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  • 1.
    Aftab, Mohammad Adnan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Biofuel, An alternative source for jet fuel in Aviation2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The transport industry is one of the fastest growing industries with the sector playing a significant role in negative impact on global warming and pollution through the emission of greenhouse gases. Aviation in particular, has enjoyed growth especially in the few decades. New airlines and aircraft manufacturers are coming up with different innovations and technologies to ensure they make the best possible environmentally friendly aircraft. The new main area of focus has been on how to come up with fuel that will reduce the greenhouse gas-emissions. The stakeholders in the same effort include developed nations like the United States, United Kingdom, Russia, France, Germany, and Canada among others. Energy providers as well as jet fuel suppliers are also making efforts to conserve the environment. The purpose of this thesis is to explore the area of biofuel in aviation by looking into various stakeholders involved in the efforts of the transition from fossil fuel to biofuel. The conclusion of this thesis is that biofuels are viable options in the aviation industries since there have been positive results in the tests made. 

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  • 2.
    Ahlström, Jonatan
    et al.
    Halmstad University.
    Berntsson, Emil
    Halmstad University.
    Dimensionering av solceller med lagringsalternativ2024Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzes different options for solar panel installations for four apartment buildings owned by Eksta Bostads AB and are located in Åsa, Kungsbacka. The objective of this thesis is to find an installation suitable for the properties and the area, The aspects to be examined is the economic aspect, the environmental impact, and solutions for storage options for surplus excess electricity produced.

    To achieve this, various components of a solar panel are examined to decide different sizes and storage possibilities. This is dimensioned using a programme called Polysun to obtain realistic production and self-consumption rates. Economic calculations are then made for the different options to assess the profits. The result of this gives a variety of combinations that show both production and self-consumption, as well as the investment cost and profit for the installations.

    Simultaneously,   emissions, aesthetics and improvements for the installation are investigated. After all aspects have been explored and calculated, an installation is chosen that is most suitable for the properties. The installation deemed most suitable is one with 45 solar panels (19,8 kWp) and a lithium-ion battery with a capacity of 20 kWh. The investment cost for the facility is 313 784 SEK, and it produces between 18 000 – 19 000 kWh per year depending on the house. The self-consumption rate for the installation ranges between 70,9% and 73,2% depending in the house. This installation can return a profit of 155 420 SEK after 25 years at the lowest estimated discount rate but can also result in a loss of 42 451 SEK after 25 years at the highest discount rate used.

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  • 3.
    Alex, Ansu
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Comparison study of various current and potential liquid biofuels in road freight transport: Application on a case study on Transport Centralen in Halmstad2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The role of liquid biofuels in transportation to minimize the effects of climate change is  evident and has led to a number of studies on finding effective solutions to replace fossil fuels. Liquid biofuels are especially important for heavy duty transports as the effective ‘green’ alternatives are not as many compared to light duty vehicles; for which for e.g. electrification is an option. This thesis presents a comparison study of 8 liquid biofuels with a total of 13 different fuel pathways for use in road freight transports; both current and potential future fuels are assessed in terms of their environmental effects, fuel properties and compatibility with the heavy duty vehicle engines (see Table 10, page 36). Furthermore, a case study is performed to assess the practicality of the results of the study.  Hydro-treated vegetable oil, Bio Dimethyl ether, Liquefied Bio Methane/ ED95 are identified as fuels with considerable potential in the shorter term. Algal biofuel and Biomass to liquid (BTL) fuels from synthesis gas, if realized commercially would be a breakthrough for biofuels in overall transportation sector. However, life cycle analysis has to be performed for the different fuel pathways to completely understand the various impacting factors.

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  • 4.
    Alkiswani, Mutaz
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science.
    Spectrum conversion in solar cells industry: Novel model concept and steps towards commercialization2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Solar photovoltaic industry is a hot research field, massive attempts are going on all over the world to increase its productivity in different ways. One of the challenges for solar cells is the light spectrum mismatch losses, which referred to the part of solar spectrum that cannot be utilized to electricity by the conventional cells.

    Two ways have been suggested to overcome solar spectrum mismatch losses, the first is multi layered cells (tandem cells) with a different light behavior for each layer, and the second is spectrum conversion which is this researches subject.

    Spectral modification or conversion in solar cells industry has been studied and different lab scale models have been introduced. According to nanoscale journal, such technology may be the base of the next generation solar cells, mentioning specifically the use of luminescence down conversion and up conversion techniques to control the light spectrum on the solar cell, these endeavors targets to produce solar cells that is not subjugated to Shockley-Queisser maximum efficiency limit of 31%.

    This research aims to draw a map of various ideas introduced to incorporate similar technologies in solar cell products, beside further suggestion to enhance its technical behavior and to push the commercialization of the technology forward. This is expected to reveal clear image about technology’s future development map for the upcoming studies, and to create a motivation for further studies towards a commercial production scale.

    The proposed commercialized model will result in enhancing the maximum theoretical efficiency limit to 48% if all spectral mismatch loses have been eliminated. Quantum energy level diagrams have been illustrated to describe each model’s performance under a theoretical light spectrum.

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    Spectrum conversion in solar cells industry
  • 5.
    Al-Mimar, Samer
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science. Halmstad University.
    Integration of solar and wind power at Lillgrundwind farm.: Wind turbine shadow effect on solar farm atLillgrund wind farm.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The supply of energy is a key factor in modern societies. As the old fossil sources for energy are dwindling, conflicts arise between competing nations and regions. Fossil energy sources also contribute to the pollution of the environment and emission of greenhouse gases.

    With renewable energy sources many of these drawbacks with fossil fuels can be eliminated as the energy will be readily available for all without cost or environmental impact.

    Combining the renewable energy sources will be very effective, particularly in commercial areas where lake of electricity is high. The cost of combining onshore wind and solar power plant is affordable. Furthermore there is no power failure or load shedding situation at any times. When it is manufactured in a large scale, cost of this integrated natural resources power generation system is affordable. Moreover there is no power failure or load shedding situation at any times. Therefore, it is the most reliable renewable power or electricity resources with less spending and highly effective production. ref [1].

    The thesis work would take planning of offshore renewable plant (Lillgrund) with considering the resources of renewable power. The study would take in account combining the Lillgrund wind farm with solar system and take close look into the advantage and disadvantage of combining the renewable resources together and figure out if such station can work in proper way and provide sufficient power production. The study would take in account the effect of each resource on other resource, also calculations would be done.

    The study site is Lillgrund in south of Sweden. The Lillgrund wind farm is the most important offshore wind power plant installed in Sweden with a total capacity of 110 MW, corresponding to 48 turbines. ref [2].

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    Integration of solar and wind power at Lillgrund wind farm.
  • 6.
    Al-samuraaiy, Omar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Efficiency comparison between Heat Pump andMicro CHP located in two different location inSweden2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Efficiency of a ground source heat pump with thermal capacity of 6 kW determined in two differentlocations in Sweden. In the north side with low average temperature which could go down to -10 ᵒCand in the south side, with low average temperature with +2 ᵒC. The heat pump has refrigerantR407c, which could be connected to both, ground source heat feeding methods the horizontal, andthe vertical model. The heat pump give heat for both space heating and domestic hot watercompared the micro CHP which has thermal capacity of 12.5 kW and electrical capacity of 4.4 kW. Ithas IC engine which means the engine has internal combustion work. It also works with two kinds offuel, natural gas and propane MOZ 92; the energy and exergy of the fuel in micro CHP feeding thethermal process by heat. That heat used for space heating and domestic hot water after going outthe process for the cooling which keep the heat in storage tank and it heat the liquid to the gas to beused in the turbine to produce the electricity. The two locations in the north and south of Swedenwill influence the thermal operation and that influence power used for compressor for heat pumpand somehow the pump in the micro CHP. The study shows that the different in exergy and energyefficiency between these two heat technologies by located them in the locations. Higher efficiencyof the micro CHP which give the advantage of use Micro CHP some technology give the benefit byusing the fuel for producing the heating and electricity , the benefit which give the customer manybenefit shows in the study. That’s comparing with the heat pump which is large use in Sweden. Inthis paper will introduce Micro CHP as heating technology which has been used in the rest of Europecould be used in Sweden for future heating technology with electricity producing, shall change thecostumer from energy consumption costumer to producing costumer.

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  • 7.
    Andersen, Niklas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Ismail, Zahir
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Solel från ljudbarriär: längs Annetorpsvägen i Hyllie, Malmö2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    City of Malmö has ambitions for the district Hyllie to become a demonstrative area ofsustainable urban development. As a part of this the following report aims to investigate the potential in using noise barriers combined with photovoltaics along Annetorpsvägen to generate solar electricity. To quantify the losses that shadows from buildings along the roadmight cause, a 3D-model of the area was constructed in SketchUp. This digital model made it possible to simulate shadows and how they change over the year. A reference model of a photovoltaic noise barrier (PVNB) was constructed and used to find the dates on which the solar cells are shadowed depending on building heights and positioning of the barrier.

    The results show that two lengths with a total distance of 400 meters is appropriate for applying photovoltaic noise barriers. Along distance A, a PVNB with a total capacity of 19 kWp is expected to generate 18 000 kWh per year assuming realistic shadowing, which equals 6% losses compared to production without shadows. The PVNB along distance B with installed capacity of 37 kWp has no considerable problems with shadowing and is expected to generate 37 500 kWh per year. This gives a total production of 56 500 kWh per year.

    The combined investment costs (excluding costs for the actual noise barrier) for both power plants are assumed to be approximately one million SEK. Expected economical outcome is a negative capital value after 25 years, although a change of critical factors such as investment aid, investment cost, electricity prices and cost of capital may result in a more positive outcome. Production losses from shadowing and dirt seem to have a minimal effect on the outcome

    Despite uncertainty in the economical outcome, realizing the project would have several other positive effects such as reduction of carbon dioxide emissions and a positive impact on the public view of renewable energy.

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  • 8.
    Andersson, Gustav
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Ericsson, Emil
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Dark Ages Interferometer (DALI) Deployment Rover: Energy System2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The cosmic “Dark Ages” is the cosmic era between the epochs of recombination of cosmic microwave background and the formation of the first stars. The only signal from this epoch is from neutral hydrogen, which could represent one of the richest data sets in cosmology. In order to extract this data, NASA/JPL has proposed a rover mission to the farside of the moon to deploy several radio arrays. Here the arrays would gather data undisturbed by human interference. This thesis examines the possibility of using photovoltaic and electric batteries as an energy solution for a rover on the moon. The requirement for such a system to survive on the moon is discussed in a literature study. A proof of concept simulation using a Simulink model has also been done. The thesis concludes that a rover can deploy the radio array using solar energy. It would be able to hibernate through the night using radioisotope heating. It would need to wait for its batteries to charge before each night.

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    DALI Energy System
  • 9.
    Andersson, Jessica
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Magnusson, Carl
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Alternativa urbana odlingsmetodernas potential för självförsörjning i Sverige2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the COVID pandemic of 2019, Sweden saw a huge increase in food prices, as many of the country's grocery chains import a large amount of all foods. This research is motivated by the Swedish Parliament's motion "Self-Sufficiency of Food in Sweden" and the need for innovative solutions to enhance Sweden's food supply. This study focuses on alternative urban agriculture methods, with a focus on aeroponics, aquaponics, hydroponics, and vertical farming, and their potential for self-sufficiency in Sweden. This study aims to fill the gap in Swedish research on soilless urban farming methods and contribute to the understanding and acceptance of the alternative methods above. The study seeks to determine whether the yield of alternative cultivation methods is comparable to traditional methods, soil-based and greenhouse-based farming, in terms of resources invested and to identify the alternative method with the highest yield. Resources in this thesis will be defined as the amount of water that is used. Our thesis aims to support businesses and local governance in decision-making regarding implementation of alternative urban farming in Sweden. A literature search was conducted using keywords such as hydroponic, vertical farming and sustainability. Statistical analysis of collected data indicates significant differences in yield and water usage among the collected examples which resulted in vertical hydroponic farming offering the highest yield in terms of space utilization, with significant statistical significance (p < 0.05). Additionally, hydroponic farming requires the least amount of water compared to other methods although this is not a certainty as there was no significant statistical difference between the different methods. The study demonstrates that hydroponic farming can achieve higher yields compared to traditional soil-based farming and other alternative farming methods. The study emphasizes organizational and governmental solutions to improve self-sufficiency at the local and national levels. Alternative urban farming methods offer a sustainable contribution to increasing self-sufficiency while minimizing resource usage.

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  • 10.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Internationalization as a Consequence of Entrepreneurial Acting1998Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Andreasson, Tobias
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Lindh, Emelia
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Förnybar energi på Svalbard2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This degree thesis investigates the possibilities of producing food inside a container at Svalbard, using renewable energy and energy storage. The idea was to be able to place the container at remote places without the need of being connected to the grid. We chose Svalbard, where it is cold and the sun is shining 24 hours a day at summertime. In the winter the opposite occurs and the sun is absent from the sky.

    The work is divided into theoretical studies and results based on different calculations. Such as economical evaluations (LCOE), and simulations using the computer programs Matlab and PVsyst. We have investigated if solar power and wind power is suitable as energy sources. Options for storage were batteries, grid and hydrogen storage. Different cases with Photovoltaics- and wind power plants, with batteries or grid, were compared against each other. It is not possible to use the grid as storage. This resulted in different sizing of our cases, with no excess energy production. The result showed that a 5 kWp photvoltaic plant with dual axis tracking system, was the most profitable. The Pay off would be 14 years and the total profit 63 453 SEK. If it will become possible in the future to use the grid at Svalbard as storage, it will open up opportunites for bigger systems. This will lead to higher profit than with smaller ones. Our results show that it is now most profitable with solar power.

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  • 12.
    Antila, Eric
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    SunTrack2021Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For many of us, electricity is a natural and necessary source, making it easier to go about our everyday life. Imagine having to collect firewood, for several hours a day, to be able to carry out such a simple task as preparing a meal. For many people, especially in developing countries, everyday life looks just like that, but it does not have to. In line with the increasing demand of sustainability, new technologies now turn their focus to the almost inexhaustible source of energy, namely the sun.

    The energy that is being received every day in the form of solar radiation, corresponds to about 8000 times more energy than what is being consumed on the planet, throughout anentire year. With today's technology, there is now a possibility to farm parts of this energy, to be used as a more sustainable alternative. 

    Sunfurias product uses a technology that, with the help of solar collectors, saves solar energy in a heat storage, enabling cooking at any time.

    For the solar collectors to be as efficient as possible, they need to rotate following the movement of the sun throughout the day. Today, this is done by using an advanced tracking device, which in turn makes the entire product significantly more expensive. Which also affects the sales volume, especially in the developing countries.

    The SunTrack project has been carried out in collaboration with Sunfuria AB to solve the need for a more affordable product, by developing a cost-effective alternative to the current solar tracking system.

  • 13.
    Atabaki, Mohammad Saeid
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability. Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran.
    Bagheri, Mehdi
    University of Victoria, Victoria, Canada.
    Aryanpur, Vahid
    University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Exploring the role of electrification and modal shift in decarbonizing the road passenger transport in British Columbia2023In: Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, ISSN 2213-1388, E-ISSN 2213-1396, Vol. 56, article id 103070Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The possibility of the modal shift to public transport and active mobility while considering transport electrification and fuel efficiency improvement has yet to be adequately investigated. This paper explores transition pathways toward an environmentally sustainable road passenger transportation system in the province of British Columbia (BC), Canada. MESSAGE, as a bottom-up energy systems optimization model, is used to find the cost-optimal fuel and technology mix in the transport and power sector. Multiple scenarios mainly assess the influence of modal shift and electric vehicle (EV) diffusion on greenhouse gas emissions by 2050. Besides, the effects of scenarios on the power sector configuration are examined. The results show that BC would not achieve the 80% emissions reduction target in the Climate Change Accountability Act unless by a radical expansion of transport electrification. The target could be met by a minimum diffusion of 70% EVs in the total car stock as well as 35% public transport contribution in total passenger kilometers. The findings also indicate that fully electrified light-duty vehicles coupled with active transport would lead to almost a zero-emission level. Nevertheless, 100% electrification would impose an extra 5.6 TWh burden on the power supply system relative to the business-as-usual scenario. © 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd

  • 14.
    Averfalk, Helge
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Ingvarsson, Paul
    ÅF, Division Industry, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Persson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Gong, Mei
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Large heat pumps in Swedish district heating systems2017In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 79, p. 1275-1284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Power-to-heat solutions like heat pumps and electric boilers are foreseen to be possible future tools to stabilise international power markets with high proportions of variable power supply. Temporary low cost electricity can be used for heat generation at times with high availability of wind and solar power through substitution of ordinary heat supply, hence contributing to increased energy system sustainability. Power-to-heat installations in district heating systems are competitive due to low specific investment and installation costs for large electric boilers, heat pumps, and heat storages. Several large-scale heat pumps were installed in Swedish district heating systems during the 1980s, since a national electricity surplus from new nuclear power existed for some years. The aim of this paper is to summarise the accumulated operation experiences from these large Swedish heat pumps to support and facilitate planning of future power-to-heat solutions with heat pumps in district heating systems. Gained experiences consider; installed capacities, capacity utilisation, heat sources used, refrigerant replacements, refrigerant leakages, and wear of mechanical components. The major conclusion is that many of the large thirty-year-old heat pumps are still in operation, but with reduced capacity utilisation due to internal competition from waste and biomass cogeneration plants in the district heating systems.

  • 15.
    Averfalk, Helge
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Ingvarsson, Paul
    ÅF, Division Industry, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Persson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    On the use of surplus electricity in district heating systems2014In: Proceedings from the 14th International Symposium on District Heating and Cooling: September, 6-10, 2014: Stockholm, Sweden / [ed] Anna Land, Stockholm: Swedish District Heating Association , 2014, p. 469-474Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Maintained balance between supply and demand is a fundamental prerequisite for proper operation of electric power grids. For this end, power systems rely on accessibility to various balancing technologies and solutions by which fluctuations in supply and demand can be promptly met. In this paper, balancing approaches in the case of surplus electricity supply, due to long-term, seasonal, or short-term causes, are discussed on the basis mainly of compiled experiences from the Swedish national power grid. In Sweden, a structural long-term electricity surplus was created in the 1980s when several new nuclear plants were commissioned and built. One of four explicit domestic power-to-heat solutions initiated to maximize the utilization of this surplus electricity, as export capacities were limited, was the introduction of large scale electric boilers and compressor heat pumps in district heating systems. In retrospective, this solution not only satisfied the primary objective by providing additional electricity demand to balance the power grid, but represents today – from an energy systems perspective – a contemporary example of increased system flexibility by the attainment of higher integration levels between power and heat sectors. As European power supply will be reshaped to include higher proportions of fluctuating supply technologies (e.g. wind and solar), causing occasional but recurring short-term electricity surpluses, the unique Swedish experiences may provide valuable input in the development of rational responses to future balancing challenges. The main conclusions from this study are that district heating systems can add additional balancing capabilities to power systems, if equipped with electrical heat supply technologies, hereby contributing to higher energy system flexibility. Consequently, district heating systems also have a discrete but key role in the continued integration of renewable intermittent power supply technologies in the future European energy system.

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    On the use of surplus electricity in district heating systems
  • 16.
    Averfalk, Helge
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Persson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Low‐temperature excess heat recovery in district heating systems: The potential of European Union metro stations2020In: Book of Abstracts: 6th International Conference on Smart Energy Systems / [ed] Henrik Lund, Brian Vad Mathiesen, Poul Alberg Østergaard & Hans Jørgen Brodersen, 2020, p. 34-34Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an assessment of the excess heat recovery potential from EU metro stations. The assessment is a sub-study on low temperature recovery opportunities, explored in the H2020 ReUseHeat project, and consists of spatial mapping of 1994 underground stations with quantitative estimates of sensible and latent heat, monthly and annually, attainable in rejected platform ventilation exhaust air. Being a low-temperature source, the assessment conceptually anticipates recovery of attainable heat with compressor heat pumps to facilitate the temperature increase necessary for utilisation in district heating systems. Further, the paper explores the influence on useful excess heat volumes from low-temperature heat recoveries when distributed at different temperature levels. The findings, which distinguishes available (resource) and accessible (useful) excess heat potentials, indicate an annual total EU28 available potential of ~21 PJ, characterised by a certain degree of seasonal temporality, and corresponding accessible potentials of ~40 PJ per year at 3rd generation distribution, and of ~31 PJ at anticipated 4th generation conditions. Despite lower accessible volumes, utilisation in 4th generation systems are naturally more energy efficient, since relatively less electricity is used in the recovery process, but also more cost-effective, since heat pumps, at lower temperatures, can be operated at capacities closer to design conditions and with less annual deviations.

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    Conference_presentation
  • 17.
    Barth, Henrik
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Bäckman, Emma
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Ellmarker, Josefin
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Sustainable Development for Food Waste: A Case Study of Catered Meal Service at Schools and Elderly Care homes2019In: Journal of Strategic Innovation and Sustainability, ISSN 1718-2077, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 21-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food waste is an important topic in the context of sustainable development. Although many studies have addressed this topic, there is still limited knowledge owing to insufficient data. This study reports on food waste in two institutional settings in a Swedish municipality: schools and elderly care homes. The findings suggest it is easier to measure and reduce food waste in stable environments, such as exist at schools, than at environments characterized by change and unpredictability, such as exist at elderly care homes. Specific areas examined and compared include cooking and receiving kitchens, infrastructure, communications, and support. © North American Business Press.

  • 18.
    Barth, Henrik
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Melin, Martin
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Work Sciences, Business Economics and Environmental Psychology, Alnarp, Sweden.
    A Green Lean approach to global competition and climate change in the agricultural sector – A Swedish case study2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 204, p. 183-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased global competition in the agricultural sector is rapidly changing the structure of farms and farming. As the number of small and diversified farms (often family-owned) decreases, the number of large and specialized farms (often corporate-owned) is increasing. In this transformation, the agricultural sector is more and more concerned with strategy, innovation, and competition in the effort to be more productive and more profitable. At the same time, the sector faces demands that it become more environmentally responsible in its policies and practices. This paper proposes a Lean Implementation Framework that small and mid-size farms can use as they aim to increase production and profit and yet support environmental sustainability. This case study takes an action-oriented research approach that focuses on the implementation of a Green Lean approach at 34 Swedish farms using various Lean tools. The paper describes how training sessions, farm visits, workshops, and counseling were used to introduce the farmers to the benefits and risks of the implementation of a new business model that added Green elements to the traditional business model design. The paper concludes with recommendations for adaptations to the Framework and suggestions for future research. © 2018

  • 19.
    Basavalingappa, Sharat
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Grid-Tied Solar Photovoltaic (PV) System with Battery storage: A Brief Techno-Economic Analysis2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Most of the world’s electricity is being generated through conventional sources of energy like coal and nuclear. People are realizing the dire effect of using these fuels, and the amount of CO2 being released into the environment. Therefore, in recent year there has been a shift in emphasis towards cleaner ways of generating electricity. One such recent trend is solar photovoltaics (PV), which has seen rapid growth over the years. This ever-increasing trend of adopting PV system allows consumers to be producers or “Prosumers”. Due to the irregular production capability of solar PV, the need for an energy storage system like a battery bank is on the rise as well. This report evaluates how solar PV can be used in combination with a battery bank to supply the annual electricity demand for a household with little to no support from the grid. The building is assumed to be located in Bangalore, India. The energy demand for the household is estimated based on the requirements of a basic Indian house standard. The size and configuration of each component have been done with regards to the total load demand. Furthermore, the cost of the whole system is estimated in order to evaluate the feasibility of the grid-tied system from an economic perspective. The results show that a PV system consisting of four 270W solar panels, a battery bank of eight150Ah lead-acid batteries and a 48V 4kW inverter is required to meet the annual energy demand of the house. The results show that from a technical standpoint, the above-mentioned technology is feasible. The results from the economic evaluation show that the localized cost of energy(LCOE) for the system is ₹6.01/kWh or € 0.078/kWh or 0.84SEK/kWh and the payback time for the given system is 16.19 years. On the bright side, there are new technological advancements in the PV field every day, which could mean that an energy system of this type can be an achievable and practical alternative.

    Most of the world’s electricity is being generated through conventional sources of energy like coal and nuclear. People are realizing the dire effect of using these fuels, and the amount of CO2 being released into the environment. Therefore, in recent year there has been a shift in emphasis towards cleaner ways of generating electricity. One such recent trend is solar photovoltaics (PV), which has seen rapid growth over the years. This ever-increasing trend of adopting PV system allows consumers to be producers or “Prosumers”. Due to the irregular production capability of solar PV, the need for an energy storage system like a battery bank is on the rise as well.

    This report evaluates how solar PV can be used in combination with a battery bank to supply the annual electricity demand for a household with little to no support from the grid. The building is assumed to be located in Bangalore, India. The energy demand for the household is estimated based on the requirements of a basic Indian house standard. The size and configuration of each component have been done with regards to the total load demand. Furthermore, the cost of the whole system is estimated in order to evaluate the feasibility of the grid-tied system from an economic perspective.

    The results show that a PV system consisting of four 270W solar panels, a battery bank of eight 150Ah lead-acid batteries and a 48V 4kW inverter is required to meet the annual energy demand of the house. The results show that from a technical standpoint, the above-mentioned technology is feasible. The results from the economic evaluation show that the localized cost of energy (LCOE) for the system is ₹6.01/kWh or € 0.078/kWh or 0.84SEK/kWh and the payback time for the given system is 16.19 years. On the bright side, there are new technological advancements in the PV field every day, which could mean that an energy system of this type can be an achievable and practical alternative.

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  • 20.
    Berg, Nichlas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Kårhammer, Per
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Säsongslagring av spillvärme: Ersättning av Halmstad fjärrvärmenäts spetslastanläggning2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, a great deal of energy is used for residential and commercial heating. To fulfill the ever increasingly need for heat, new heating plants is built to complement the district heating system. At the same time there is unused energy in industry, which produces heat as an unwanted byproduct.

    This report evaluates the possibility to use this byproduct to supply energy to a district heating system and store it in seasonal heat storage. When the heat demand increases during the cold season of the year, the seasonal heat storage contributes with heat energy.

    The idea is to replace parts of the heating plants in Halmstad with heat storage and waste heat. The aim is to exclude usage of all fossil fuels. This report will also evaluate the economical prerequisites and environmental benefits in replacing biofuels.

    A steelworks company, Höganäs Halmstadverken, is situated in Halmstad. This industry could contribute with surplus heat, which is calculated in this report.

    With help of calculations and simulations in Microsoft Excel, a system with adequate heat storage method and surplus heat from local industry is formed. This system is optimized concerning economic and environmental matters.

    The results reveal that Halmstad's conditions are favorable to integrate pit heat storage and there is potential to deliver waste heat from Höganäs Halmstadverken steelworks. Sizes of seasonal heat storage is optimized to 200 000 m3 for replacing fossil fuels respectively 550 000 m3 for replacing fossil fuels and biofuels. Waste heat effect is calculated to 15 MW.

    The economical calculations results in an annual profit up to 8 million SEK with a payoff equal to 8 years. The environmental benefits consisting of reduced greenhouse gases are calculated to 4 800 tons carbon dioxide equivalents annually.

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  • 21.
    Berkan, Yaroslav
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Simris lokala energisystem2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 22.
    Bhatti, Harrison John
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability. VTI, Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Danilovic, Mike
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability. Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Shanghai Dianji University, Shanghai, China.
    Nåbo, Arne
    VTI, Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Multidimensional Readiness Index for Electrification of Transportation System in China, Norway, and Sweden2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     The main objective of this paper is to develop a readiness index model that can serve as an analytical tool for exploring the achievements of electrification of transportation systems. We have applied this readiness index model to evaluate the readiness positioning of China, Norway, and Sweden towards transport electrification. We have chosen these three countries as they represent diversity among countries that are in the process of adopting electrified transport system solutions. Our developed readiness index model has four key dimensions, technological readiness, political readiness, societal readiness, and economic readiness. The embeddedness of all four dimensions in one model provides a multi-perspective way of analyzing and evaluating the readiness levels of countries moving towards transforming the transportation system. Therefore, we named the model a“multidimensional readiness index.”

    Our main conclusions are that the political processes and political decisiveness involved are the most important factors followed by the societal needs and economic ability, with the current technology available as the fourth. Without the participation of dedicated and determined political decision-makers being involved, the other three factors are challenging to obtain. Political decision-makers need to facilitate the use of economic means to support the transformation in the society and affected industries to balance the initial economic disadvantages of the electrically-powered systems until they pass the cost disadvantage turning point. The development of the relevant technology is no longer a great barrier as it was at the beginning of this transformation, about 20 years ago. The technology for electrically powered transportation systems and devices is widely available now, although it is continuously evolving and being improved. Associated industries cannot be expected to initiate, finance, take the risk, and take the lead in this global societal transformation without clear and strong political support.

    Based on our multidimensional readiness index analysis, China is being positioned as the leading country in the world in the electrification of its transportation systems. This is mainly so because of the strong technology advancements, control of the entire value chain of research, development (R&D), and manufacturing of EVs, strong government decisiveness, and execution power in developing and implementing favorable electric vehicle (EV) policies. The willingness of China’s public sector to take the lead and their citizen’s support to adopt clean technology are additional factors facilitating this advancement. Norway has rapidly become one of the newcomers in electrification with large numbers of registered electric vehicles, despite lacking manufacturing industries of electric vehicles. Sweden is a rapidly developing country in the electrification of transport, with three vehicle manufacturers introducing EVs in 2021. The government has been committed to building demonstration sites for electric roads systems for more than ten years. Sweden is also working on establishing battery manufacturing facilities dedicated to the needs of electrified transportation equipment and systems. 

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  • 23.
    Bhatti, Harrison John
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability. VTI, the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Danilovic, Mike
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Nåbo, Arne
    VTI, the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Käck, Andreas
    VTI, the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Electric Roads: Energy Supplied by Local Renewable Energy Sources and Microgrid Distribution System2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The electric road system is an emerging concept in this modern era. The advancement of technology has made it possible to give this concept a real shape (electric road system). However, the energy provided to the electric roads is still produced by non-renewable energy sources, which are completely unhealthy and harmful for society. Furthermore, the traditional grid is not suited to integrate with decentralized/localized energy generation and distribution systems. It is an ineffectual and environmentally extravagant system. Therefore, the preliminary contribution of this research is to introduce a decentralized/localized energy generation system based on renewable energy sources and energy distribution to electric roads through the emerging technology of microgrid and smart grid systems, which have the capability to integrate with renewable energy sources easily. Thus, producing electricity with renewable energy sources is environmentally friendly, less expensive, and available without charges. However, each source of energy has some environmental impacts and cost differences. A brief description of the environmental and cost impact of renewable energy sources (wind, solar) is also presented. 

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  • 24.
    Bilstrup, Katrin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Böhm, Annette
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Lidström, Kristoffer
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Larsson, Tony
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Strandén, Lars
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Borås, Sweden.
    Zakizadeh, Hossein
    Volvo Technology Corporation, Göteborg, Sweden .
    Vehicle Alert System2007In: Proceedings of 14th world congress on intelligent transport system (ITS), 2007, p. 2-9Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Vehicle Alert System (VAS) project focuses on cooperative alert services based on timely and reliable communication under the challenging circumstances pertaining to a highly mobile vehicular network. Through a cross-layer design, we gain the flexibility needed to adapt the system to the individual requirements of three chosen application scenarios that represent different situations where cooperation between vehicles can make a significant impact. The VAS project is a collaboration involving academic as well as industrial partners and the final stage of the project is a demonstrator that implements results from the research.

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  • 25.
    Blückert, Siri
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Eliassi, Nawzad
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Optimering av förnybar energi: En fallstudie av integrering av solenergi i befintliga vindkraftsparker med batterilagring2023Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Hybridparks combines two or more energy sources. In this thesis in partnership with Arise AB case studies have been conducted in combined photovoltaic power in their existing windparks. Wind and photovoltaic have productionpatterns that compelemts the other. Which in turn gives a more stable production. 

    Four windparks was chosen to be studied and tested as hybridparks: Fröslida, Häradsbo, Råbelöv och Idhult. 

    The size of the hybridpark was based on an earlier study from Arise. One conclusion from that study was that it is possible to install photovoltaics with 2/3 of the installed windpower. 

    The photovoltaic plant was simulated in the program Polysun. Polysun can make simulations and give insight on the possible photovoltaic yield. The data from the simulation was combined with the windpower yield data from Arise to analyse how the hybridpark would function. 

    Energy storage with lithium batteries have been calculated and tested in Excel. The results show the impact the energy storage have on production and delivery to the grid. A simple control scheme with on/off method with a schedule gave the best results in a daily battery cycle. 

    The energy sources seldom overlap and with a controlled energy storage it is possible to deliver power to the grid during power lacking periods such as winter.   

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  • 26.
    Borgström, Karin Margaretha
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Distribution of heat use in Sweden2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current heat use refers normally to the average heat use in a country or a sector during the course of a year. But it is also important to be aware of the distribution of high to low use when estimating the potential for reducing total heat use.Energy statistical data published in the annual report from Statistics Sweden have been supplemented by a deeper analysis of distribution of heat use and systematic causes regarding high heat use.The aim of this paper is to explain the variation in heat use with respect to construction year, degree days and energy efficiency measures.In the Swedish energy efficiency debate, many voices refer to systematic causes for high heat use. However, the results from this study do not support this opinion, since the use distribution mostly comes from individual causes. The most important implication of the study results is that systematic policy measures will have a low impact on the total national energy efficiency.

  • 27.
    Braungardt, Sibylle
    et al.
    The Oeko-Institut, Freiburg, Germany.
    Bürger, Veit
    The Oeko-Institut, Freiburg, Germany.
    Fleiter, Tobias
    The Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research, Karlsruhe, Germany.
    Bagheri, Masha
    The Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research, Karlsruhe, Germany.
    Manz, Pia
    The Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research, Karlsruhe, Germany.
    Billerbeck, Anna
    The Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research, Karlsruhe, Germany.
    Al-Dabbas, Khaled
    The Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research, Karlsruhe, Germany.
    Breitschopf, Barbara
    The Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research, Karlsruhe, Germany.
    Winkler, Jenny
    The Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research, Karlsruhe, Germany.
    Fallahnejad, Mostafa
    Vienna University of Technology, Wien, Austria.
    Harringer, Daniel
    Vienna University of Technology, Wien, Austria.
    Hasani, Jeton
    Vienna University of Technology, Wien, Austria.
    Kök, Ali
    Vienna University of Technology, Wien, Austria.
    Kranzl, Lukas
    Vienna University of Technology, Wien, Austria.
    Mascherbauer, Philipp
    Vienna University of Technology, Wien, Austria.
    Hummel, Marcus
    E-Think, Wien, Austria.
    Müller, Andreas
    E-Think, Wien, Austria.
    Habiger, Jul
    E-Think, Wien, Austria.
    Persson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Sánchez-García, Luis
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Renewable heating and cooling pathways – Towards full decarbonisation by 2050 – Final report2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With the adoption of the EU Climate Law in 2021, the EU has set itself a binding target to achieve climate neutrality by 2050 and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 55 percent compared to 1990 levels by 2030. To support the increased ambition, the EU Commission adopted proposals for revising the key directives and regulations addressing energy efficiency, renewable energies and greenhouse gas emissions in the Fit for 55 package.

    The heating and cooling (H&C) sector plays a key role for reaching the EU energy and climate targets. H&C accounts for about 50 percent of the final energy consumption in the EU, and the sector is largely based on fossil fuels. In 2021, the share of renewable energies in H&C reached 23%. The decarbonisation of heating and cooling is addressed across several directives and regulations at EU level.

    The aim of this study is to support the analytical basis for the development and implementation of policies to ensure a seamless pathway to the full decarbonisation of the heating and cooling sector by 2050 in buildings and industry.

  • 28.
    Byttner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Real-time control of an SI engine using ion current based algorithms2005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Reducing emissions and improving fuel efficiency in automobiles are today important issues. New sensor techniques are developed to extract detailed combustion information to enable closed loop engine control. This thesis is about a virtual sensor; measuring an ion current inside the cylinder by using the already existing spark plug, followed by signal processing for estimation of combustion parameters. First, the thesis aims to show that the ion current signal can be used for closed loop control of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR). Use of EGR is very common in modern automobiles because of the potential reduction of NOx emissions and fuel consumption, but using too much EGR can have the reverse effect (e.g. increased fuel consumption and driveability problems). Algorithms for estimating combustion variability are proposed and a closed loop scheme for controlling an EGR valve is demonstrated for driving on the highway in a SAAB 9000. Estimation of the pressure peak position is treated for closed loop control of ignition timing. Such estimation can be performed with the ion current but may not work if a fuel additive is used. Different methods are compared and it is shown that using a fuel additive may even improve the estimation accuracy of the pressure peak position with about 25%. An algorithm is also proposed to estimate the pressure peak position even in presence of EGR. Strategies for transient control of the air-fuel ratio are also compared. Air-fuel ratio control is important because even small deviations from the stoichiometric value can result in significantly increased emissions. It is found that a neural network based controller had the best performance with approximately 23% lower RMS error than the adapted standard control module.

  • 29.
    Böhm, Annette
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Zakizadeh, Hossein
    Volvo Technology.
    Vehicular ad-hoc networks to avoid surprise effects on sparsely trafficked, rural roads2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper summarizes the main results from a project focusing on the development and evaluation of communication protocols for inter-vehicle communication on sparsely trafficked, rural roads,ensuring the reliable and timely delivery of safety critical data. The project is motivated by traffic safety applications, especially warning systems to avoid surprise effects of unexpected vehicle encounters on sparsely-trafficked, rural roads. The key issue in suchan application is to make sure that the vehicles become aware of each other’s existence by the help of communication as soon as possible. The driver can then be warned in time to avoid a possible accident.The challenge is to gain high probabilities of successful delivery in time, especially when having to cope with bad communication performance caused by e.g. crests.

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    ADHOC2011
  • 30.
    Cardoso Chrispim, Mariana
    University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Evaluation of decentralized approaches to wastewater treatment systems as alternative to environmental impacts and indication of sustainable solution for water conservation in cities2017In: Proceedings of the Regional Workshop Wastewater Treatment and Reuse for Metropolitan Regions and Small Cities in Developing Countries: September 11-17, 2016 - Recife, Brazil / [ed] Edmilson Santos de Lima, Göttingen: Cuvillier Verlag, 2017, 1, p. 28-37Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Millennium Development Goals aim to achieve the sustainable development and to contribute improving access to water supply, sanitation, and energy, and to reduce hunger in the world. Energy and water are essential resources for food production, however, are becoming scarce. In this context an integration of the complete water management cycle includes water conservation and reclamation, storage of reclaimed water and rainwater, and wastewater treatment mainly in decentralized models. Wastewater treatment systems can generate products such as: renewable energy, fertilizers and water. This study focuses on the relations between wastewater treatment systems and its environmental impacts, besides to indicate potential solutions. In addition, it is also presented results from an experimental greywater treatment system operated at the university. The objective of this study was to address some Brazilian experiences of centralized wastewater treatment plant (large scale) and decentralized wastewater treatment plant (small scale). We expect that the results of this study can offer a review of strategies of wastewater treatment to implement in urban areas in Brazil, and to create subsidies for the planning of new wastewater treatment plants with low environmental impacts, including sustainable solutions (e.g., water reuse).

  • 31.
    Cardoso Chrispim, Mariana
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden; University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Resource recovery from wastewater treatment: challenges, opportunities and guidance for planning and implementation2021Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Considering the current resources scarcity, Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTP) should be adapted to become more sustainable. For example, it is possible to recover resources present in municipal wastewater. However, regional studies about integration of resource recovery processes at different scales or about the main barriers to implementation in developing countries are missing in the literature. Also, there is a need for planning methodologies to identify the most sustainable solution in each context. Understanding the current situation is an essential step to support planning and accelerate resource recovery implementation. To address these issues this thesis aims to guide planning, technology and policy development towards resource recovery from municipal WWTP in large cities of developing countries. This thesis presents a comprehensive knowledge base for wastewater treatment plant managers and decision-makers leading to a better understanding of resource recovery solutions and the actions needed to facilitate implementation. The methodology comprised critical literature reviews and two case studies. Secondary data from literature and primary data (obtained through questionnaires) were collected and analysed. Megacities in developing countries are analysed in the papers, with the focus on the Macrometropolis of Sao Paulo, which is the most populous area in the Southern Hemisphere. The current situation shows a low implementation of resource recovery practices in the region, and local conditions affect the implementation of water reuse, and nutrients and energy recovery. A framework consisting of eleven steps is proposed to support planning and decision-making on resource recovery from wastewater. This new tool was tested and can be applied by decision-makers in wastewater sector for better operation and management. Market, legislation, local economic development, and cooperation with stakeholders are relevant aspects covered in the analysis. There is a great potential to expand wastewater treatment integrated with nutrient and energy recovery strategies in developing countries. Potentials for phosphorus and energy recovery were estimated and some recovery scenarios are recommended. In conclusion, the findings can help planning and elaboration of resource recovery projects in wastewater treatment in urban areas and stimulate creation of public policies. The main research gaps identified in this thesis can guide further research and technological development in this field.

  • 32.
    Cardoso Chrispim, Mariana
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden; University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
    de M. de Souza, Fernanda
    University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Scholz, Miklas
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden; University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Nolasco, Marcelo A.
    University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
    A Framework for Sustainable Planning and Decision-Making on Resource Recovery from Wastewater: Showcase for São Paulo Megacity2020In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 12, no 12, article id 3466Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently, it is important to develop strategic frameworks to support the selection of sustainable resource recovery solutions. This study applies a new framework for planning, implementation, and assessment of resource recovery strategies for a full-scale wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in São Paulo megacity. The framework comprises several steps based on case study-specific data and information from current literature. Data were collected from various sources: a survey with a wastewater treatment utility, national and regional databases, and review of local regulations and international literature. Treatment configuration, wastewater and by-products composition, potential demand (for water, energy, and phosphorus), stakeholder identification, and local legislation were thoroughly discussed regarding decision-making on resource recovery. Scenario analysis was used to explore suitable nutrient and energy recovery measures based on indicators. Biogas recovery and sewage sludge composting showed more favorable conditions due to similar experiences in the area and robust legislation. The proposed framework is a simplified tool, and its application can support managers to get information on resource recovery and how to plan such initiatives in easier ways to facilitate wiser decision-making, and better operation and management. The results on framework use and refinement can guide potential applications in other contexts and stimulate public policy formulation and further research.

  • 33.
    Cardoso Chrispim, Mariana
    et al.
    University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Fernandes Torres de Souza, Jhonathan
    University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Felipe Simões, André
    Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, Brazil.
    Avaliação Comparativa Entre Veículos Elétricos E Veículos Convencionais No Contexto De Mitigação Das Mudanças Climáticas2019In: Revista Gestão & Sustentabilidade Ambiental, ISSN 2238-8753, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 127-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently, the electric vehicles (EV) have been considered as the future trend in the automotive industry. Among the countries’ motivations for this are: reducing the dependence on oil and its derivatives, promoting more efficient energy use and causing lower environmental impacts, especially those related to the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG). Hybrid and Electric vehicles do not represent a recent technological invention; however these vehicles account to a marginal contribution in the vehicle history since 30’s decade. Moreover, it is worth to note that EV is not released from environmental impacts, mainly through its production phase. In this paper, we expect to contribute with information about the characteristics of EV’s environmental performance in comparison with conventional vehicles powered by internal combustion engine, analyzing which are their advantages and disadvantages, the environmental impacts caused through all the life cycle and how this technology could contribute to mitigate the climate change. In addition, it is also discussed the impacts of the electric and hybrid vehicles expansion on the final energy demand. In   

  • 34.
    Cardoso Chrispim, Mariana
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Mattsson, Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Ulvenblad, Pia
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    The underrepresented key elements of Circular Economy: A critical review of assessment tools and a guide for action2023In: Sustainable Production and Consumption, ISSN 2352-5509, Vol. 35, p. 539-558Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The measurement of progress towards Circular Economy (CE) within a company is crucial for identifying opportunities and designing circular practices. However, most of the existing tools do not consider the systemic view and principles of CE. The aim of this paper is to assess the contributions and limitations of CE assessment tools regarding the key elements: social dimension, stakeholder engagement, R-imperatives and industrial symbiosis. Also, the aim is to offer guidance for improvements towards a CE transition. The methodology was an integrative literature review; then based on the critical assessment of tools a guide was created. Thirty-eight tools were thoroughly analysed and our results show that there is a limited number of multidisciplinary tools (only 10), that is including all CE key elements, and in some cases partly. Social dimension is not fully explored; only 6 tools have indicators related to society, local community, customers, and workers. Recommendations for future tools development include to offer training for possible users of the tools and to develop tools for the service sector. Finally, we conclude that all the key elements of CE are interconnected. The proposed guide-ACTION (Assessing Circular Transition In Organisations Now)- includes the key elements, databases, tools, and indicators, and is aligned with the CE principles to help the assessment. © 2022 The Author(s)

  • 35.
    Cardoso Chrispim, Mariana
    et al.
    University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Nolasco, Marcelo Antunes
    University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Greywater treatment using a moving bed biofilm reactor at a university campus in Brazil2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 142, no Part 1, p. 290-296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Water reuse can contribute as an important approach and practice to the reduction of the pressures on water resources lowering the demand for potable water for purposes that do not require water's high quality. However the greywater reuse has been rarely applied in Brazil. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to evaluate a greywater collection and treatment system from lavatories, showers and washing machine aiming the non-potable reuse. The objectives were to characterize the quality and quantity of greywater from different sources, to monitor a pilot system for synthetic greywater treatment and to analyze the quality of the effluent after treatment. The pilot system implemented in a building at University of Sao Paulo allowed to segregate greywater collection and characterization. To evaluate the greywater production water flow meters were installed in the water inlet of each greywater source. The treatment system included a moving bed biofilm reactor and a settling tank at pilot scale. The evaluation of greywater treatment was conducted based on the monitoring of physicochemical and microbiological water quality parameters during the operation of the experimental system. Based on the results, amongst the three greywater sources, the water from showers had the highest E. coli concentration while the lavatories water had the highest total coliforms concentration. The removal efficiencies of BOD and COD were 59% e 70% respectively. The phosphorus removal during the experimental period was low. Nevertheless the water quality produced is viable to be applied for outdoor purposes - landscape and garden irrigation in household, commercial and institutional buildings and the results were satisfactory according to Brazilian standard. The treatment showed stability and reliability ensuring the potential for a safe reuse if appropriate operation and monitoring of the treatment system is performed.

  • 36.
    Cardoso Chrispim, Mariana
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden; University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil .
    Scholz, Miklas
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden; University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa; The University of Salford, Salford, United Kingdom.
    Nolasco, Marcelo Antunes
    University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    A framework for resource recovery from wastewater treatment plants in megacities of developing countries2020In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 188, article id 109745Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In developing countries, there is often a lack of a comprehensive data set that supports the development of coherent policies on resource recovery from wastewater treatment. This paper aims to contribute to the elaboration of resource recovery projects by providing accurate and updated data from wastewater treatment plants such as those located in the region of the Macrometropolis of Sao Paulo. The authors discuss possibilities of improvement of resource recovery for this illustrative example. Comprehensive analyses were performed based on data from 143 municipal wastewater treatment plants to understand the situation regarding resource recovery implementation in this region. The results show that just 26% of the plants perform at least one resource recovery practice. The predominant resource recovery practice is internal water reuse, and recovery is concentrated more in large plants than in medium and small ones. The sludge is disposed in landfills except for three plants, which perform sludge recycling for compost. Some plant managers reported interest in recovering energy from biogas, in expanding water reuse and in recovering sludge for fertilizer production or for building materials. Several aspects that have been regarded as relevant to the implementation of resource recovery processes in previous literature are discussed, such as the size of the plant, related legislation as well as treatment technologies and configurations. Finally, the authors propose a generic framework with several steps that can help to achieve resource recovery implementation. Therefore, the results can provide support for planning of resource recovery projects for large cities in developing countries. © 2020 Elsevier Inc.

  • 37.
    Cardoso Chrispim, Mariana
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden; University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Scholz, Miklas
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden; University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa; South Ural State University (National Research University), Chelyabinsk, Russian Federation; Institute of Environmental Engineering, Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Wrocław, Poland.
    Nolasco, Marcelo Antunes
    University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Biogas recovery for sustainable cities: A critical review of enhancement techniques and key local conditions for implementation2021In: Sustainable cities and society, ISSN 2210-6707, Vol. 72, article id 103033Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is great potential to apply energy recovery from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) to achieve better energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions abatement. However, in most of the wastewater treatment plants that produce biogas through sludge digestion, there is no thermal energy recovery or electricity generation, and the biogas is flared and wasted, particularly in developing countries. This paper discusses the recent technological advances related to biogas recovery from wastewater treatment besides identifying research gaps and local conditions, which affect implementation. Techniques for enhancement of biogas production such as co-digestion and microalgae systems for energy recovery were reviewed in terms of performance and context for application. This paper provides an assessment of how local conditions promote or hinder biogas recovery from WWTP in megacities of developing countries. The lack of government subsidies and a biogas market that is not well developed and regulated hinder biogas recovery implementation in the studied megacities. Infrastructure and electricity prices are also discussed. Strategies to promote energy recovery are recommended based on successful examples of energy self-sufficient WWTP. The findings may not only support planning on energy recovery but also guide technological development and research on this topic, aligned with the sustainable development goals.

  • 38.
    Cardoso Chrispim, Mariana
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability. Lund University, Lund, Sweden; University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Scholz, Miklas
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden; University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa; South Ural State University (National Research University), Chelyabinsk, Russian Federation; Institute of Environmental Engineering, Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Wrocław, Poland.
    Nolasco, Marcelo Antunes
    University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Phosphorus recovery from municipal wastewater treatment: Critical review of challenges and opportunities for developing countries2019In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 248, article id 109268Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to provide guidance in selecting phosphorus recovery options within the municipal wastewater treatment sector regarding developing countries. This critical review includes a brief contextualization of the resource-oriented sanitation paradigm, the discussion of processes for phosphorus recovery based on methods at full-scale, pilot-scale and laboratory-scale, and a concise discussion of the environmental impacts and benefits associated with phosphorus recovery strategies. Finally, the main challenges related to the implementation of resource recovery strategies, especially for phosphorous, were identified and discussed. According to the results, some of the main drivers for phosphorus recovery are the limited availability of phosphorus, increasing cost of phosphate fertilizers and reduction of maintenance costs. Currently, most of the operational processes are based on crystallization or precipitation from the digester supernatant. Struvite is the most common recovered product. The recovery rate of phosphorus from the liquid phase is lower (10–60% from wastewater treatment plant influent), than from sludge (35–70%) and from sludge ashes (70–98%). Phosphorus recovery remains challenging, and some barriers identified were the integration between stakeholders and institutions, public policies and regulations as well as public acceptance and economic feasibility. In developing countries, the implementation of nutrient recovery systems is challenging, because the main concern is on the expansion of sanitation coverage. Resource recovery approaches can provide benefits beyond the wastewater treatment sector, not only improving the sustainability of wastewater treatment operations, but generating revenue for the utility provider.

  • 39.
    Cardoso Chrispim, Mariana
    et al.
    School of Arts, Sciences, and Humanities, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Tarpeh, William A.
    Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA.
    Salinas, Delhi T. P.
    School of Arts, Sciences, and Humanities, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Nolasco, Marcelo A.
    School of Arts, Sciences, and Humanities, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
    The sanitation and urban agriculture nexus: urine collection and application as fertilizer in São Paulo, Brazil2017In: Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, ISSN 2043-9083, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 455-465Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Separately collected urine is an attractive potential fertilizer because of its high nutrient content, low cost, and inherent linkage of urban wastewater management and peri-urban agriculture. Urine from waterless urinals was applied to corn and lettuce plants to examine the impact of urine application rates and frequency on plant growth and soil parameters. In both corn and lettuce experiments, urine application significantly (p < 0.05) increased growth and leaf production relative to control plants. More frequent applications led to lower soil cation exchange capacities for corn and higher soil nitrogen content for both crops. Based on preliminary implementation calculations, waterless urinals at the University of São Paulo (USP), School of Arts, Sciences, and Humanities campus could lead to over 1,500 m3 of water saved and 360 m3 of urine produced on an annual basis. These experiments and modeling results are discussed in the context of scaling up urban urine collection, transport, and fertilization in São Paulo, Brazil.

  • 40.
    Chavhan, Suresh
    et al.
    Indian Institute of Information Technology, Raichur, Karnataka, India.
    Kumar, Sachin
    South Ural State University, Chelyabinsk, Russian Federation.
    Tiwari, Prayag
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Liang, Xueqin
    Xidian University, Xi'an, China.
    Lee, Ik Hyun
    Korea Polytechnic University, Siheung, South Korea.
    Muhammad, Khan
    Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Edge-enabled Blockchain-based V2X Scheme for Secure Communication within the Smart City Development2023In: IEEE Internet of Things Journal, ISSN 2327-4662, Vol. 10, no 24, p. 21282-21293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the high mobility nature of the vehicles results in frequent leaving and joining the transportation network, real-time data must be collected and shared in a timely manner. In such a transportation network, malicious vehicles can disrupt services and create serious issues, such as deadlocks and accidents. The blockchain is a technology that ensures traceability, consistency, and security in transportation networks. In this study, we integrated edge computing and blockchain technology to improve the optimal utilization of resources, especially in terms of computing, communication, security, and storage. We propose a novel, edge-integrated, blockchain-based vehicle platoon security scheme. For the vehicle platoon, we developed the security architecture, implemented smart contracts for practical network scenarios in NS-3, and integrated them with the SUMO TraCI API. We exhaustively simulated all the scenarios and analyzed the communication performance metrics, such as throughput, delay, and jitter, and the security performance metrics, such as mean squared error, communication, and computational cost. The performance results demonstrate that the developed scheme can solve security-related issues more effectively and efficiently in smart cities. © IEEE

  • 41.
    Connolly, David
    et al.
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Lund, Henrik
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Mathiesen, Brian Vad
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Möller, Bernd
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Persson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Boermans, Thomas
    Ecofys, Köln, Germany.
    Trier, Daniel
    PlanEnergi, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Østergaard, Poul Alberg
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Nielsen, Steffen
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Heat Roadmap Europe: Combining district heating with heat savings to decarbonise the EU energy system2014In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 65, p. 475-489Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Six different strategies have recently been proposed for the European Union (EU) energy system in the European Commission’s report, Energy Roadmap 2050. The objective for these strategies is to identify how the EU can reach its target of an 80% reduction in annual greenhouse gas emissions in 2050 compared to 1990 levels. None of these scenarios involve the large-scale implementation of district heating, but instead they focus on the electrification of the heating sector (primarily using heat pumps) and/or the large-scale implementation of electricity and heat savings. In this paper, the potential for district heating in the EU between now and 2050 is identified, based on extensive and detailed mapping of the EU heat demand and various supply options. Subsequently, a new ‘district heating plus heat savings’ scenario is technically and economically assessed from an energy systems perspective. The results indicate that with district heating, the EU energy system will be able to achieve the same reductions in primary energy supply and carbon dioxide emissions as the existing alternatives proposed. However, with district heating, these goals can be achieved at a lower cost, with heating and cooling costs reduced by approximately 15%. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 42.
    Connolly, David
    et al.
    Department of Development and Planning Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Lund, Henrik
    Department of Development and Planning Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Vad Mathiesen, Brian
    Department of Development and Planning Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Möller, Bernd
    Department of Development and Planning Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Østergaard, Poul Alberg
    Department of Development and Planning Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Nielsen, Steffen
    Department of Development and Planning Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Persson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Trier, Daniel
    PlanEnergi, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    The role of district heating in decarbonising the EU energy system and a comparison with existing strategies2013In: Book of Abstracts: 8th Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many strategies have already been proposed for the decarbonisation of the EU energy system by the year 2050. These typically focus on the expansion of renewable energy in the electricity sector and subsequently, electrifying both the heat and transport sectors as much as possible. In these strategies, the role of district heating has never been fully explored system, nor have the benefits of district heating been quantified at the EU level. This study combines the mapping of local heat demands and local heat supplies across the EU27. Using this local knowledge, new district heating potentials are identified and then, the EU27 energy system is modelled to investigate the impact of district heating. The results indicate that a combination of heat savings, district heating in urban areas, and individual heat pumps in rural areas will enable the EU27 to reach its greenhouse gas emissions targets by 2050, but at a cheaper price than a scenario which focuses primarily on the implementation of heat savings.

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    The role of district heating in decarbonising the EU energy system and a comparison with existing strategies
  • 43.
    De Rosa, Mattia
    et al.
    University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy.
    Bianco, Vincenzo
    DIME/TEC Division of Thermal Energy and Environmental Conditioning, Genoa, Italy; Università degli Studi di Napoli “Parthenope”, Napoli, Italy.
    Barth, Henrik
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Pereira da Silva, Patricia
    CeBER, Centre for Business and Economics Research, Faculty of Economics, University of Coimbra, Av. Dias da Silva, 165, 3004-512 Coimbra, Portugal.
    Vargas Salgado, Carlos
    Universitat Politècnica de València (UPV), Valencia, Spain.
    Pallonetto, Fabiano
    School of Business, National University of Ireland Manyooth, Maynooth, Ireland.
    Technologies and Strategies to Support Energy Transition in Urban Building and Transportation Sectors2023In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 16, no 11, article id 4317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    More than half of the world population live in urban settlements which are responsible for a large share of energy consumption and, consequently, carbon emissions. The transition towards a more sustainable urban environment requires a change in paradigm in terms of how we design and manage our cities. Urban areas require innovative technologies and strategies to reduce energy consumption and carbon emissions, and to be included in comprehensive plans encompassing all technical, social and economic dimensions which characterise cities. This involves the transformation of urban contexts, with a focus on local and urban-level mitigation measures, such as the construction of positive energy buildings, deployment of renewable energy, promotion of a sustainable mobility, creation of resilient urban infrastructure, implementation of circular economy and recycling practices, etc. The present article provides a perspective on the sustainable energy transition in cities, focusing on the building and transportation sectors. Furthermore, insights on supporting mechanisms and innovative management strategies are presented. © 2023 by the authors.

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  • 44.
    Deutschmann, Oliver
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science.
    Framtidens elbilar utmanar nutidens elnät: Påverkan av ett ökat antal elbilar på ett halländskt elnät2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The challenges facing low voltage grids are rising as an increasing number of domestic houses transition from fossil fueled heating to electricity based heating. Several environmental goals and visions have the same transition from fossil based power to electricity based power in mind for the transportation sector. One of the most important tools for this transformation is widely regarded to be the electric vehicle. With the demands of the electric vehicle pressuring the power grid, several questions arise regarding the growth of the electric vehicle market and what repercussions it may have on the grid. This paper focuses on a typical low voltage grid in southern Sweden and what effects a growing electric vehicle market may have on it. Through computer-assisted simulations based on several future scenarios regarding the EV market, this paper finds that few modifications and reinforcements are needed on this particular grid within the next 10 to 15 years. After this timeframe the voltage drop becomes a serious concern and should be addressed.

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  • 45.
    Dénarié, Alice
    et al.
    Energy Department, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy.
    Fattori, Fabrizio
    Energy Department, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy.
    Macchi, Samuel
    Energy Department, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy.
    Cirillo, Vincenzo Francesco
    Energy Department, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy.
    Motta, Mario
    Energy Department, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy.
    Persson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Assessment of renewable and waste heat recovery for DH through GIS mapping: the national potential in Italy2020In: Book of Abstracts: 6th International Conference on Smart Energy Systems / [ed] Henrik Lund, Brian Vad Mathiesen, Poul Alberg Østergaard & Hans Jørgen Brodersen, 2020, p. 129-129Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This work aims at showing the potential of waste and renewable heat recovery in Italy through detailed mapping of these sources. The ambition of this analysis is to highlight the areas with important heat recovery potential and to show how the matching with suitable heat demand would allow its exploitation through district heating expansion. The importance of waste heat and renewable heat potentially recoverable to reduce primary energy consumption in the civil sector is widely recognized. Nevertheless, these potential is widely unexploited in Italy. The processes and energy sources have been analysed in terms of geographical location, quantification of available heat and recovery costs with a special focus on temperature levels. The main distinction between low temperature and high temperature heat sources has been applied in order to identify the heat recovery characteristics and the consequent additional costs for temperature upgrades. The inputs of the analysis performed in this work come from national database, which has allowed obtaining more detailed and wider results with respect to international existing studies on the same subject. Two different approaches have been used to map potential heat: one to identify and quantify existing waste heat recovery and one to assess and estimate energy coming from potential new plants. The analysed sources belonging to the first category are industrial processes, waste to energy plants, waste water treatment plants and datacentres, while biomass, geothermal energy and electrolysis plants estimation belong to the second one. Results shows that the national available waste and renewable heat amount to 270 TWh which is an important outcome in comparison with a national heat demand for the residential and tertiary sector of 400 TWh. Out of this results, according to a nuts 3 regional aggregation of heat demand, 95 TWh could be recovered in DH. The reduction from theoretical potential of 270 TWh to 95 TWh is due to geographical matching of heat demand and available waste heat and on some hypothesis related to the diffusion of DH. This work shows the huge unexpressed potential of waste heat reutilisation in Italy and how the mapping of recoverable heat and not only its quantification is essential to properly estimate the utilization potential.

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  • 46.
    Dénarié, Alice
    et al.
    Department of Energy, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy.
    Fattori, Fabrizio
    Department of Energy, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy.
    Spirito, Giulia
    Department of Energy, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy.
    Macchi, Samuel
    Department of Energy, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy.
    Cirillo, Vincenzo Francesco
    Department of Energy, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy.
    Motta, Mario
    Department of Energy, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy.
    Persson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Assessment of waste and renewable heat recovery in DH through GIS mapping: The national potential in Italy2021In: Smart Energy, E-ISSN 2666-9552, Vol. 1, article id 100008Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work aims at showing the unexploited potential of waste and renewable heat in Italy through detailed mapping of these sources. The ambition is to highlight the areas with an important heat recovery potential that could be exploited through DH expansion. The recoverable heat sources have been analysed in terms of geographical location, and recovery aspects with a special focus on temperature levels and technological implications for temperature upgrades. The methodology presented in this work addresses not only the theoretical potential of waste heat and renewable heat use in DH, but also several technical aspects to get a result as closer as possible to the realistic potential at national level. Two different approaches have been used to map potential heat: one to quantify existing waste heat recovery from industrial processes, waste to energy plants, wastewater treatment plants and one to estimate the energy coming from potential new plants based on biomass, geothermal energy and solar thermal. Results shows that for a total heat demand for the civil sector of 329 TWh, out of which 114 TWh come out being suitable for a DH connection, the national available waste and renewable heat that could be integrated in DH amounts to 156 TWh. These results show the significant unexpressed potential of waste heat use in Italy and how its mapping is essential to properly estimate the utilization potential. This work has been commissioned by AIRU, Italian DH association. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 47.
    Dénarié, Alice
    et al.
    Energy Department, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy.
    Macchi, Samuel
    Energy Department, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy.
    Fattori, Fabrizio
    Energy Department, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy.
    Spirito, Giulia
    Energy Department, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy.
    Motta, Mario
    Energy Department, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy.
    Persson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    A validated method to assess the network length and the heat distribution costs of potential district heating systems in Italy2021In: International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management, E-ISSN 2246-2929, Vol. 31, p. 59-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The evaluation of the district heating network investment costs requires the knowledge of its topology. However, when assessing district heating potential, the topology is not known a priori and a simulation is required. One method for modelling future heat networks involves the use of Minimum Spanning Tree, from the graph theory. In this work, the MST is used together with real networks lengths to elaborate an updated equation describing the effective width in correlation with the number of building ratio instead of plot ratio. The reason motivating the use of simulated networks lies in the goal of analysing sparse areas where there’s a general lack of data. In this study, the census cells vertexes and local roads layout are used as inputs for the application of the MST in order to simulate DH network layouts in areas where DH is not present. The method has been validated by running simulations in areas where DH is already present, allowing the comparison of the respective lengths. The validation shows a variable but systematic overestimation of the simulated lengths. The study of the error has brought to the definition of a correlation between accuracy of results and the share of buildings with centralized heating systems suitable for DH connection. The updated version of the effective width confirms the exponential tendency and gives higher results for Italian cities then for Scandinavian ones, showing an important impact of the city structure in the curve. The city of Milano is finally used as a case study to show the effects of using the updated effective width curve.

  • 48.
    Egeskog, Andrea
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Hansson, Julia
    Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Berndes, Göran
    Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Co-generation of biofuels for transportation and heat for district heating systems: An assessment of the national possibilities in the EU2009In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 37, no 12, p. 5260-5272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomass gasification with subsequent synthesis to liquid or gaseous biofuels generates heat possible to use in district heating (DH) systems. The purpose here is to estimate the heat sink capacity of DH systems in the individual EU nations and assess the possibilities for biomass-gasification-based co-generation of synthetic biofuels for transportation and heat (CBH) for DH systems in the EU countries. The possibilities are assessed (i) assuming different levels of competiveness relative to other heat supply options of CBH corresponding to the EU target for renewable energy for transportation for 2020 and (ii) assuming that the potential expansion of the DH systems by 2020 is met with CBH. In general, the size of the DH heat sinks represented by the existing national aggregated DH systems can accommodate CBH at a scale that is significant compared to the 2020 renewable transportation target. The possibilities for CBH also depend on its cost-competitiveness compared to, e.g., fossil-fuel-based CHP. The possible expansion of the DH systems by 2020 represents an important opportunity for CBH and is also influenced by the potential increase in the use of other heat supply options, such as, industrial waste heat, waste incineration, and CHP. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 49.
    Farah, Hamad
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Hybrid solar system for heat and electric demands in a simple housing within Sweden and China2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The access to ideal heating and power techniques has always been highly thought after.This is mainly due to the development in housing architecture and the cold nature of certain regions which has led to an increase in popularity of the heating market and modernised heating technologies. The current DH systems make use of CHP plants for thegeneration of power and electricity. These CHP plants for the most part, are powered through biomass and during winter periods the demand for heating is highly increased.The biggest issue with relying on biomass solely is the constant need to burn wasteproducts which not only results in increasing the demand for consuming in more waste,but also results in producing remains (by-products) that cannot be broken down further and hence might require the utilization of land-space (landfills) for their disposal. Solar modules on the other hand, have gained increased popularity in the recent age. This is mainly due their extremely high flexible ability in converting solar irradiance intoelectrical and thermal energies. This study will try to provide a comprehensive study intothe utilization of a hybrid solar system that combines a standard PV module with a flat-plate collector through estimating the energy demands for a simple housing within Sweden and China. This will be the main aim of the study, however the possibilities of integrating this hybrid solar system alongside current DH systems will mostly be discussed in the first sections to proof the possibility of executing such a system. The theoretical work carried out will only include simulations of having just separate,standalone PV and flat-plate collector modules. However, designing a hybrid solar and DH system will not be the major focus of this study. The results at the end of the report,concluded that the electrical production for the Swedish case were noticeably higher thanthat of the Chinese case in spite of maintaining the same load values through both cases and higher solar irradiation for the Chinese case. Due to PVsyst simulation constraints,the results show that the investment cost of the Swedish PV (electrical component) module was about 3.6 times greater than that of the Chinese which could possibly mean that the Swedish case has a bigger PV module area than the Chinese case in order to meetel ectricity demand monthly. However, when it came to the thermal energy production, it was possible to assume different collectors cases and hence an area of 7m2 was chosen for the Swedish perspective while an area of 4m2 has been considered for the Chinese case. The thermal useful energy values where then compared with heating demands for both of the cases. Finally, the thesis concluded that there was no requirement for having an integrated DH network within the standalone houses, having small electricity and heat demand and hence, it might be more beneficial to have an integrated DH and solar system within more densely populated housing areas.

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  • 50.
    Farouq, Shiraz
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Byttner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Gadd, Henrik
    Öresundskraft AB, Ängelholm, Sweden.
    Towards understanding district heating substation behavior using robust first difference regression2018In: Energy Procedia, Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2018, Vol. 149, p. 236-245Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The behavior of a district heating (DH) substation has a social and operational context. The social context comes from its general usage pattern and personal requirements of building inhabitants. The operational context comes from its configuration settings which considers both the weather conditions and social requirements. The parameter estimating thermal energy demand response with respect to change in outdoor temperature conditions along with the strength of the relationship between these variables are two important measures of operational efficiency of a substation. In practice, they can be estimated using a regression model where the slope parameter measures the average response and R2 measures the strength of the relationship. These measures are also important from a monitoring perspective. However, factors related to the social context of a building and the presence of unexplained outliers can make the estimation of these measures a challenging task. Social context of a data point in DH, in many cases appears as an outlier. Data efficiency is also required if these measures are to be estimated in a timely manner. Under these circumstances, methods that can isolate and reduce the effect of outliers in a principled and data efficient manner are required. We therefore propose to use Huber regression, a robust method based on M-estimator type loss function. This method can not only identify possible outliers present in the data of each substation but also reduce their effect on the estimated slope parameter. Moreover, substations that are comparable according to certain criteria, for instance, those with almost identical energy demand levels, should have relatively similar slopes. This provides an opportunity to observe deviating substations under the assumption that comparable substations should show homogeneity in their behavior. Furthermore, the slope parameter can be compared across time to observe if the dynamics of a substation has changed. Our analysis shows that Huber regression in combination with ordinary least squares can provide reliable estimates on the operational efficiency of DH substations. © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

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