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  • 1.
    Abbas, Taimoor
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Elect & Informat Technol Dept, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Sjöberg, Katrin
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Kåredal, Johan
    Lund Univ, Elect & Informat Technol Dept, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Tufvesson, Fredrik
    Lund Univ, Elect & Informat Technol Dept, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    A Measurement Based Shadow Fading Model for Vehicle-to-Vehicle Network Simulations2015In: International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, ISSN 1687-5869, E-ISSN 1687-5877, article id 190607Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) propagation channel has significant implications on the design and performance of novel communication protocols for vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs). Extensive research efforts have been made to develop V2V channel models to be implemented in advanced VANET system simulators for performance evaluation. The impact of shadowing caused by other vehicles has, however, largely been neglected in most of the models, as well as in the system simulations. In this paper we present a shadow fading model targeting system simulations based on real measurements performed in urban and highway scenarios. The measurement data is separated into three categories, line-of-sight (LOS), obstructed line-of-sight (OLOS) by vehicles, and non-line-of-sight due to buildings, with the help of video information recorded during the measurements. It is observed that vehicles obstructing the LOS induce an additional average attenuation of about 10 dB in the received signal power. An approach to incorporate the LOS/OLOS model into existing VANET simulators is also provided. Finally, system level VANET simulation results are presented, showing the difference between the LOS/OLOS model and a channel model based on Nakagami-m fading.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Bengtsson, Per-Johan
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Dark Ages Lunar Interferometer (DALI): Deployment-Rover - Mobility System2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is issued in collaboration with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, California. JPL's primary function is the construction and operation of robotic planetary spacecraft. At the time being JPL has 22 spacecraft and 10 instruments conducting active missions.

    The "Dark Ages" represent the last frontier in cosmology, the era between the genesis of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and the formation of the first stars. During the Dark Ages, when the Universe was unlit by any star, the only detectable signal is likely to be that from neutral hydrogen (HI).

    The HI absorption occurs in dark matter-dominated overdensities, locations that will later become the birthplaces of the first stars. Tracing this evolution will provide crucial insights into the properties of dark matter and potentially reveal aspects of cosmic inflation. This could be accomplished using a radio telescope located on the far side of the Moon, the only site in the solar system shielded from human-generated interference and, at night, from solar radio emissions.

    Our objective has been the development of the concept of an autonomous rover that would be capable of deploying a large number of low frequency radio antennas on the lunar surface. This is an enabling task for the eventual creation of a radio telescope.

    The project at Halmstad University was divided into three sub-projects, where our area of responsibility has been the development of a concept of the rover's mobility system.

    The result of the project is the concept of a "Rocker-Bogie" suspension system, created in a 3D-environment. A concept which underwent a series of digital analyses and simulations to ensure the compliance with required specifications.

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    Dark Ages Lunar Interferometer (DALI): Deployment-Rover - Mobility System
  • 3.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES). The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Sweden.
    Larsson, Tony
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Jansson, Jonas
    The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Sweden.
    Nåbo, Arne
    The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Sweden.
    Extended Driving Simulator for Evaluation of Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems2016In: SIGSIM-PADS '16: Proceedings of the 2016 annual ACM Conference on SIGSIM Principles of Advanced Discrete Simulation, New York: ACM Digital Library, 2016, p. 255-278Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicles in cooperative intelligent transport systems (C-ITS) often need to interact with each other in order to achieve their goals, safe and efficient transport services. Since human drivers are still expected to be involved in C-ITS, driving simulators are appropriate tools for evaluation of the C-ITS functions. However, driving simulators often simplify the interactions or influences from the ego vehicle on the traffic. Moreover, they normally do not support vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2X) communication, which is the main enabler for C-ITS. Therefore, to increase the C-ITS evaluation capability, a solution on how to extend a driving simulator with traffic and network simulators to handle cooperative systems is presented as a result of this paper. Evaluation of the result using two use cases is presented. And, the observed limitations and challenges of the solution are reported and discussed. © 2016 ACM, Inc.

  • 4.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES). Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Sweden.
    Patel, Raj Haresh
    Communication Systems Department, EURECOM, Sophia-Antipolis, France.
    Englund, Cristofer
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS). RISE Viktoria, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Härri, Jérôme
    Communication Systems Department, EURECOM, Sophia-Antipolis, France.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Sweden.
    Bonnet, Christian
    Communication Systems Department, EURECOM, Sophia-Antipolis, France.
    Evaluating Model Mismatch Impacting CACC Controllers in Mixed2018In: 2018 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV), IEEE, 2018, p. 1867-1872Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At early market penetration, automated vehicles will share the road with legacy vehicles. For a safe transportation system, automated vehicle controllers therefore need to estimate the behavior of the legacy vehicles. However, mismatches between the estimated and real human behaviors can lead to inefficient control inputs, and even collisions in the worst case. In this paper, we propose a framework for evaluating the impact of model mismatch by interfacing a controller under test with a driving simulator. As a proof- of-concept, an algorithm based on Model Predictive Control (MPC) is evaluated in a braking scenario. We show how model mismatch between estimated and real human behavior can lead to a decrease in avoided collisions by almost 46%, and an increase in discomfort by almost 91%. Model mismatch is therefore non-negligible and the proposed framework is a unique method to evaluate them. © 2018 IEEE.

  • 5.
    Arvidsson, Christoffer
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Andersson, Jakob
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Virtual Validation of Autonomous Vehicles: Virtualizing an Electric Cabin Scooter2023Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis report presents a study on the virtualization of an Electric Cabin Scooter used to validate the feasibility of converting it into an autonomous vehicle. The project aimed to design, develop, and test a virtual model of the car that can navigate from points A to B while avoiding obstacles. The report describes the methodology used in the project, which includes setting up the workspace, construction of the virtual model, implementation of ROS2 controllers, and integration of SLAM and Navigation2. The thesis report also describes and discusses related work, as well as the theoretical background of the project. Results show a successfully developed working virtual vehicle model, which provides a solid starting point for future work.

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  • 6.
    Bangalore Manjunath, Harsha
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Kumar, Santosh
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Designing of Kids Train2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Designing a Kids Train body and Chassis, where Body of a train plays an important role as it should be attractive, fun, educational, comfortable and safer for the kids. and the chassis should be able to withstand sufficient load and able to accommodate steering, battery, seating, motor, axles and bumper at all sides which is developed for SB international AB.A literature study is carried out to review various designs body of train and chassis, latest innovations and advanced materials used to manufacture the same. The various types of forces and stresses commonly acting on chassis structures are analyzed and their effects on the vehicle is understood and different types of train design is studied in order to make an attractive train for the kids by using Waterfall method to understand the concepts in designing a Train body. The pro-con analysis is conducted to evaluate merits and demerits of each alternative type of body of a train and the material to manufacture it. The most essential 

    design criteria are derived from the QFD (Quality function deployment) which then acts as important guidelines during the actual design process.Structural chassis frame is designed as per the design criteria with little modification and designing a body of a train using the CAD software CATIAV5R20 and the structural stability of the same is tested and analyzed using Inspire (solid thinking) software.

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  • 7.
    Bhatti, Harrison John
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability. VTI, Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Danilovic, Mike
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability. Shanghai Dianji University, Shanghai, China; Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Nåbo, Arne
    VTI, Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    A System Approach to Electrification of Transportation – An International Comparison2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Globally, the transportation system is transforming from a fossil-based to an electrification system. Some countries are leading in the transformation process. Some countries are rapidly catching up to become market leaders in developing and introducing new techniques and equipment that support the transformation process in their countries. In contrast, others are still relying on their old fossil-based system or could not have enough understanding of how to deal with this complex transformation of the transportation system.

    The electrification of the transportation system is not an isolated system that can be handled as a single technological element. It is a group of multiple technologies, political, societal, and economic sub-systems each of these sub-systems is embedded in each other, forming the whole system. Therefore, it is important to see and manage the system from a holistic perspective to transform the transportation electrification system efficiently. We have selected eight countries from three different continents – Asia (China, India), Australia, which is a country and continent, and Europe (Germany, Norway, Slovenia, Sweden, and the UK) to explore the transformational process of transportation electrification based on each countries’ conditions. We have chosen these continents as they are diversified in adopting transportation electrification system solutions.

    Our main conclusions are that the political processes and political decisiveness are the most important, followed by the societal and economic, with technology as the fourth. The other three are difficult to obtain without dedicated and determined political decision-makers. Political decision-makers need to use economic means to support the transformation in society and industry to balance the economic disadvantage of electric systems until they pass the cost disadvantage turning point. Technology is no longer a significant barrier as it was about 20 years ago. Now, technology is available, although it can be improved. The important part is to understand how to utilize the existing technology efficiently to transform the old fossil-based transportation system into new electrification of the transportation system. Without clear and strong political support, the industry cannot be expected to initiate, finance, take risks, and take the lead in this global societal transformation.

    Our analysis shows that China is being positioned as the leading country in the world in the electrification of the transportation system because of the strong technological advancements, control of the entire value chain, strong government decisiveness, and execution power in developing and implementing favorable electric vehicle (EV) policies, the willingness of the public sector to take the lead and citizens support to adopt clean technology. Norway has rapidly become one of the newcomers with large numbers of registered electric vehicles according to its population size within a few years, despite lacking manufacturing electric vehicles (EVs) and equipment for transportation electrification. Germany is leading in the technological sector of transportation electrification within Europe with its prestigious top-selling electric vehicle brands in Germany, such as Volkswagen, Mercedes Benz, BMW, Smart, and Audi, and establishing a battery Gigafactory with an annual potential production capacity of 60 GWh. However, Germany is still lagging behind from the societal perspective of not having enough sales of electric vehicles compared to gasoline-based vehicles. Sweden is a rapidly growing country in the electrification of transport, with three vehicle manufacturers introducing EVs in 2021 and developing electric roads system for more than ten years. Sweden is also working on establishing a new 50 GWh battery manufacturing plant in Gothenburg, Sweden. The UK is also catching up with its other European countries in transforming the transportation system with its strong government support. The British government has kept transportation electrification on its national agenda and considering building a Gigafactory to obtain a position as a future battery leader. However, the UK's adoption rate of electric vehicles is still slow compared to fossil-based vehicles. India, Australia, and Slovenia are far behind in the process of transportation transformation than China, Norway, Germany, Sweden, and the UK. One of the common reasons in all these countries is their governments' baby steps even though they have high ambitions. Their governments require a revolutionized and systems approach to enable remarkable change in the transformation process.

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  • 8.
    Böhm, Annette
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Lidström, Kristoffer
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Larsson, Tony
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Evaluating CALM M5-based vehicle-to-vehicle communication in various road settings through field trials2010In: Proceedings - Conference on Local Computer Networks, LCN, (2010 12 01): 613-620, Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE Press, 2010, p. 613-620Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Future cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) applications aimed to improve safety, efficiency and comfort on our roads put high demands on the underlying wireless communication system. To gain better understanding of the limitations of the 5.9 GHz frequency band and the set of communication protocols for medium range vehicle to vehicle (V2V) communication, a set of field trials with CALM M5 enabled prototypes has been conducted. This paper describes five different real vehicle traffic scenarios covering both urban and rural settings at varying vehicle speeds and under varying line-of-sight (LOS) conditions and discusses the connectivity (measured as Packet Reception Ratio) that could be achieved between the two test vehicles. Our measurements indicate a quite problematic LOS sensitivity that strongly influences the performance of V2V-based applications. We further discuss how the awareness of these context-based connectivity problems can be used to improve the design of possible future cooperative ITS safety applications.

  • 9.
    Cabanettes, Frederic
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Halmstad Univ, Sch Business & Engn, SE-30118 Halmstad, Sweden..
    Rosén, Bengt Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Topography changes observation during running-in of rolling contacts2014In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 315, no 1-2, p. 78-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The automotive industry and the design of engines are strongly ruled by performance and legislation demands. In the valve train, besides the main function (transformation of rotation to translation movements) to fulfill, new requirements in environmental demands and performance in terms of wear are leading to more and more detailed studies of the cams and rollers. Wear reduction studies for prolonging lifetime of these components require decreasing the scale of observation down to roughness. Among the different wear stages of a component, the running-in is a crucial period which will greatly influence the lifetime and performance of components. The aim of this paper is to analyze the topography variations observed during the running-in of a camshaft on a valve train rig test. A truck engine's camshaft is run under realistic conditions and 3D surfaces are measured before and after the test by using relocation techniques. By measuring the very same surfaces before and after the experiment, a deep analysis of the running-in effects on surfaces can be performed. 3D surface roughness parameters are used in parallel with new proposed methods of analysis. As a result, the mechanisms involved during running-in are emphasized and can be used for further simulations and optimization of the cam roller contact. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 10.
    Carpatorea, Iulian
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Slawomir, Nowaczyk
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Rögnvaldsson, Thorsteinn
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Elmer, Marcus
    Volvo Group Trucks Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Lodin, Johan
    Volvo Group Trucks Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Learning of Aggregate Features for Comparing Drivers Based on Naturalistic Data2016In: Proceedings: 2016 15th IEEE International Conference on Machine Learning and Applications (ICMLA) / [ed] Lisa O’Conner, Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society, 2016, p. 1067-1072Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fuel used by heavy duty trucks is a major cost for logistics companies, and therefore improvements in this area are highly desired. Many of the factors that influence fuel consumption, such as the road type, vehicle configuration or external environment, are difficult to influence. One of the most under-explored ways to lower the costs is training and incentivizing drivers. However, today it is difficult to measure driver performance in a comprehensive way outside of controlled, experimental setting.

    This paper proposes a machine learning methodology for quantifying and qualifying driver performance, with respect to fuel consumption, that is suitable for naturalistic driving situations. The approach is a knowledge-based feature extraction technique, constructing a normalizing fuel consumption value denoted Fuel under Predefined Conditions (FPC), which captures the effect of factors that are relevant but are not measured directly.

    The FPC, together with information available from truck sensors, is then compared against the actual fuel used on a given road segment, quantifying the effects associated with driver behavior or other variables of interest. We show that raw fuel consumption is a biased measure of driver performance, being heavily influenced by other factors such as high load or adversary weather conditions, and that using FPC leads to more accurate results. In this paper we also show evaluation the proposed method using large-scale, real-world, naturalistic database of heavy-duty vehicle operation.

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  • 11.
    Danilovic, Mike
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability. Shanghai Dianji University, Shanghai, China.
    Lihua Liu, Jasmine
    Lund University Lund, Sweden & Shanghai Dianji University, Shanghai, China.
    Electrification of the Transportation System in China: Exploring Battery-Swapping for Electric Vehicles in China 1.02021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Thus far, the global electrification of transportation has been conducted mainly by the use of battery-powered vehicles. Over the years, the number of electric vehicles (EV) has grown substantially in number, the batteries have become larger in size providing vehicles with longer ranges, the efficiency of batteries has improved, and the prices have decreased substantially, etc. However, all batteries need to be charged with electricity. Several solutions to battery charging have been introduced, static and dynamic conductive and inductive technologies as well as cable charging. The most common, almost the dominant global solution, is stationary charging using cables, whether normal or fast charging.

    There is, however, another battery charging tech- nology, that of battery-swapping, i.e. replacement of the discharged battery in the vehicle with a charged battery from outside the vehicle. This modern battery-swapping technology was used by the German company Mercedes-Benz in the 1970s, the Israeli company Better Place in 2007 and also by US company Tesla in 2013. Tesla originally designed their car in a modular way that embraced battery- swapping but then opted for their own proprietary cable-based charging system and a business model that integrates cars and charging.

    During the 2010s, when the country started the substantial development of new energy vehicles, Chinese grid operators and entrepreneurial OEMs tried to put the swapping technology into practice in collaboration with Better Place. However, the early exploitation of battery-swapping failed due to the high cost of battery-swapping systems and batteries, lack of standards, lack of openness and diver- gent technical and economic interests among key stakeholders and objections from car manufacturers to opening up their vehicle structure. Additionally, one fire accident on a pilot project car raised safety questions that needed to be solved. Lastly, political support was lacking because the Chinese government did not promote battery-swapping technology in the countries’ first strategic development plan for a new energy vehicle 2012 to 2020.From 2012 to 2016, battery-swapping charging stations underwent large-scale development as the major complementary energy solution in China. BAIC, Lifan, NIO and some other Chinese OEM brands together with third-party battery-swap station opera- tors, such as Aulton, insisted on exploring the battery-swapping option and made substantial progress. Market scale reached a certain volume and the technology became more mature. When cable-based charging solutions became insufficient, forming the bottleneck of the rapidly growing EV market, Lifan again proposed battery-swapping as a complementary solution to the national congress in 2016. This time, the attitude of the various players was more positive. In 2020, after a discussion meeting with delegations from major stakeholders related to EV development, Chinese central government included battery-swapping technology in the National New Energy Vehicle Development Strategy 2021 to 2035 and included battery-swapping in the list of the New Infrastructure Construction campaign.

    Since 2020, there has been fast growth in battery- swapping infrastructure in Chinese cities and along the main highways. Modularly designed cars with fully integrated automated fast battery-swapping system solutions are available. There are also other emerging application areas for battery-swapping such as buses, trucks, heavy-duty vehicles etc.

    The new emerging business model for commercialization of battery-swapping is based on the idea of separating the price of the electric car from its cost liest part, the battery. Batteries can be chosen flexibly based on their size and can either be purchased or rented on a monthly basis to reduce anxiety and uncertainty among customers. Also, the charging of batteries can be cable-based or based on a monthly subscription according to the required amount of energy, resulting in great flexibility for the customer.

    Thus, the investment cost for customers is based on their purchasing power, risk taking attitude, level of uncertainty and driving habits. The swapping time is reduced down to 1 minute. This system enables great flexibility because the customer can choose and, if necessary, subsequently change the battery size depending on their needs as well as choosing the charging system and payment methods.

    At the end of January 2021, there were 562 battery-swap stations operative in China, providinga service to taxis, online car-hailing vehicles, private passenger vehicles and business operation vehicles. More than 100,000 cars have been sold with battery-swapping systems. Battery-swapping’s status asan important complementary solution to EV energy supply has been recognized by various parties. The feasibility of developing battery-swapping for taxis, online car-hailing vehicles, logistic vehicles and other business operation vehicles has been preliminarily verified.

    The major challenges faced by players include the large investment required for battery-swapping station construction, operation and maintenance requests, the high financial cost of batteries in the swapping stations, and battery depreciation, difficulty in achieving unified standards, overlap of the division of responsibilities, limited space for station construc- tion and safety issues. Accordingly, solutions are being intensely worked on by various players.

    A multi-player, new ecosystem is investing jointly in battery-swap stations and battery asset companies are also starting up. Third-party operator Aulton is initiating the exploration of battery standardization by unifying the interfaces of the battery outer package and the vehicles, leaving the content of the battery to OEMs. Government agencies are also driving a discussion on the standardization issue. Innovative collaborations on space sharing is providing space for battery-swap stations. Active and passive safety technologies are being developed that address the safety issue.

    A combination of local provincial governments, the automotive industry, IT-developers, entrepreneurs, state grid system operators, swapping system operators, electricity suppliers, institutes and univer- sities are developing a new ecosystem and placing large-scale systems in operation.We call this the Chinese approach, the Symbiotic Business Model, the collective exploration and experimenting of industrial, institutional and political players, leading all the way from technology devel- opment through to the establishment of local market solutions for the development and commercialization of battery-swapping systems, and the simultaneous construction and reshaping of a new ecosystem.

    The placement of battery-swapping on the national strategic list demonstrates the systematic approach to the electrification of transportation that needs to be seen and understood starting from energy production, distribution, charging, and the creation of a balancing component in overall energy sourcing and energy storage. Thus, the new ecosystem comprises the major part of the main players in the energy and electrification system. Battery-swapping must not be seen as just one technology that is only a business target for some players, but rather as strategic solution to the entire energy system transformation and part of the ongoing energy and transportation transformation.

    The battery-swapping system when operated ona large-scale has significant strategic importanceas decentralized, distributed and localized energy storage helping to balance energy production and distribution in the national grid system. Substantial rapid developmental growth in battery-swapping is expected in China from 2021. It is still not possible to predict the long-term development of this technology approach, but it is only in trying it, that it will be possible to discover the outcome.

    Implementation of the battery-swapping system can only be successful when all the main players in the energy-transportation system and along the value chain collaborate in the development and commercialization, implementation and large-scale diffusion.

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  • 12.
    Dincay, Berkan
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    GPS/Optical Encoder Based Navigation Methods for dsPIC Microcontroled Mobile Vehicle2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Optical encoders are being widely suggested for precise mobile navigation. Combining such sensor information with Global Positioning System (GPS) is a practical solution for reducing the accumulated errors from encoders and moving the navigational base into global coordinates with high accuracy.

    This thesis presents integration methods of GPS and optical encoders for a mobile vehicle that is controlled by microcontroller. The system analyzed includes a commercial GPS receiver, dsPIC microcontroller and mobile vehicle with optical encoders. Extended kalman filtering (EKF), real time curve matching, GPS filtering methods are compared and contrasted which are used for integrating sensors data. Moreover, computer interface, encoder interface and motor control module of dsPIC microprocessor have been used and explained.

    Navigation quality on low speeds highly depends greatly upon the processing of GPS data. Integration of sensor data is simulated for both EKF and real time curve matching technique and different behaviors are observed. Both methods have significantly improved the accuracy of the navigation. However, EKF has more advantages on solving the localization problem where it is also dealing with the uncertainties of the systems.

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  • 13.
    Englund, Cristofer
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Action intention recognition of cars and bicycles in intersections2020In: International Journal of Vehicle Design, ISSN 0143-3369, E-ISSN 1741-5314, Vol. 83, no 2-4, p. 103-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Copyright © 2020 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.Action intention recognition is becoming increasingly important in the road vehicle automation domain. Autonomous vehicles must be aware of their surroundings if we are to build safe and efficient transport systems. This paper presents a method for predicting the action intentions of road users based on sensors in the road infrastructure. The scenarios used for demonstration are recorded on two different public road sections. The first scenario includes bicyclists and the second includes cars that are driving in a road approaching an intersection where they are either leaving or continuing straight. A 3D camera-based data acquisition system is used to collect trajectories of the road users that are used as input for models trained to predict the action intention of the road users. The proposed system enables future connected and automated vehicles to receive collision warnings from an infrastructure-based sensor system well in advance to enable better planning.

  • 14.
    Fabricius, Victor
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Habibovic, Azra
    Scania CV AB, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Rizgary, Daban
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Andersson, Jonas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wärnestål, Pontus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Interactions Between Heavy Trucks and Vulnerable Road Users – A Systematic Review to Inform the Interactive Capabilities of Highly Automated Trucks2022In: Frontiers in Robotics and AI, E-ISSN 2296-9144, Vol. 9, article id 818019Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates interactive behaviors and communication cues of heavy goods vehicles (HGVs) and vulnerable road users (VRUs) such as pedestrians and cyclists as a means of informing the interactive capabilities of highly automated HGVs. Following a general framing of road traffic interaction, we conducted a systematic literature review of empirical HGV-VRU studies found through the databases Scopus, ScienceDirect and TRID. We extracted reports of interactive road user behaviors and communication cues from 19 eligible studies and categorized these into two groups: 1) the associated communication channel/mechanism (e.g., nonverbal behavior), and 2) the type of communication cue (implicit/explicit). We found the following interactive behaviors and communication cues: 1) vehicle-centric (e.g., HGV as a larger vehicle, adapting trajectory, position relative to the VRU, timing of acceleration to pass the VRU, displaying information via human-machine interface), 2) driver-centric (e.g., professional driver, present inside/outside the cabin, eye-gaze behavior), and 3) VRU-centric (e.g., racer cyclist, adapting trajectory, position relative to the HGV, proximity to other VRUs, eye-gaze behavior). These cues are predominantly based on road user trajectories and movements (i.e., kinesics/proxemics nonverbal behavior) forming implicit communication, which indicates that this is the primary mechanism for HGV-VRU interactions. However, there are also reports of more explicit cues such as cyclists waving to say thanks, the use of turning indicators, or new types of external human-machine interfaces (eHMI). Compared to corresponding scenarios with light vehicles, HGV-VRU interaction patterns are to a high extent formed by the HGV’s size, shape and weight. For example, this can cause VRUs to feel less safe, drivers to seek to avoid unnecessary decelerations and accelerations, or lead to strategic behaviors due to larger blind-spots. Based on these findings, it is likely that road user trajectories and kinematic behaviors will form the basis for communication also for highly automated HGV-VRU interaction. However, it might also be beneficial to use additional eHMI to compensate for the loss of more social driver-centric cues or to signal other types of information. While controlled experiments can be used to gather such initial insights, deeper understanding of highly automated HGV-VRU interactions will also require naturalistic studies. © 2022 Fabricius, Habibovic, Rizgary, Andersson and Wärnestål.

  • 15.
    Fan, Yuantao
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Nowaczyk, Sławomir
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Rögnvaldsson, Thorsteinn
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Antonelo, Eric Aislan
    Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Brazil.
    Predicting Air Compressor Failures with Echo State Networks2016In: PHME 2016: Proceedings of the Third European Conference of the Prognostics and Health Management Society 2016 / [ed] Ioana Eballard, Anibal Bregon, Prognostics and Health Management Society , 2016, p. 568-578Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern vehicles have increasing amounts of data streaming continuously on-board their controller area networks. These data are primarily used for controlling the vehicle and for feedback to the driver, but they can also be exploited to detect faults and predict failures. The traditional diagnostics paradigm, which relies heavily on human expert knowledge, scales poorly with the increasing amounts of data generated by highly digitised systems. The next generation of equipment monitoring and maintenance prediction solutions will therefore require a different approach, where systems can build up knowledge (semi-)autonomously and learn over the lifetime of the equipment.

    A key feature in such systems is the ability to capture and encode characteristics of signals, or groups of signals, on-board vehicles using different models. Methods that do this robustly and reliably can be used to describe and compare the operation of the vehicle to previous time periods or to other similar vehicles. In this paper two models for doing this, for a single signal, are presented and compared on a case of on-road failures caused by air compressor faults in city buses. One approach is based on histograms and the other is based on echo state networks. It is shown that both methods are sensitive to the expected changes in the signal's characteristics and work well on simulated data. However, the histogram model, despite being simpler, handles the deviations in real data better than the echo state network.

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  • 16.
    Fernández Cranz, Matías
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Olsson, Hampus
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Design and development of a power seat structure for a sports car2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to develop a power seat structure that can serve as an alternativeto the one developed by Koenigsegg for their upcoming model Gemera and potentially others.The power seat structure will be designed around an existing chassis and will use it as areference to create an accommodating power seat structure. It will be designed to be used witha fixed-back seat that is used in the development process of the Gemera.Koenigsegg requires that the power seat structure allows for horizontal and lifting motion, aswell as tilting. These functions will be adapted to the power seat structure designed by theproject group.Due to confidentiality concerns, some parts of this thesis will not be made available to thepublic.

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  • 17.
    Habibovic, Azra
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Malmsten Lundgren, Victor
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Andersson, Jonas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Klingegård, Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lagström, Tobias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sirkka, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fagerlönn, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Edgren, Claes
    Volvo Cars Group, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fredriksson, Rikard
    Autoliv AB, Vårgårda, Sweden.
    Krupenia, Stas
    Scania AB, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Saluäär, Dennis
    Volvo Group AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Larsson, Pontus
    Volvo Group AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Communicating Intent of Automated Vehicles to Pedestrians2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 1336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While traffic signals, signs, and road markings provide explicit guidelines for those operating in and around the roadways, some decisions, such as determinations of "who will go first," are made by implicit negotiations between road users. In such situations, pedestrians are today often dependent on cues in drivers' behavior such as eye contact, postures, and gestures. With the introduction of more automated functions and the transfer of control from the driver to the vehicle, pedestrians cannot rely on such non-verbal cues anymore. To study how the interaction between pedestrians and automated vehicles (AVs) might look like in the future, and how this might be affected if AVs were to communicate their intent to pedestrians, we designed an external vehicle interface called automated vehicle interaction principle (AVIP) that communicates vehicles' mode and intent to pedestrians. The interaction was explored in two experiments using a Wizard of Oz approach to simulate automated driving. The first experiment was carried out at a zebra crossing and involved nine pedestrians. While it focused mainly on assessing the usability of the interface, it also revealed initial indications related to pedestrians' emotions and perceived safety when encountering an AV with/without the interface. The second experiment was carried out in a parking lot and involved 24 pedestrians, which enabled a more detailed assessment of pedestrians' perceived safety when encountering an AV, both with and without the interface. For comparison purposes, these pedestrians also encountered a conventional vehicle. After a short training course, the interface was deemed easy for the pedestrians to interpret. The pedestrians stated that they felt significantly less safe when they encountered the AV without the interface, compared to the conventional vehicle and the AV with the interface. This suggests that the interface could contribute to a positive experience and improved perceived safety in pedestrian encounters with AVs - something that might be important for general acceptance of AVs. As such, this topic should be further investigated in future studies involving a larger sample and more dynamic conditions. © 2018 Habibovic, Malmsten Lundgren, Andersson, Klingegård, Lagström, Sirkka, Fagerlönn, Edgren, Fredriksson, Krupenia, Saluäär and Larsson.

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  • 18.
    Håland, Joel
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Höggren, David
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Project Bonesheart: A concept design project2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The report describes the thesis that the students along with the company Bonesheart made on agenre of motorcycles called cafe racers and its sub genres.It's a project about the procedures in the making of several design concepts for these kind ofmotorcycles. All the way from brainstorming to the final result.The report describes how the members of the project proceeded with the methodology they learntfrom their education and how they partly developed and established their own approach in thedevelopment of the motorcycle concepts.Because it is a genre of motorcycles that has not been affected by this type of work before, thegathering of information has been a big part in the beginning of the project.A survey was mailed to 140 motorcycle clubs, which gave the project a good starting point.It is critical for this kind of project that there is an understanding of the subject and that you cantake advantage of the knowledge gathered to get a good results.The results presented in this report have been designed from a design methodology that takesadvantage of several factors. For example, the restrictions given by the company that wasinvolved in the project and answers from the survey.With a wide range of sources to retrieve information, the result has been designed to whatbecame the concept of four motorcycles.

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  • 19.
    Karlsson, Kristian
    et al.
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Borås, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Jan
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Borås, Sweden.
    Larsson, Marcus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES). Qamcom Research and Technology AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bergenhem, Carl
    Qamcom Research and Technology AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Evaluation of the V2V channel and diversity potential for platooning trucks2016In: 2016 10th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP), Piscataway: IEEE conference proceedings, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper gives results from Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communication field tests in a platoon consisting of four trucks. During these tests it was assumed that large vehicles such as trucks need multiple antennas to overcome shadowing and obstruction caused by the vehicle itself, trailers and other trucks in the platoon. Therefore, in the experiments the vehicles had one antenna in each side-view mirror, and each antenna was connected to an IEEE 802.11p radio transmitting at 5.9 GHz according to the ETSI ITS-G5 standard. The purpose of the tests was to estimate the V2V channel for trucks participating in a platoon and to investigate the potential of diversity for such cooperative application. Three communication schemes for diversity were evaluated: receive diversity, transmit diversity, and transmit in combination with receive diversity. Studies were performed for two different antenna configurations in three different environments (rural, highway and tunnel). © 2016 IEEE

  • 20.
    Khoshkangini, Reza
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Nowaczyk, Sławomir
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Pashami, Sepideh
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Baysian Network for Failure Prediction in Different Seasons2020In: Proceedings of the 30th European Safety and Reliability Conference and the 15th Probabilistic Safety Assessment and Management Conference / [ed] Piero Baraldi, Francesco Di Maio and Enrico Zio, 2020, p. 1710-1710Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, there have been many attentions in developing technologies with the aim of monitoring and predicting emerging issues such as break downs, component failures, and quality degradations e.g., R, Prytz et al. (2015), as a means to provide predictive maintenance solution in modern vehicle industries. These existing technologies exploit several fault predictions and diagnostic pipelines ranging from statistics methods to machine learning algorithms e.g., M, You et al. (2010), Y, Lei et al. (2016). However, these solutions have not particularly concentrated on the ability to predict the component failures and the cause of the failures taking into consideration vehicle usage patterns and history of failures over time in different seasons.

    This is not a trivial task since modern vehicles with their huge functionalities and dependency among their components bring out a challenge to the manufacturer to plan their maintenance strategy in this complex domain. This is truly a complex challenge since failures can be sourced and affected by multiple features, which are highly related to each other and change over time in different contexts (e.g., location, time, season).  

    Under such conditions, an advanced early prediction capability is desired, because manufacturers can exceedingly serve from early prediction of potential vehicle component failures, and more specifically the chain of the features and their dependencies which may lead to a failure over time in different seasons.  This is considered important due to the fact that different seasons may have a potential effect on certain component failures, so predicting these dependencies and the actual failure enables a higher level of maintenance for optimally planning and managing total cost and more importantly safety. 

    In this study, we build a probabilistic prediction model in a time series, on top of vehicle usage pattern, which is represented by the Live Vehicle Data (LVD). LVD logged and captured using multiple sensors located in Volvo vehicles that includes usage and specification of the vehicles aggregated in a cumulative fashion. We exploit and apply a type of supervised machine learning algorithm called Bayesian Network N, Friedman. (1997), on the engineered LVD (we applied a type of data engineering process to extract hidden patterns from LVD), which is logged through different seasons. These result a very complex network of dependency in each time stamp that indicates how a failure sourced by different features and their quantitative influences. In addition, integrating all these networks reveal how the usage can influence failure over time. Moreover, the quantitative influences allow us to extract the main chain of effect on a failure. This is strongly beneficial for the manufacturers and maintenance strategy to find out the main reason of failures, which can be extracted by vehicle usage pattern during their operation. © ESREL2020-PSAM15 Organizers

  • 21.
    Kleyko, Denis
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Hostettler, Roland
    Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland.
    Lyamin, Nikita
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Birk, Wolfgang
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Wiklund, Urban
    Umea Univ, Dept Biomed Engn & Informat, Umea, Sweden..
    Osipov, Evgeny
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Vehicle Classification using Road Side Sensors and Feature-free Data Smashing Approach2016In: 2016 IEEE 19th International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC), Piscataway: IEEE , 2016, p. 1988-1993, article id 7795877Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main contribution of this paper is a study of the applicability of data smashing - a recently proposed data mining method - for vehicle classification according to the "Nordic system for intelligent classification of vehicles" standard, using measurements of road surface vibrations and magnetic field disturbances caused by passing vehicles. The main advantage of the studied classification approach is that it, in contrast to the most of traditional machine learning algorithms, does not require the extraction of features from raw signals. The proposed classification approach was evaluated on a large dataset consisting of signals from 3074 vehicles. Hence, a good estimate of the actual classification rate was obtained. The performance was compared to the previously reported results on the same problem for logistic regression. Our results show the potential trade-off between classification accuracy and classification method's development efforts could be achieved.

  • 22.
    Kostrzewski, Szymon
    et al.
    PMARlab, Department of Mechanics and Machine Design (DIMEC), University of Genova, Genova, Italy.
    Apputhanthri, Rusiru Dasantha
    PMARlab, Department of Mechanics and Machine Design (DIMEC), University of Genova, Genova, Italy.
    Masood, Jawad
    PMARlab, Department of Mechanics and Machine Design (DIMEC), University of Genova, Genova, Italy.
    Cepolina, Emanuela Elisa
    PMARlab, Department of Mechanics and Machine Design (DIMEC), University of Genova, Genova, Italy.
    Portable Mechatronic System for Demining Applications: Control Unit Design and Development2007In: The Fourth International Symposium: “Mechanical Demining”: Book Of Papers / [ed] Oto Jungwirth & Nikola Pavković, Zagreb, 2007, p. 27-30Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A new participatory approach that makes use of and improves local end-users knowledge has been used to design a new portable mechatronic system for humanitarian demining applications in Sri Lanka, using power tillers as core module. They are very simple and versatile machines with large scale diffusion in developing countries, where they are commonly used for agriculture and transportation purposes. The system, composed by a tractor unit, a ground processing tool and a vegetation cutting tool is firstly introduced. The paper then focuses on the portable control unit allowing to control the machine from remote distance, in case unexploded ordnance or other fragmentation weapons are known to be present. The module allows forward motion by acting on the clutch, differential and acceleration of the power tiller; steering is controlled by additional brakes, mounted on the driving axle. Two wheels supporting the ground processing tool on the front of the machine are connected to the rear driving ones through tracks. The module can be fit to every kind of power tiller actuated by levers, using differential gear, after only little adjustments. The control is pneumatic and it is powered by the engine of the power tiller itself. The unit, like the others modules, responds to the requirements of safety, low-cost and simpleffectiveness.

  • 23.
    Lidström, Kristoffer
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Cooperative Safety Based on Shared Conventions2008Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 24.
    Lidström, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Larsson, Tony
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Cooperative Communication Disturbance Detection in Vehicle Safety Systems2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Proactive vehicle safety systems based on vehicle-to-vehicle and infrastructure-to-vehicle communication are promising new approaches to reducing the number of accidents on our roads. In-vehicle applications are envisaged to provide a variety of services to the driver including warning about potential collisions and other hazardous situations. For the safe operation of these applications it is important not only to efficiently model the environment but also to reason about, and predict, how reliable such a model is under various circumstances. In this paper we propose an approach to estimating the reliability and availability of the wireless medium at hazardous locations by cooperatively detecting communication disturbances in order to allow for more accurate decisions by in-vehicle applications.

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  • 25.
    Lidström, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Viktoria Institute, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, Katrin
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Holmberg, Ulf
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Andersson, Johan
    Volvo Car Corporation, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Bergh, Fredrik
    Cybercom Group, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bjäde, Mattias
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Mak, Spencer
    Innovation Team, Halmstad, Sweden.
    A modular CACC system integration and design2012In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 1050-1061Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the Halmstad University entry in the Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge, which is a competition in vehicle platooning. Cooperative platooning has the potential to improve traffic flow by mitigating shock wave effects, which otherwise may occur in dense traffic. A longitudinal controller that uses information exchanged via wireless communication with other cooperative vehicles to achieve string-stable platooning is developed. The controller is integrated into a production vehicle, together with a positioning system, communication system, and human–machine interface (HMI). A highly modular system architecture enabled rapid development and testing of the various subsystems. In the competition, which took place in May 2011 on a closed-off highway in The Netherlands, the Halmstad University team finished second among nine competing teams.

  • 26.
    Lihua Liu, Jasmine
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Shanghai Dianji University, Shanghai, China; Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Cheng, Xiang
    Shanghai Dianji University, Shanghai, China.
    Danilovic, Mike
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability. Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Shanghai Dianji University, Shanghai, China.
    Electrification of the Transportation System in China: Exploring Hydrogen Technology for Electric Vehicles in China 1.02021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With the development of human society, the total demand for energy is rising. However, due to the limited fossil energy stock and the threat of the green-house effect, adjusting the energy structure is crucially important for the sustainable development of all countries in the world.

    Hydrogen energy has received great attention as one technology that can provide society with clean energy, support decarbonization, and be one key technology in the electrification of transport.

    In 2018, China’s hydrogen production was 21 million tons, accounting for 2.7% of the total energy according to the calorific value of energy management. According to the prediction of China hydrogen energy alliance, hydrogen energy will account for 5% of total energy consumption in 2030 and 10% in China’s thermal energy by 2050. According to the market forecast, China’s hydrogen production will exceed 20 million tons in 2020. China hydrogen energy alliance predicts that China’s hydrogen demand will reach 35 million tons by 2030, with a compound annual growth rate of 5.76%.

    In 2050, China’s hydrogen demand will be close to 60 million tons. Hydrogen energy is increasingly more widely used in China, and the market development speed is growing rapidly.

    This report focuses on the development of hydrogen technology in China where the Chinese central government has put hydrogen technology on the strategic listing, repeatedly issued relevant policies to support the development of hydrogen technology and the industry, upgraded the fuel cell development to the level of strategic development, and guides and encourages the development of the fuel cell vehicle industry.

    Hydrogen based vehicles have been launched mainly in Japan, USA and South Korea. Compared with the relatively mature fuel cell vehicle market in Japan and South Korea, the customers of domestic hydrogen refueling stations in China are mainly buses and official vehicles. However, there are several Chinese enterprises manufacturing passenger cars to runon hydrogen fuel, such as Chery, Changan, Hongqi, GAC, FAW and others. As illustration, the GAC’s self-developed hydrogen fuel cell-based passenger vehicle has an operational range of 650 km.

    Compared with the more mature pure electric vehicle, based on batteries as energy source, the hydrogen fuel vehicle is still in a very early but rapidly maturing stage.

    The data show that in 2018, China’s input of hydrogen energy vehicles reached 1,527, including 1,418 buses and 109 logistic trucks. In 2019, the production and sales of fuel cell vehicles in China was 2,833 and 2,737, respectively, with a year-on-year growth of 85.5% and 79.2%, respectively. By the end of 2019, the cumulative number of fuel cell vehicles in China was 6,000.

    In 2020, the policy for fuel cells became favorable. From the development of China, there is still a lot of room for growth.

    Hydrogen technology requires refueling stations, and in China, several traditional oil suppliers are building hydrogen refueling stations.

    On 1 July 1 2019, Sinopec built the first domestic oil and hydrogen combined station in Foshan, Guang-dong Province. Since then, Sinopec has built the first batch of comprehensive energy supply stations in Zhejiang, Shanghai and other places, which integrate refueling, hydrogenation and other functions. As a strategic partner of the 2022 Beijing Winter Olympic Games, Sinopec will provide hydrogen supply, vehicle hydrogenation, and operation support of hydrogenation stations for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles in the Beijing and Zhangjiakou Winter Olympic Games.

    On 28 May 2020, Sinopec Guangdong Petroleum Branch, together with Huangpu District and Guang-zhou Development Zone, built the infrastructure for the application and development of hydrogen energy vehicles. It was planned to build more than 20 integrated energy sales stations in the area, integrating hydrogenation, refueling, charging, non-oil and photovoltaic power generation. It is estimated that the revenue of a series of projects will exceed 10 billion yuan/RMB (1,6 billion USD).

    The Foshan area in the south of China has rapidly become a center of hydrogen development. Foshan municipal government has successively issued development planning and supporting subsidy policies.

    The hydrogen energy industry development plan (2018-2030) includes building 57 hydrogen stations in 2030, which will develop the Foshan area into a leading national hydrogen energy industry demonstration city and agglomeration highland. Finally, hydrogen energy in China is facing a trend of rapid speed and scale of development. Clean energy hydrogen production and energy utilization are still in the early but rapidly growing stage of development. Soon, hydrogen energy will see immense development prospects in the field of transportation, heavy freight transportation and electric energy storage.

    We have reasons to believe that hydrogen will be one of the strategic technologies and practices in China in the development of a green society, decarbonization and the electrification of transport.

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  • 27.
    Lihua Liu, Jasmine
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Shanghai Dianji University, Shanghai, China; Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Danilovic, Mike
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability. Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Shanghai Dianji University, Shanghai, China.
    Electrification of the Transportation System in China: Exploring Battery Swapping for Heavy Trucks in China 1.02021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To achieve successful transportation electrification, we need to understand the role of different vehicle charging solutions. This report focuses on conductive technology that involves the physical exchange of empty batteries with fully charged ones, an approach called battery swapping. The battery swapping alternative has garnered great interest in China and many other developing economies in recent years, particularly for two- and three-wheeled vehicles. This battery swapping approach is now tackling the heavy vehicle sector, such as trucks and buses. As a result, this approach to “refueling” electric vehicles is important to explore, and we need to understand the conditions needed for battery swapping to succeed. In this report, we focus on the use of battery-swapping technology to develop and market Electric Heavy Trucks (EHT) in China.

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  • 28.
    Lihua Liu, Jasmine
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Shanghai Dianji University, Shanghai, China; Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Dong, Ran
    Shanghai Dianji University, Shanghai, China.
    Danilovic, Mike
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability. Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Shanghai Dianji University, Shanghai, China.
    Electrification of the Transportation System in China: Exploring Battery Technology for Electrical Vehicles in China 1.02021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Batteries is one of the main systems of electric vehicle. Batteries determine the total performance and define the capabilities of the electric vehicle regardless it is a passenger vehicle or heavy truck. Batteries are also determining the total price of the electric vehicle to large extend. In our first two reports on battery-swapping, Exploring Battery-Swapping For Electric Vehicles in China 1.0, and Exploring Battery-Swapping for Heavy Trucks in China 1.0, our focus was on passengers’ vehicles, and heavy trucks and the development and estab- lishment of large-scale battery-swapping systems in the Chinese context.

    Due to the importance of batteries for the performance of electric vehicles, it is important to explore and understand the development of technologies for batteries in China as China is not only largest manufacturer of electric vehicles but also one of the largest developers and manufacturers of batteries used in electric vehicles.

    In this report we are focusing on the technology development in historic perspective of the last 15 years in China. We see that the lithium-ion technology is the dominant technology, but we also see new emerging battery technologies that might be the game changer for the performance of electric vehicles. We demonstrate the dynamics of main battery technologies, LFP (lithium iron manganese, LiFeO4, battery cell) battery and NMC (lithium nickel manga- nese cobalt oxide battery cell) battery, the distribution of installed volumes between LFP and NMC in the Chinese market. During the early days of modern battery, the LFP battery technology were dominant with 69% of the market while NMC had 27% of the market. Over the last 5 years we can see big change where NMC is moving to the 67% level and LFP is going down to 32%. During the emerging stage of the China’s new energy vehicle development, LFP batteries account for 69-72% of the installed capacity due to their low cost and mature technology.With the introduction of NMC batteries into the mar- ket, their energy density, capacity and operational vehicle range and safety performance have been improved compared with LFP batteries. In recent years, the installed capacity of NMC battery technology accounts for two-thirds of the market in China. With the intensification of competition in the new energy vehicle market, NMC batteries with higher energy density and better cost efficiency ratio have become the new favorite and are still the mainstream of the market until now.

    The CTP (cell to pack) technology of CATL (Contemporary Amperex Technology Co., Limited) improves the energy density and group efficiency of NMC battery, and the blade battery developed by BYD improves the energy density and safety performance based on the low cost of LFP battery. LFP battery market share expected to grow.

    However, professionals in the industry point out that the energy density of LFP battery and NMC battery is close to the theoretical limit, the energy density limit of high nickel material + silicon carbon negative cell is about 300Wh/Kg At current time only CATL and GOTION High-Tech have reached this level.

    New battery technologies are emerging, such as the Li-S (Lithium-Sulfur) battery that was first proposed in the 1960s, but progress has been slow so far; it was not until the 21st century that China’s research on Li-S batteries began gradually to develop. Solid-state lithium and lithium-rich manganese-based battery technologies are becoming the new hot-spots of battery development in China.

    Beside capacity and performance, the main challenges for battery development that we have identified are:

    Safety issues, especially the risk of fire during battery charging. The need to improve battery-management systems in collaborative settings between vehicle OEMs and key partners such as battery manufacturers and battery swapping technology developers. The management of batteries in their second and third lifecycles, as well as the decommissioning and recycling of old batteries.According to the development of the existing market, the market size of power lithium battery pack recycling will reach about 6.5 billion yuan by 2020, of which the market size of ladder utilization is about 4.1 billion yuan, and the market size of recycling is 2.4 billion yuan. By 2023, the total market size for battery decommissioning will reach 15 billion yuan, of which the market size of ladder utilization is about 5.7 billion yuan, and the market size of recycling is about 9.3 billion yuan.

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  • 29.
    Lindgren, Arne
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Development of Brake Cooling2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sports cars need efficient brake cooling as they shall perform well during hard driving conditions, like for example race track driving. Most sports cars use ducts that capture ambient airflow and directs this flow over the brakes to improve the cooling. This project was conducted in cooperation with Koenigsegg Automotive AB and aims to develop more efficient brake cooling ducts for their cars.  Computational Fluid Dynamics was used to analyse the convective cooling of the brake disc and the pads. First was the cooling with the previously used ducts analysed in order to establish a reference.  Then new concepts were created, analysed and developed in an iterative process.  A design is proposed, which have the inlet in the centre of the wheel axle and that directs the air through radial channels to the brake disc. The simulations indicate that the proposed design results in 14% higher heat transfer rate compared to the previously used cooling solution.   In addition to the cooling ducts, some passive cooling devices were also simulated. Simulations with these in combination with the proposed design, indicate up to 25% increase in heat transfer rate, but this cannot be fully confirmed due to limitations in the simulation model.

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  • 30.
    Lyamin, Nikita
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Does ETSI beaconing frequency control provide cooperative awareness?2015In: 2015 IEEE International Conference on Communication Workshop (ICCW), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2015, p. 2393-2398Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Platooning is an emergent vehicular application aiming at increasing road safety, efficiency and driving comfort. The cooperation between the vehicles in a platoon is achieved by the frequent exchange of periodic broadcast Cooperative Awareness Messages (CAMs) also known as beacons. CAM triggering conditions are drafted in the standard ETSI EN 302 637–2 and are based on the dynamics of an originating vehicle. These conditions are checked repeatedly with a certain sampling rate. We have discovered that the improper choice of the sampling rate value may increase the number of collisions between CAMs at the IEEE 802.11p medium access control layer and, therefore, diminish the efficiency of beaconing in a platoon. © 2015 IEEE

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  • 31.
    Malmsten Lundgren, Victor
    et al.
    Viktoria Swedish ICT, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Habibovic, Azra
    Viktoria Swedish ICT, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Andersson, Jonas
    Viktoria Swedish ICT, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lagström, Tobias
    Viktoria Swedish ICT, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Maria
    Viktoria Swedish ICT, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sirkka, Anna
    Interactive Institute Swedish ICT, Piteå, Sweden.
    Fagerlönn, Johan
    Interactive Institute Swedish ICT, Piteå, Sweden.
    Fredriksson, Rikard
    Autoliv Research, Vårgårda, Sweden.
    Edgren, Claes
    Volvo Car Corporation, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Krupenia, Stas
    Scania CV AB, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Saluäär, Dennis
    Volvo Group AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Will There Be New Communication Needs When Introducing Automated Vehicles to the Urban Context?2017In: Advances in Human Aspects of Transportation: Proceedings of the AHFE 2016 International Conference on Human Factors in Transportation, July 27-31, 2016, Walt Disney World®, Florida, USA / [ed] Stanton, Neville A.; Landry, Steven; Di Bucchianico, Giuseppe; Vallicelli, Andrea, Cham: Springer, 2017, Vol. 484, p. 485-497Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s encounters with vehicles, pedestrians are often dependent on cues in drivers’ behavior such as eye contact, postures, and gestures. With an increased level of automation, and the transfer of control from the driver to the vehicle, the pedestrians cannot rely on such cues anymore. The question is: will there be new communication needs to warrant safe interactions with automated vehicles? This question is addressed by exploring pedestrians’ willingness to cross the street and their emotional state in encounters with a seemingly automated vehicle. The results show that pedestrians’ willingness to cross the street decrease with an inattentive driver. Eye contact with the driver on the other hand leads to calm interaction between vehicle and pedestrian. In conclusion, to sustain perceived safety when eye contact is discarded due to vehicle automation, it could be beneficial to provide pedestrians with the corresponding information in some other way (e.g., by means of an external vehicle interface). © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017.

  • 32.
    Revanur, Vandan
    et al.
    Halmstad University.
    Ayibiowu, Ayodeji
    Halmstad University.
    Rahat, Mahmoud
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Khoshkangini, Reza
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Embeddings Based Parallel Stacked Autoencoder Approach for Dimensionality Reduction and Predictive Maintenance of Vehicles2020In: IoT Streams for Data-Driven Predictive Maintenance and IoT, Edge, and Mobile for Embedded Machine Learning / [ed] Joao Gama, Sepideh Pashami, Albert Bifet, Moamar Sayed-Mouchawe, Holger Fröning, Franz Pernkopf, Gregor Schiele, Michaela Blott, Heidelberg: Springer, 2020, p. 127-141Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Predictive Maintenance (PdM) of automobiles requires the storage and analysis of large amounts of sensor data. This requirement can be challenging in deploying PdM algorithms onboard the vehicles due to limited storage and computational power on the hardware of the vehicle. Hence, this study seeks to obtain low dimensional descriptive features from high dimensional data using Representation Learning. The low dimensional representation can then be used for predicting vehicle faults, in particular a component related to the powertrain. A Parallel Stacked Autoencoder based architecture is presented with the aim of producing better representations when compared to individual Autoen-coders with focus on vehicle data. Also, Embeddings are employed on categorical Variables to aid the performance of the artificial neural networks (ANN) models. This architecture is shown to achieve excellent performance, and in close standards to the previous state-of-the-art research. Significant improvement in powertrain failure prediction is obtained along with a reduction in the size of input data using our novel deep learning ANN architecture.

    © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

  • 33.
    Segata, Michele
    et al.
    University of Trento, Trento, Italy.
    Lestas, Marios
    Frederick University, Nicosia, Cyprus.
    Casari, Paolo
    University of Trento, Trento, Italy.
    Taqwa, Saeed
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Tyrovolas, Dimitrios
    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Karagiannidis, George
    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Liaskos, Christos
    University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece.
    Enabling Cooperative Autonomous Driving through mmWave and Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces2023In: 2023 18th Wireless On-Demand Network Systems and Services Conference, WONS 2023, New York, NY: IEEE, 2023, p. 32-39Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Future cooperative autonomous vehicles will be able to organize into flexible platoons to improve both the efficiency and the safety of driving. However, platooning requires dependable coordination through the periodic wireless exchange of control messages. Therefore, challenging propagation scenarios as found, e.g., in dense urban areas, may hinder coordination and lead to undesirable vehicle behavior. While reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RISs) have been advocated as a solution to improper coverage issues, no system-level simulation exists that accounts for realistic road mobility and communication aspects. To this end, we present one such simulator built on top of the OMNeT++-based PLEXE and Veins frameworks. Specifically, our contribution is a simulator that takes into account vehicle mobility, physical layer propagation, RIS coding, and networking protocols. To test our simulator, we implement an RIS-assisted autonomous platoon merging maneuver taking place at an intersection where the absence of any RIS would limit successful communications to an area dangerously close to the intersection itself. Our results validate the simulator as a feasible tool for system-level RIS-assisted cooperative autonomous vehicle maneuvering, and ultimately show the benefit of RIS as roadside infrastructure for wireless coverage extension. © 2023 IFIP.

  • 34.
    Torstensson, Martin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hai Bui, Thanh
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindström, David
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Duran, Boris
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    In-vehicle Driver and Passenger Activity Recognition2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Recognition of human behaviour within vehicles are becoming increasingly important. Paradoxically, the more control the car has (ie in terms of support systems), the more we need to know about the person behind the wheel [1] especially if he or she is expected to take over control from automation. A lot of focus has been devoted to research on the sensors monitoring the outside surroundings, but sensors on the inside has not received nearly as much attention. In terms of monitoring distractions, what is currently seen as dangerous (eg use of mobile phones) can in the future be seen as something good that helps to keep people awake in highly automated vehicles. Another reason for mapping activities inside the car is the often occurring mismatch between driver expectations and the reality of what today’s automated vehicles are capable of [2]. As long as the automation comes with limitations that impose a need for the driver to take over control at some point, it will be important to know more about what happens inside the vehicle. In this paper we describe the work performed within the ongoing DRAMA project1 to combine UX research with computer vision and machine learning to gather knowledge about what activities in a cabin can be mapped how they can be modelled to improve traffic safety and UX functionality.

  • 35.
    Uddagiri, Venkata Sai Vivek
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Ramalingam, Shankara Narayanan Bangalore
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Rahat, Mahmoud
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Sheikholharam Mashhadi, Peyman
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Predicting hybrid vehicles' fuel and electric consumption using multitask learning2021In: 2021 IEEE 8th International Conference on Data Science and Advanced Analytics (DSAA), IEEE, 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Predicting energy (fuel and electric) consumption of hybrid vehicles is important on different levels: vehicle industry as a whole, individuals, and can also pave the way towards a more sustainable future. Despite its importance, providing accurate predictions is quite a challenging task. Many essential factors impacting energy consumption, including travel time, average speed, etc., needless to say, these features are not available beforehand. However, these factors are available in our data-set. To use these factors effectively, in this paper, we propose including them as different tasks in a multitask setting to help our main problem of energy consumption. The promise of this approach is that since these tasks are relevant, learning them together would provide a common feature space sharing information about all tasks. More importantly, this shared feature space would carry important information helping energy consumption in particular. In multitask learning, two important issues are task dominance and conflicting gradients of different tasks. Different studies have addressed these two separately. In this paper, we propose a method tackling these two problems simultaneously. We show experimentally the success of this method in comparison to state-of-the-art.

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