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  • 1.
    Averfalk, Helge
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Persson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Low‐temperature excess heat recovery in district heating systems: The potential of European Union metro stations2020In: Book of Abstracts: 6th International Conference on Smart Energy Systems / [ed] Henrik Lund, Brian Vad Mathiesen, Poul Alberg Østergaard & Hans Jørgen Brodersen, 2020, p. 34-34Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an assessment of the excess heat recovery potential from EU metro stations. The assessment is a sub-study on low temperature recovery opportunities, explored in the H2020 ReUseHeat project, and consists of spatial mapping of 1994 underground stations with quantitative estimates of sensible and latent heat, monthly and annually, attainable in rejected platform ventilation exhaust air. Being a low-temperature source, the assessment conceptually anticipates recovery of attainable heat with compressor heat pumps to facilitate the temperature increase necessary for utilisation in district heating systems. Further, the paper explores the influence on useful excess heat volumes from low-temperature heat recoveries when distributed at different temperature levels. The findings, which distinguishes available (resource) and accessible (useful) excess heat potentials, indicate an annual total EU28 available potential of ~21 PJ, characterised by a certain degree of seasonal temporality, and corresponding accessible potentials of ~40 PJ per year at 3rd generation distribution, and of ~31 PJ at anticipated 4th generation conditions. Despite lower accessible volumes, utilisation in 4th generation systems are naturally more energy efficient, since relatively less electricity is used in the recovery process, but also more cost-effective, since heat pumps, at lower temperatures, can be operated at capacities closer to design conditions and with less annual deviations.

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    Conference_presentation
  • 2.
    Dénarié, Alice
    et al.
    Energy Department, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy.
    Fattori, Fabrizio
    Energy Department, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy.
    Macchi, Samuel
    Energy Department, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy.
    Cirillo, Vincenzo Francesco
    Energy Department, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy.
    Motta, Mario
    Energy Department, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy.
    Persson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Assessment of renewable and waste heat recovery for DH through GIS mapping: the national potential in Italy2020In: Book of Abstracts: 6th International Conference on Smart Energy Systems / [ed] Henrik Lund, Brian Vad Mathiesen, Poul Alberg Østergaard & Hans Jørgen Brodersen, 2020, p. 129-129Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This work aims at showing the potential of waste and renewable heat recovery in Italy through detailed mapping of these sources. The ambition of this analysis is to highlight the areas with important heat recovery potential and to show how the matching with suitable heat demand would allow its exploitation through district heating expansion. The importance of waste heat and renewable heat potentially recoverable to reduce primary energy consumption in the civil sector is widely recognized. Nevertheless, these potential is widely unexploited in Italy. The processes and energy sources have been analysed in terms of geographical location, quantification of available heat and recovery costs with a special focus on temperature levels. The main distinction between low temperature and high temperature heat sources has been applied in order to identify the heat recovery characteristics and the consequent additional costs for temperature upgrades. The inputs of the analysis performed in this work come from national database, which has allowed obtaining more detailed and wider results with respect to international existing studies on the same subject. Two different approaches have been used to map potential heat: one to identify and quantify existing waste heat recovery and one to assess and estimate energy coming from potential new plants. The analysed sources belonging to the first category are industrial processes, waste to energy plants, waste water treatment plants and datacentres, while biomass, geothermal energy and electrolysis plants estimation belong to the second one. Results shows that the national available waste and renewable heat amount to 270 TWh which is an important outcome in comparison with a national heat demand for the residential and tertiary sector of 400 TWh. Out of this results, according to a nuts 3 regional aggregation of heat demand, 95 TWh could be recovered in DH. The reduction from theoretical potential of 270 TWh to 95 TWh is due to geographical matching of heat demand and available waste heat and on some hypothesis related to the diffusion of DH. This work shows the huge unexpressed potential of waste heat reutilisation in Italy and how the mapping of recoverable heat and not only its quantification is essential to properly estimate the utilization potential.

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    Conference_presentation
  • 3.
    Dénarié, Alice
    et al.
    Department of Energy, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy.
    Fattori, Fabrizio
    Department of Energy, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy.
    Spirito, Giulia
    Department of Energy, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy.
    Macchi, Samuel
    Department of Energy, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy.
    Cirillo, Vincenzo Francesco
    Department of Energy, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy.
    Motta, Mario
    Department of Energy, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy.
    Persson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Assessment of waste and renewable heat recovery in DH through GIS mapping: The national potential in Italy2021In: Smart Energy, E-ISSN 2666-9552, Vol. 1, article id 100008Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work aims at showing the unexploited potential of waste and renewable heat in Italy through detailed mapping of these sources. The ambition is to highlight the areas with an important heat recovery potential that could be exploited through DH expansion. The recoverable heat sources have been analysed in terms of geographical location, and recovery aspects with a special focus on temperature levels and technological implications for temperature upgrades. The methodology presented in this work addresses not only the theoretical potential of waste heat and renewable heat use in DH, but also several technical aspects to get a result as closer as possible to the realistic potential at national level. Two different approaches have been used to map potential heat: one to quantify existing waste heat recovery from industrial processes, waste to energy plants, wastewater treatment plants and one to estimate the energy coming from potential new plants based on biomass, geothermal energy and solar thermal. Results shows that for a total heat demand for the civil sector of 329 TWh, out of which 114 TWh come out being suitable for a DH connection, the national available waste and renewable heat that could be integrated in DH amounts to 156 TWh. These results show the significant unexpressed potential of waste heat use in Italy and how its mapping is essential to properly estimate the utilization potential. This work has been commissioned by AIRU, Italian DH association. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 4.
    Dénarié, Alice
    et al.
    Energy Department, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy.
    Macchi, Samuel
    Energy Department, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy.
    Fattori, Fabrizio
    Energy Department, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy.
    Spirito, Giulia
    Energy Department, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy.
    Motta, Mario
    Energy Department, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy.
    Persson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    A validated method to assess the network length and the heat distribution costs of potential district heating systems in Italy2021In: International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management, E-ISSN 2246-2929, Vol. 31, p. 59-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The evaluation of the district heating network investment costs requires the knowledge of its topology. However, when assessing district heating potential, the topology is not known a priori and a simulation is required. One method for modelling future heat networks involves the use of Minimum Spanning Tree, from the graph theory. In this work, the MST is used together with real networks lengths to elaborate an updated equation describing the effective width in correlation with the number of building ratio instead of plot ratio. The reason motivating the use of simulated networks lies in the goal of analysing sparse areas where there’s a general lack of data. In this study, the census cells vertexes and local roads layout are used as inputs for the application of the MST in order to simulate DH network layouts in areas where DH is not present. The method has been validated by running simulations in areas where DH is already present, allowing the comparison of the respective lengths. The validation shows a variable but systematic overestimation of the simulated lengths. The study of the error has brought to the definition of a correlation between accuracy of results and the share of buildings with centralized heating systems suitable for DH connection. The updated version of the effective width confirms the exponential tendency and gives higher results for Italian cities then for Scandinavian ones, showing an important impact of the city structure in the curve. The city of Milano is finally used as a case study to show the effects of using the updated effective width curve.

  • 5.
    Lichtenwöhrer, Peter
    et al.
    City of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    Hemis, Herbert
    City of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    Persson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Sánchez-García, Luis
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Atabaki, Mohammad Saeid
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Report on decarbonisation design-approaches based on urban typologies: Deliverable D2.52022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report identifies different typology-based approaches and methods for decarbonising the energy sector of cities. Respectively, typologies were evaluated, and design approaches were developed. In a first step, already existing typologies were evaluated, including a study by the Technical University of Darmstadt and examples from the City of Vienna. In a next step, conceivable structuring criteria and decarbonisation approaches from existing work within the DCP project were identified and summarised. These include structuring criteria such as heat demand density, renewable energy sources or types of refurbishment activities. On this basis, a new typology was developed. Five highly weighted criteria could be derived from the results of the expert survey, including structural energy efficiency, coverage of district heating, potential for renewable sources, potential for waste heat and heat demand density. These criteria formed the basis for the development of the novel typology. The first typology represents areas with high compatibility with highly weighted criteria, the third typology represents areas with comparably low compatibility, while the second typology is associated in between. Based on the developed typology, six design approaches were presented in this report. One short-term and one long-term approach for each typology include recommendations as well as concrete measures for strategic decision-making.

  • 6.
    Manz, Pia
    et al.
    Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research, Karlsruhe, Germany.
    Kermeli, Katerina
    Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Persson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Neuwirth, Marius
    Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research, Karlsruhe, Germany.
    Fleiter, Tobias
    Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research, Karlsruhe, Germany.
    Crijns-Graus, Wina
    Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Decarbonizing District Heating in EU-27 + UK: How Much Excess Heat Is Available from Industrial Sites?2021In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 1439-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy‐intensive industries across the EU‐28 release unused heat into the environment. This excess heat can be utilized for district heating systems. However, this is the exception today, and the potential contribution to the decarbonization of district heating is not well quantified. An estimation of excess heat, based on industrial processes, and spatial matching to district heating areas is necessary. We present a georeferenced industrial database with annual production and excess heat potentials at different temperature levels matched with current and possible district heating areas. Our results show a total potential of 960 PJ/a (267 TWh/a) of excess heat when the exhaust gases are cooled down to 25 °C, with 47% of the 1.608 studied industrial sites inside or within a 10 km distance of district heating areas. The calculated potentials reveal that currently 230 PJ/a (64 TWh/a) of excess heat is available for district heating areas, about 17% of todayʹs demand of buildings for district heating. In the future, widespread and low‐temperature district heating areas increase the available excess heat to 258 PJ/a (72 TWh/a) at 55°C or 679 PJ/a (189 TWh/a) at 25°C. We show that industrial excess heat can substantially contribute to decarbonize district heating, however, the major share of heat will need to be supplied by renewables. © by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  • 7.
    Moreno, Diana
    et al.
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Nielsen, Steffen
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Persson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    The European Waste Heat Map2022Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    ReUseHeat partners Halmstad University and Aalborg University have mapped European Union’s urban waste heat potential in a new map named the European Waste Heat Map (UK included). This unique tool displays all low-grade heat sources available in cities and includes also industrial waste heat and heat from waste incineration plants. Last update 2022-05-31.

  • 8.
    Möller, Bernd
    et al.
    Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany & Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Wiechers, Eva
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Persson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Grundahl, Lars
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Connolly, David
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Heat Roadmap Europe: Identifying local heat demand and supply areas with a European thermal atlas2018In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 158, p. 281-292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2016 the first Strategy for Heating and Cooling of the European Union has shown that district heating and cooling networks can integrate renewable energies in an increasingly energy-efficient built environment. At the same time, the heating and cooling sector is probably the most diverse and least mapped component of the European energy system. The aim of the Pan-European Thermal Atlas is to improve the knowledge base for the geographical distribution of heat and cooling demands across Europe. Demand densities of the demanded thermal services themselves, the spatial coherence of these demands, and their location relative to sources of heating greatly affect the economy of district heating schemes compared to individual solutions. The objective is therefore to develop a comprehensive model, which can be used to a) quantify heat demands by density, b) group coherent areas with demands into prospective supply zones, c) produce supply curves for these zones, and d) ultimately calculate local energy mixes on the basis of allocated excess heat as well as renewable energy sources. The developed method spatially disaggregates national demand data to high-resolution geospatial data on urban structures. The resulting atlas allows for an advanced quantitative screening process, which can establish the basis for energy systems analyses relying on geographically explicit information on the heating demand and supply volumes and costs. The present paper presents version 4 of the Pan-European Thermal Atlas, which takes another step towards higher spatial resolution and confidence in comparison to its predecessors, version 1 to 3. For the first time, a 100m resolution heat atlas of Europe is being presented, which may help describing the heating sector in the required spatial resolution. By means of spatial statistical analyses using ordinary least square linear regressions, multiple spatial inputs such as population, degree of built-up and its derivatives are turned into a coherent model of the urban tissue. Plot ratios form the basis of models of heat demand in single and multi-family residential buildings as well as the service sector. Prospective district heating areas have been delineated, and the resulting zoning of heat supply has been linked to a resource-economic analysis, which allows for cost-supply studies in disaggregated form. The present heat atlas version 4 is now available for 14 countries that altogether represent 90% of the heat demand in the 28 European Union member states. First results are being presented with emphasis on the achieved methodological improvements. Moreover, a newly developed online mapping system is being presented, which will assist in mapping the new geography of heating and cooling demands and supplies. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 9.
    Möller, Bernd
    et al.
    Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems, Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany & Department of Planning, Aalborg University, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Wiechers, Eva
    Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems, Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany.
    Persson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Grundahl, Lars
    Department of Planning, Aalborg University, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Søgaard Lund, Rasmus
    Department of Planning, Aalborg University, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Vad Mathiesen, Brian
    Department of Planning, Aalborg University, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Heat Roadmap Europe: Towards EU-Wide, local heat supply strategies2019In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 177, p. 554-564Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper describes a quantitative method for preparing local heat supply strategies. Detailed spatial data on heat demand and supply are generated using combined top-down and bottom-up modelling for 14 member states of the European Union, which constitute 91% of its heat demand in buildings. Spatial analysis is used for zoning of heat supply into individual and collective heating. Continuous cost curves are used to model economically feasible district heating shares within prospective supply districts. Excess heat is appraised and allocated to prospective district heating systems by means of a two-stage network allocation process. Access to renewable energy sources such as geothermal, large-scale solar thermal, as well as sustainable biomass, is analysed. The result is a comprehensive and detailed set of heat supply strategies in a spatially discrete manner. The findings indicate that in the 14 European Union member states, up to 71% of building heat demand in urban areas can be met with district heating. Of this, up to 78% can be covered with excess heat, while the remainder can be covered with low enthalpy renewable energy sources. The conclusion shows the possibility of a largely de-carbonised heat sector as part of a smart energy system for Europe.  © 2019 Elsevier Ltd

  • 10.
    Möller, Bernd
    et al.
    Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany.
    Wiechers, Eva
    Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany.
    Persson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Nielsen, Steffen
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Moreno, Diana
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Online web map application and first set of map layers: D5.32020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present report describes in overview how the Pan-European Thermal Atlas (Peta) was developed further into a spatial information system for the geography of energy efficiency potentials in the building, transport, and industry sectors, as well as the associated infrastructures. The resulting online atlas allows for visualisation of energy efficiency potentials between sectors in a common mapping environment. The additions and updates to the Pan-European Thermal Atlas (originally developed for the Heat Roadmap Europe projects) into a cross-sectoral mapping platform necessitated updates to the data layers, the layout, and the documentation. Layers with heat demand data from the building sector were updated, now to include all of the EU28, while a new map layer depicting the possible reduction of specific heat demand in buildings, as a measure of the current energy efficiency potential in this sector, is currently under development but not yet part of this deliverable (see sections 2.2 and 2.4 for further information). This new layer will be added to Peta 5.0.1 as soon as possible. For the transport and industry sectors, current year energy efficiency potentials were possible to assess and map in the present context. In the transport sector, findings were translated into geographical distributions of potentials and materialise as a set of geospatial map layers. In the industrial sector, energy efficiency in industry has been quantified partly for on-site energy savings, partly for off-site excess heat recovery in district heating systems, and the results have been turned into geographical representations in the form of energy efficiency surfaces. The Peta online mapping system is prepared to include further layers from future deliverables, such as thermal, gas, and electrical grids. Finally, the mapping of future scenarios will be made available using the present online mapping environment. 

  • 11.
    Möller, Bernd
    et al.
    Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany.
    Wiechers, Eva
    Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany.
    Persson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Nielsen, Steffen
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Connolly, David
    Aalborg University, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Wilke, Ole Garcia
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Sánchez-García, Luis
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Moreno, Diana
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Grundahl, Lars
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Lund, Rasmus Søgaard
    PlanEnergi, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Vad Mathiesen, Brian
    Aalborg University, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Lund, Henrik
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Wiechers, Eva (Editor)
    Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany.
    Persson, Urban (Editor)
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Nielsen, Steffen (Editor)
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Peta: the Pan-European Thermal Atlas : version 5.2 : developed as part of the sEEnergies project2022Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Pan-European Thermal Atlas version 5.2 (Peta, version 5.2). Peta is an online visualization tool for spatial data relating to energy efficiency in buildings, industry, and transport sectors. Developed as part of the sEEnergies project. Copyright Flensburg, Halmstad and Aalborg Universities 2022. 

  • 12.
    Möller, Bernd
    et al.
    Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany.
    Wiechers, Eva
    Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany.
    Persson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Sánchez-García, Luis
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    An empirical high-resolution geospatial model of future population distribution for assessing heat demands2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The future population distribution informs decisions on investment in district heating. Across Europe, demographic change has been associated with structural changes of the past. Trends towards urban or rural migration, urban sprawl or the depopulation of city centers will continue. Using gridded population data since 1990, past development is mapped using spatial disaggregation to grid cells by intensity of urban development. An empirical method proposed captures increment of population in each grid cell and relates it to the focal statistics of the cell neighbourhood. A positive population trend in populated cells leads to a future population increase and a spill over into new development areas, while a negative trend leads to lower future population. New areas are modelled based on the principles of proximity and similarity using neighbourhood trends and land cover suitability, adjusted to national and regional population trends. The result is a set of future 1-hectare population grids, which have been used to model the distribution of future heat demands. The distribution of heat demand densities, the zoning of heat supply, and the potential for individual heat pumps have been modelled. Results show that reductions of heat demands and demographic developments leave a window of opportunities to develop heating infrastructures with known technology in the present decade, after which 4th Generation District Heat technology is required to decarbonise the heating sector.

  • 13.
    Möller, Bernd
    et al.
    Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany.
    Wiechers, Eva
    Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany.
    Sánchez-García, Luis
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Persson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Moreno, Diana (Contributor)
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Abid, Hamza (Contributor)
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Spatial models and spatial analytics results: D5.72022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present report accounts for the spatial models of energy efficiency and the geospatial analysis carried out to quantify and locate energy efficiency potentials across sectors. In the building sector, future heat demands on national scales are being distributed using the age class of built-up areas and innovative models of future population distribution. District heat distribution capital costs combined with heat demand densities allow for the assessment of economic potentials of future district heating. Efficiency potentials in the transport and industrial sectors have been associated to locations, and transmission infrastructures have been mapped. Combining all these aspects, spatial analytics help understanding the opportunities and constraints that arise from the geography of energy systems. Energy efficiency in the three sectors has been mapped at different scales. Cost curves for district heating have been prepared for member states. For use in energy systems analysis, a matrix has been developed that relates energy efficiency in buildings and district heating potentials. Areas of interest for the conversion of natural gas to district heating have been mapped, combining present gas use with infrastructural aspects. Local potentials of district heating have been quantified for almost 150,000 settlements, and potential heat sources from industrial and wastewater treatment plants as well as locally available renewable energy sources have been allocated to potential district heating areas. Finally, to visualise and compare energy efficiency across sectors, technologies, and countries, the sEEnergies Index shows local potentials for improving energy efficiency and utilising synergies in all settlements of the EU27 plus the UK. In conclusion, the report documents how dissemination can be facilitated using the online geospatial information and mapping applications prepared in the sEEnergies Project.   

  • 14.
    Pelda, Johannes
    et al.
    HAWK University of Applied Sciences and Art Hildesheim/Holzminden/Göttingen, Germany.
    Holler, Stefan
    HAWK University of Applied Sciences and Art Hildesheim/Holzminden/Göttingen, Germany.
    Persson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    District heating atlas - Analysis of the German district heating sector2021In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 233, article id 121018Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the preliminary results of the District Heating Atlas, an online tool to collect and visualize key metrics of district heating systems in Germany. Since the scarce available public information on district heating systems is widely spread and not accessible via central data, the District Heating Atlas shall be the platform to enter and call up information centrally. With its online platform it provides a user interface where relevant information can be entered and system components of the currently recorded 82 district heating systems can be compared. So far, nearly 50% of the thermal energy fed into district heating is covered by the District Heating Atlas. The analysis shows that the data availability is more than 60% for five of the ten key metrics recorded. On the one hand, missing correlations between the key metrics show the diversity of the district heating systems and make it difficult to formulate general valid statements that could help to calculate missing data. On the other hand, this means that district heating systems are very diverse in their structure and thus offer versatile potential for sector coupling. In addition, district heating systems must be individually optimised in order to best utilize their potential for flexibility for the entire energy system. Finally, the first comparisons with information from the biggest district heating association in Germany show a high match with the currently collected data set. ©2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. 

  • 15.
    Persson, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Atabaki, Mohammad Saeid
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Nielsen, Steffen
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Moreno, Diana
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    D1.9: Report on the amounts of urban waste heat accessible in the EU28. Update of deliverable 1.42022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the updated and final results from the work performed in Task 1.2 of the ReUseHeat project to assess the accessible EU28 urban waste heat recovery potential from seven unconventional waste heat sources: data centres, metro stations, food production facilities, food retail stores, residential sector buildings, service sector buildings, and waste water treatment plants. The report focusses on recent data and model updates for the EU28 in total (EU27 plus the United Kingdom), as well as for the project demonstration sites, while less focus is directed towards the original methods and approaches developed for these models; all of which have been described in previous accounts. In terms of data updates, monitoring data from demonstration site operations and public responses to our online project questionnaire on real-world urban waste heat recovery initiatives, are presented and evaluated in overview summary. Regarding model updates, the assessments of urban waste heat potentials from data centres and metro stations have been refreshed by use of new underlying input data, by the configuration of existing and the addition of new model parameters, as well as by reference to later year energy statistics. For the modelling of the total EU28 potential, utilising a dataset for the geographical representation of current urban district heating areas more detailed than the previous one, renders by spatial analytics, under the same “inside or within 2 kilometres of urban district heating areas” default setting as used before, an updated and more accurate assessment of the distances and the vicinity by which low-grade urban waste heat sources are located relative current demand locations. We maintain in this report also our application of the two concepts “available” waste heat and “accessible” waste heat, which, in combination with spatial constraints, are used to distinguish between resource potentials and utilisation potentials. For the total count of activities elaborated in this update (70,862 unique point-source activities compared to the original 70,771), the total available waste heat potential is assessed at some 1849 petajoule per year (~514 terawatt-hours), compared to the original 1842 petajoule per year. At the default spatial constraint setting, the final available waste heat potential is estimated at ~800 petajoule per year (~222 terawatt-hours) from a thus reduced subset of 22,756 unique point-source locations (960 petajoule per year from 27,703 unique facilities in the original), which here corresponds to a final accessible EU28 waste heat utilisation potential anticipated at 1173 petajoule (~326 terawatt-hours) annually (previous assessment at 1410 petajoule annually). For improved dissemination and exploitation of project results, a new web map; the European Waste Heat Map, has been developed and made available at the ReUseHeat project web page where point source data from this work may be viewed and shared. © The Authors.

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  • 16.
    Persson, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Atabaki, Mohammad Saeid
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Sánchez-García, Luis
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Lichtenwöhrer, Peter
    City of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    H/C outlook 2050 of cities with cross-city synthesis: Deliverable D2.6 (Edited version)2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is the second out of three consecutive accounts of a coherent methodological framework developed in the EU Horizon 2020 project Decarb City Pipes 2050 to define heating and cooling decarbonisation design approaches for cities based on urban typologies. The first and third accounts are, respectively, the deliverable reports D2.5 (Decarbonisation design-approaches based on urban typologies) and D2.7 (Recommendations for cities' H/C supplies & demands in 2050). The framework has been developed by identifying possible thematic synergies between the objectives of the concerned deliverables, by combining different method elements, and by organising a collaborative work strategy among the involved project partners. This report presents, in overview and detail, the input data synonymously used within the framework for the determination of urban typologies, for the modelling and mapping of heating and cooling outlooks for 2050, for the quantification of a cross-city synthesis, as well as for formulating recommendations for cities´ heating and cooling demands and supplies in 2050. The study focusses on the urban areas of seven European project cities (Bilbao (ES), Bratislava (SK), Dublin (IE), Munich (DE), Rotterdam (NL), Vienna (AT), Winterthur (CH)), for which EU-scoped, publicly available input data, to the extent possible, has been gathered according to ten structuring criteria parameters. Heating and cooling outlooks for 2050 are established for each project city based on the used input data and illustrated in the form of tables, graphs, and maps, and constitute the first element of a quantitative cross-city synthesis (city comparison). The second element (city ranking) is facilitated by application of a multi-criteria decision model, which here consists of combining the Analytical Hierarchy Process method (AHP) and the Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS).

  • 17.
    Persson, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Averfalk, Helge
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Accessible urban waste heat: Deliverable 1.42018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the work performed in Task T1.2 of the ReUseHeat project to assess the accessible EU28 urban excess heat recovery potential from four unconventional excess heat sources: data centres, metro stations, service sector buildings, and waste water treatment plants. The report presents in overview and detail the concepts, data, basic premises, and methods, used to produce the results from this work. In all, excess heat potentials are modelled and spatially mapped for a total of some 26,400 unique activities, but by application of two new concepts: available excess heat and accessible excess heat, by which total potentials are distinguished from practical utilisation potentials, a significantly reduced count of some 6800 unique facilities represent the final cut. Common for these facilities are that they all are located inside or within 2 kilometres of urban district heating areas. For the total count of activities, the full available excess heat potential is assessed at some 1.56 EJ per year. At the restrained conditions, thus representing a conservative estimate, the final available excess heat potential from the four unconventional sources is estimated at 0.82 EJ per year, which here corresponds to a final accessible excess heat potential anticipated at 1.24 EJ annually.

  • 18.
    Persson, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Averfalk, Helge
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Nielsen, Steffen
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Moreno, Diana
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Accessible urban waste heat (Revised version): Deliverable D1.42020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the revised work performed in Task T1.2 of the ReUseHeat project to assess the accessible EU28 urban excess heat recovery potential from seven unconventional excess heat sources: data centres, metro stations, food production facilities, food retail stores, residential sector buildings, service sector buildings, and waste water treatment plants. The report presents in overview and detail the concepts, data, basic premises, and methods, used to produce the results from this work. In all, excess heat potentials are modelled and spatially mapped for a total of some 70,800 unique activities, but by application of two new concepts: available excess heat and accessible excess heat, by which total potentials are distinguished from practical utilisation potentials, a significantly reduced count of some 27,700 unique facilities represent the final cut. Common for these facilities are that they all are located inside or within 2 kilometres of urban district heating areas. For the total count of activities, the full available excess heat potential is assessed at some 1.84 EJ per year. At the restrained conditions, thus representing a conservative estimate, the final available excess heat potential from the seven unconventional sources is estimated at 0.96 EJ per year, which here corresponds to a final accessible excess heat potential anticipated at 1.41 EJ annually.

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  • 19.
    Persson, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Sánchez-García, Luis
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Draft recommendations for H/C outlook 2050: D2.22021Report (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Persson, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Wiechers, Eva
    Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany.
    Möller, Bernd
    Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany & Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Heat Roadmap Europe: Heat distribution costs2019In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 176, p. 604-622Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This analysis elaborates further the concept of physical and economic suitability for district heating in EU28 by an aggregation regarding key dimensions such as land areas, populations, heat demands, and investment volumes. This aggregation is based on a resolution on hectare level by slicing the total land area into 437 million pieces. Results show that heat demands in buildings are present in 9% of the land area. Because of high concentrations in towns and cities, 78% of the total heat demand in buildings originate from dense urban areas that constitute 1.4% of the total land area and 70% of the population. Due to these high heat densities above 50 MJ/m2 per year, the paper evaluates a setting where district heating is individually expanded in each member state for reaching a common 50% heat market proportion in EU28 at lowest cost. At this saturation rate, the aggregated EU28 district heat deliveries would increase to 5.4 EJ/a at current heat demands and represents an expansion investment volume, starting from current level of 1.3 EJ, of approximately 270 billion euro for heat distribution pipes. Given the current high heat densities in European urban areas, this study principally confirms earlier expectations by quantitative estimations. © 2019 Elsevier Ltd

  • 21.
    Spirito, Giulia
    et al.
    Energy Department, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy.
    Dénarié, Alice
    Energy Department, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy.
    Fattori, Fabrizio
    Energy Department, Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Cirillo, Vincenzo Francesco
    Energy Department, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy.
    Macchi, Samuel
    Energy Department, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy.
    Motta, Mario
    Energy Department, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy.
    Persson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Potential diffusion of renewable-based 3GDH and 4GDH assessment through energy mapping: a case study in Milano2020In: Book of Abstracts: 6th International Conference on Smart Energy Systems / [ed] Henrik Lund, Brian Vad Mathiesen, Poul Ahlberg Østergaard & Hans Jørgen Brodersen, Aalborg: Aalborg Universitetsforlag, 2020, p. 143-143Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This work aims at developing a potential analysis of the diffusion of renewable-based low temperature district heating systems, through the mapping of energy demand, renewable and waste heat sources using the Italian city of Milano as a demonstrative case study. This analysis starts from the question to seek what would be the future sustainability of district heating in the framework of the foreseen scenario of building refurbishment and consequent reduction of heat demand. District heating has proven to be a recognised way to efficiently distribute renewable energy in dense urban areas. But the feasibility of this energy system is questioned in case of low heat demand and scarce availability of waste heat sources. Milano is a densely populated city, with an intense energy demand, where district heating has a low market share (<10%), which leaves the important issue of sever air pollution and where there seems to be no availability of renewable energy source. This work has been developed together with the local DH utility in order to support the municipality in defining the priority measures to be implemented in the next years in the local Environmental Plan. The developed analysis shows that DH has a wide undeveloped potential in the city which could benefit of an important amount of renewables and waste heat recovery if the temperatures where decreased by benefitting in reality by a massive energy refurbishment. The results show that the development of renewable-based low temperature district heating is not an alternative nor in competition with building energy refurbishment, but complementary. The feasibility is based on a mapping of the available waste heat sources in the city namely, industrial sites, waste water treatment plants, metro stations, datacentres, and ground water wells. For a total residential demand of 8 TWh, results showed that 6 TWh could be technically potentially covered by DH, out of which 80% at same or lower distribution costs than the existing DH system in the city. Considering the future energy demand, an energy reduction scenario has been considered in accordance with the national energy strategy for 2050, which foresee the 60% of the building stock going through important energy refurbishment. The estimated energy needs for this fraction of refurbished building stock amounts to 5 TWh out of which 2 TWh can be fed by low temperature plastic network at the same distribution costs of current 3GDH. In parallel to this reduction of energy needs, the reduction of temperature characterizing 4GDH systems opens the door to a wider set of low temperature heat recovery: the outcomes of the mapping and quantification of low temperature heat sources shows a potential of 4.5 TWh of recoverable heat in the city which increases to 5.2 considering also the surrounding suburbs. The outcomes of this works confirm the results of Stratego projects which identified the nut region surrounding Milano has a heat synergy regions and it emphasize this results by showing the effect of widening the range of heat sources by lowering the demand of network.

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  • 22.
    Spirito, Giulia
    et al.
    Energy Department, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy.
    Dénarié, Alice
    Energy Department, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy.
    Fattori, Fabrizio
    Energy Department, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy.
    Motta, Mario
    Energy Department, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy.
    Macchi, Samuel
    Energy Department, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy.
    Persson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Potential Diffusion of Renewables-Based DH Assessment through Clustering and Mapping: A Case Study in Milano2021In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 14, no 9, article id 2627Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work aims at developing a methodology for the assessment of district heating (DH) potential through the mapping of energy demand and waste heat sources. The presented method is then applied to the Metropolitan City of Milano as a case study in order to investigate the current and, especially, the future sustainability of DH with the foreseen building refurbishment and consequent heat demand reduction. The first step is the identification of the areas the most interesting from a heat density and an economic point of view through a clustering algorithm, in which lies the main novelty of the work. The potential is then assessed by investigating their synergy with the available heat sources, which are mapped and analyzed in terms of recoverable thermal energy and costs. In future scenarios with foreseen heat demand reduction, low-temperature networks and excess heat sources are considered, such as metro stations and datacenters, together with the conventional sources, such as thermoelectric plants. The outcomes prove that lower heat demand corresponds to higher network costs with consequently reduced district heating potential but also prove that the properties of low-temperature district heating can potentially compensate for the drop in its cost-effectiveness. Another interesting finding is that the renovation of buildings in an area should be not performed evenly but with criteria; for instance, in synergy with DH diffusion. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  • 23.
    Sánchez-García, Luis
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Averfalk, Helge
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Persson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    A Closer Look at the Effective Width for District Heating Systems2021In: Book of Abstracts: 7th International Conference on Smart Energy Systems / [ed] Henrik Lund; Brian Vad Mathiesen; Poul Alberg Østergaard; Hans Jørgen Brodersen, Aalborg: Aalborg Universitetsforlag, 2021, p. 153-153Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    District heating is an important technology for decarbonizing the heating supply in urban areas since it enables the recovery of waste heat that would otherwise be wasted and the cost-effective utilization of renewable heat. Nonetheless, the current general extent of these systems in Europe is very low, hence the need for simple methods and parameters to estimate their cost and feasibility on a large scale. One of these cost parameters is the Effective Width, which enables a first order approximation of the total pipe length in a given area. This concept, in conjunction with the average pipe diameter in the area, permits the determination of the network’s capital cost. However, previous research of Effective Width has relied on a small set of cases and has not contemplated service pipes. Therefore, there is need for a closer look and a deeper understanding of the underlying phenomena that influences this parameter. This study has analysed several Scandinavian District Heating Systems in detail and provides new evidence on the relation between Effective Width and the urban environment for both distribution and service pipes.

  • 24.
    Wiechers, Eva
    et al.
    Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany.
    Möller, Bernd
    Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany.
    Persson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Documentation and dataset from the analysis and mapping of cities with similar topography and demography and the relation to energy efficient transport and mobility: D5.22020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With regard to transportation and mobility, the quantification of energy efficiency potentials of modal shifts and reduced transport volumes by changed and reduced movement of goods and persons requires a likewise quantitative database of current geographical properties of settlements and their spatial relationships... Based on the approach of Urban Morphological Zones, a novel method was devised, which delineates individual settlements. From small villages to large metropolitan areas, a total number of about 150,000 urban areas were mapped across Europe... Moreover, these so-called Urban Areas were enriched with attributes containing population, population densities, topographical properties such as slope, and climatic variables such as temperature and precipitation. Several among these aspects are thought to describe quantitatively the context which influences the relevance and the impact of policy measures and spatial solutions for energy efficiency improvements in the transport sector. Urban Areas were characterised by their population size, and grouped in five classes, for the definition of a hierarchy between these Urban Areas. For the assessment of energy efficiency potentials regarding the transport volumes in inter-urban transportation between settlements, the distances from each Urban Area to its nearest higher-order settlements were calculated. In this way, hierarchical relationships were established for all Urban Areas, so that for each settlement, smaller and larger neighbour settlements and their proximity are known. For studies on urban transport, intra-urban distances were modelled by means of population weighted distances from populated areas to the identified urban centres. For the analysis of temporal developments of urban mobility, data for the years 1990, 2000 and 2015 were generated, which include population, populated area as well as intra-urban distances for all Urban Areas. The resulting dataset will allow transport studies within the sEEnergies project at an extraordinary geographical scale and with a very detailed data base of Urban Areas, and their connections within a European transport system. © 2020 sEEnergies 

  • 25.
    Wiechers, Eva
    et al.
    Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany.
    Möller, Bernd
    Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany.
    Persson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Moreno, Diana (Contributor)
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Sánchez-García, Luis (Contributor)
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Geographic layers that illustrate future energy efficiency potentials: Second set of map layers (future years scenarios for 2030 and 2050): D5.52022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Pan-European Thermal Atlas Peta is an online visualization tool for spatial data. Version 5.1 was launched in 2020 with a first set of layers for the EU27+UK, which related to energy demands in the base year and first, intermediate project results regarding energy efficiency potentials. With the update to version 5.2, Peta was complemented with layers based on the scenarios studied in different sEEnergies tasks, completed after the launch of Peta 5.1. As a result, Peta 5.2 shows energy demand and energy efficiency data for residential and service sector buildings as well as for industry and transport for different scenarios, focusing on the status-quo and the scenario year 2050, while also containing 2030 data.

    Throughout the Heat Roadmap Europe projects, Peta has been developed as an information system for the heat sector. Its main content related to district heating grid investment costs, district heating area demarcations and supply options. The current version 5.2 features new layers that include future heat demands and district heating development costs for distribution and service pipe investment costs, as well as energy efficiency potentials of the industry and transport sectors.

    In a new layer group Peta 5.2 presents the results of spatial analyses, for example the allocation of excess heat to urban areas as well as an index that combines energy efficiency potentials across sectors and technologies.

    Peta 5.2 can be accessed via the following URL:https://tinyurl.com/peta5seenergies, while the geospatial data can be accessed through thesEEnergies Open Data Hub: https://s-eenergies-open-data-euf.hub.arcgis.com/. Furthermore, Story Maps add an additional dimension to the dissemination of project results (accessible here: https://tinyurl.com/sEEnergiesStorymaps). 

  • 26.
    Yang, Can
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Adaptive Sensor: Exploring the use of dynamic role allocation based on interesting to detect blood and tumors in a smart pill2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For intelligent systems, the ability to adapt a sensor's sensing capabilities offers promise for reducing numbers, weight, and volume of sensors required. This basic idea is in line with a recent assertion by the well-known roboticist Rodney Brooks, that versatile robots could be used to perform various tasks instead of requiring a large number of specialized robots.In the current work, we consider the concept of a "smart" sensor which could dynamically adapt itself to replace multiple static sensors--within the application area of ingestible smart pills, where small sensors might be required to detect problems such as bleeding or tumours.\\

    Simulations were used to evaluate some basic strategies for how to adapt the sensor and their effectiveness was compared; as well, a hardware prototype using LEDs to indicate system switching was prepared.

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