the other team functioned as the control-group (n = 4). Plyometric training was added to the regular handball training session twice per week during five weeks, lasting approximately 15 minutes per session, consisting of two sets of eight repetitions of drop jumps and box jumps respectively, while the control-group continued their training as normal. Jumping performance was evaluated through the squat jump test (SJ), countermovement jump test (CMJ) and the handball-specific one leg jump test (OLJ) developed for this study in order to offer a more sport-specific evaluation tool when testing sports that predominantely jump on one leg.

    Results: The intervention-group improved their jumping height significantly with 2,7 cm in the SJ, 3,6cm in the CMJ and 3,6 cm in the OLJ (p < 0,01 for all). The control-group had an opposite trend with diminishing results in all three jumps, -1,5 cm in the SJ (p < 0,05), -1,7 cm in the CMJ (p < 0,05) and -0,9 cm in the OLJ (not significant). The one-legged jump test (OLJ) correlated well with both SJ (r= 0,79, p <0,01 ), and CMJ (r=0,75, p < 0,01).

    Discussion: The present study found significant improvements in jumping height after only five weeks of plyometric training for female handball players. Interestingly, the intervention-group improved to the same extent in both the one and the two-leg jumps test, which might be explained by the accumulation of handball specific training drills performed on one-leg, together with the two-legged plyometric exercises. The same assumption could also explain why the control-group showed no change in the one-leg jump test between the pre and post-tests, but displayed significant lower scores in the two-legged jumping tests after 5 weeks with only regular handball training.

    Conclusion: The improvements seen in this study with a small amount of additional plyometric training is relevant for coaches that need to provide gains in jumping performance during in-season when there is not a lot of time for additional training. Moreover, an evaluation test needs to be as specific as possible to the performance in the sport. The one-leg vertical jump test, developed in this study, could be a first step to a future handball-test that better resembles the jumping performance in handball than already established two-leg jumping tests.

  • 35.
    Sällström, Benjamin
    et al.
    Halmstad University. Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Kareliussén, Tobias
    Halmstad University. Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Hur påverkas muskelaktiviteten vid styrketräning med en tjock stång i jämförelse med en standardolympisk stång?: En EMG- studie2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Many everyday tasks and also many sports require good grip and forearm strength. Everything from carrying boxes and lifting a child to grab the arms and legs in various martial arts, or holding a tennis racket involving the hand and forearm muscles in various ways. It is therefore important to train these muscles to prevent injuries and congestion and to perform well in sport. A well known way to train functional strength in the hand and forearm muscles is weight training with thick handles. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in muscle activity in the upper arm and forearm muscles as well as the deltoids between two bars of different diameter (28mm and 57mm) in two different weight training exercises using electromyography (EMG). The weight training exercises consisted of a pulling exercise in the form of a bench row and a pressing exercise in the form of close-grip bench press. The study also examines whether there is a connection between hand strength and muscle activity, and if there is any connection between hand size and muscle activity. Results show that muscle activity between the thick bars remained unchanged in the close-grip bench press. In the bench row exercise, however, significant increases were seen in the forearm flexors and m. biceps brachii while lifting the thicker bar. The forearm extensors showed an indication of muscle activity increases while lifting the thicker bar. However, there was no connection between hand strength and muscle activity and no correlation between hand size and muscle activity. The conclusion is that the pulling exercise with the thicker bar results in higher muscle activity in comparison to a standard Olympic bar in several muscles involved, not just those directly affected by the thicker bar.

  • 36.
    Westerberg, Martin
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    MUSKULÄR STYRKA VID MULTIPLA REPETITIONER:: SKILLNADER VID STYRKETEST I BÄNKPRESS OCH LIGGANDE BÄNKRODD MED SKIVSTÄNGER AV OLIKA DIAMETEROMFÅNG2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: A complex interaction between muscles, tendons, bones, joints and nerves are required for optimal function of the human hand. It is known that an individual’s grip strength is vital for performance of physical demanding tasks such as strength training with free weights. Strength training including a thicker grip around the bar may enhance the strength of the grip in the athlete without other special routines for grip strength development. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the difference in performance in multiple repetitions in two strength training exercises using two different sizes on the bar, to look for correlations between grip strength of the subjects hand and the amount of repetitions executed with two different size of the bar and finally the correlation of hand size and the amount of repetitions executed with two different size of the bar.

    Method: 15 strength training men (23,9 ± 4,1 years), underwent measurements of hand size, maximum grip strength, 1 repetition maximum (1RM), a 80 % of 1RM weight strength test with two different  bar sizes.

    Results: The results from the present investigation indicates a 21,1 % reduction of 80 % of 1 RM weight performance in repetitions executed in the bench press with the thicker diameter of the bar and a 66,2 % reduction in repetitions executed with a 80 % of 1 RM weight in the lying bench row with the thicker diameter of the bar. The size of the hand or the maximum grip strength does not influences the performance in the 80 % of 1 RM strength test.

    Conclusion: With support of the results from this present investigation the size of the bar diameter significant influences the performance in maximum repetitions executed in a set in strength training with free weights, in a rowing exercise the repetitions executed reduced with 66,2 % and in the bench press the reduction of executed repetitions were 21,1 % with the thicker diameter of the bar. The size of the hand do not influences the performance of maximal executed repetitions with the thicker bar diameter. Maximal grip strength has no influence of the performance according to the findings of this investigation.

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