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  • 1.
    Aein, Mohamad Javad
    et al.
    Department for Computational Neuroscience at the Bernstein Center Göttingen (Inst. of Physics 3) & Leibniz Science Campus for Primate Cognition, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany.
    Aksoy, Eren
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR Centrum för tillämpade intelligenta system (IS-lab).
    Wörgötter, Florentin
    Department for Computational Neuroscience at the Bernstein Center Göttingen (Inst. of Physics 3) & Leibniz Science Campus for Primate Cognition, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany.
    Internet Provisioning in VANETs: Performance Modeling of Drive-Thru Scenarios2019Ingår i: The international journal of robotics research, ISSN 0278-3649, E-ISSN 1741-3176, Vol. 38, nr 8, s. 910-934Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Drive-thru-Internet is a scenario in cooperative intelligent transportation systems (C-ITSs), where a road-side unit (RSU) provides multimedia services to vehicles that pass by. Performance of the drive-thru-Internet depends on various factors, including data traffic intensity, vehicle traffic density, and radio-link quality within the coverage area of the RSU, and must be evaluated at the stage of system design in order to fulfill the quality-of-service requirements of the customers in C-ITS. In this paper, we present an analytical framework that models downlink traffic in a drive-thru-Internet scenario by means of a multidimensional Markov process: the packet arrivals in the RSU buffer constitute Poisson processes and the transmission times are exponentially distributed. Taking into account the state space explosion problem associated with multidimensional Markov processes, we use iterative perturbation techniques to calculate the stationary distribution of the Markov chain. Our numerical results reveal that the proposed approach yields accurate estimates of various performance metrics, such as the mean queue content and the mean packet delay for a wide range of workloads. © 2019 IEEE.

  • 2.
    Alvarado, Cristian
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för Informationsvetenskap, Data– och Elektroteknik (IDE).
    Ibrahim, Ayad
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för Informationsvetenskap, Data– och Elektroteknik (IDE).
    Fjärrstyrning av videokamera2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    On some occasions it may be inappropriate with a cameraman behind the camera. In somecases there is no cameraman available or it is a smaller event, like a family celebration, to befilmed. It can also be difficult for a cameraman to shoot from certain angles. One solution forthis kind of situations can be to remotely control the camera movements. There are thosekinds of solutions on the market today but they either address professional filmmakers or thefunctionality is limited, for example by the absence of wireless remote control.This project aims to develop a solution to the problem with absence of wireless remote controland also a solution with more flexibility and less complexity than today’s solutions. The maindifference between this and existing solutions is the use of Bluetooth technology ascommunication between the devices. The project resulted in a solution consisting of twounits; one operating unit where the camera is mounted and a remote unit for control of theoperating unit. The remote unit is managed by the filmmaker. The remote unit consist of anAndroid application on a smart and which communicates with the control unit via Bluetooth.

  • 3.
    Anderson, S. J.
    et al.
    MIT.
    Karumanchi, S. B.
    MIT.
    Iagnemma, Karl
    MIT.
    Constraint-based planning and control for safe, semi-autonomous operation of vehicles2012Ingår i: 2012 IEEE intelligent vehicles symposium: (IV 2012) : Alcala de Henares, Madrid, Spain, 3-7 June 2012, 2012, s. 383-388Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a new approach to semi-autonomous vehicle hazard avoidance and stability control, based on the design and selective enforcement of constraints. This differs from traditional approaches that rely on the planning and tracking of paths. This emphasis on constraints facilitates "minimally-invasive" control for human-machine systems; instead of forcing a human operator to follow an automation-determined path, the constraint-based approach identifies safe homotopies, and allows the operator to navigate freely within them, introducing control action only as necessary to ensure that the vehicle does not violate safety constraints. The method evaluates candidate homotopies based on "restrictiveness", rather than traditional measures of path goodness, and designs and enforces requisite constraints on the human's control commands to ensure that the vehicle never leaves the controllable subset of a desired homotopy. Identification of these homotopic classes in off-road environments is performed using geometric constructs. The goodness of competing homotopies and their associated constraints is then characterized using geometric heuristics. Finally, input limits satisfying homotopy and vehicle dynamic constraints are enforced using threat-based feedback mechanisms to ensure that the vehicle avoids collisions and instability while preserving the human operator's situational awareness and mental models. The methods developed in this work are shown in simulation and experimentally demonstrated in safe, high-speed teleoperation of an unmanned ground vehicle. © 2012 IEEE.

  • 4.
    Anderson, S.
    et al.
    MIT.
    Peters, S.
    MIT.
    Iagnemma, Karl
    MIT.
    Overholt, J.
    US Army Tank Automotive RDE Center (TARDEC).
    Semi-Autonomous Stability Control and Hazard Avoidance for Manned and Unmanned Ground Vehicles2010Ingår i: Proceedings of the 27th Army Science Conference, 2010, s. 1-8Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a method for trajectory planning, threatassessment, and semi-autonomous control of manned andunmanned ground vehicles. A model predictive controlleriteratively replans a stability-optimal trajectory through the saferegion of the environment while a threat assessor and semi-autonomous control law modulate driver and controller inputs tomaintain stability, preserve controllability, and ensure that thevehicle avoids obstacles and hazardous areas. The efficacy of thisapproach in avoiding hazards while accounting for various typesof human error, including errors caused by time delays, isdemonstrated in simulation.

  • 5.
    Anderson, S.
    et al.
    MIT.
    Peters, S.
    MIT, USA.
    Pilutti, T.
    Ford Research Laboratories, Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI 48124, United States.
    Tseng, E.
    Ford Research Laboratories, Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI 48124, United States.
    Iagnemma, Karl
    MIT.
    Semi-autonomous Avoidance of Moving Hazards for Passenger Vehicles2010Ingår i: Proceedings of the ASME Dynamic Systems and Control Conference--2010: presented at 2010 ASME Dynamic Systems and Control Conference, September 12-15, 2010 Cambridge, Mass., USA, New York: ASME Press, 2010, s. 141-148Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a method for semi-autonomous hazard avoidance in the presence of unknown moving obstacles and unpredictable driver inputs. This method iteratively predicts the motion and anticipated intersection of the host vehicle with both static and dynamic hazards and excludes projected collision states from a traversable corridor. A model predictive controller iteratively replans a stability-optimal trajectory through the navigable region of the environment while a threat assessor and semi-autonomous control law modulate driver and controller inputs to maintain stability, preserve controllability, and ensure safe hazard avoidance. The efficacy of this approach is demonstrated through both simulated and experimental results using a semi-autonomously controlled Jaguar S-Type. Copyright © 2010 by ASME.

  • 6.
    Anderson, Sterling J.
    et al.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA.
    Karumanchi, Sisir B.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA.
    Iagnemma, Karl
    Department of Mechanical Engineering Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA.
    Walker, James M.
    Quantum Signal, LLC, Saline, MI, USA.
    The intelligent copilot: A constraint-based approach to shared-adaptive control of ground vehicles2013Ingår i: IEEE Intelligent Transportation Systems Magazine, ISSN 1939-1390, Vol. 5, nr 2, s. 45-54Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This work presents a new approach to semi-autonomous vehicle hazard avoidance and stability control, based on the design and selective enforcement of constraints. This differs from traditional approaches that rely on the planning and tracking of paths and facilitates minimally-invasive control for human-machine systems. Instead of forcing a human operator to follow an automation-determined path, the constraint-based approach identifies safe homotopies, and allows the operator to navigate freely within them, introducing control action only as necessary to ensure that the vehicle does not violate safety constraints. This method evaluates candidate homotopies based on restrictiveness rather than traditional measures of path goodness, and designs and enforces requisite constraints on the human's control commands to ensure that the vehicle never leaves the controllable subset of a desired homotopy. This paper demonstrates the approach in simulation and characterizes its effect on human teleoperation of unmanned ground vehicles via a 20-user, 600-trial study on an outdoor obstacle course. Aggregated across all drivers and experiments, the constraintbased control system required an average of 43% of the available control authority to reduce collision frequency by 78% relative to traditional teleoperation, increase average speed by 26%, and moderate operator steering commands by 34%. © 2009-2012 IEEE

  • 7.
    Anderson, Sterling J.
    et al.
    MIT.
    Karumanchi, Sisir B.
    MIT.
    Johnson, Bryan
    Quantum Signal LLC..
    Perlin, Victor
    Quantum Signal LLC..
    Rohde, Mitchell
    Quantum Signal LLC..
    Iagnemma, Karl
    MIT.
    Constraint-based semi-autonomy for unmanned ground vehicles using local sensing2012Ingår i: UNMANNED SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY XIV, Bellingham, WA: SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2012, s. Article no. 83870K-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Teleoperated vehicles are playing an increasingly important role in a variety of military functions. While advantageous in many respects over their manned counterparts, these vehicles also pose unique challenges when it comes to safely avoiding obstacles. Not only must operators cope with difficulties inherent to the manned driving task, but they must also perform many of the same functions with a restricted field of view, limited depth perception, potentially disorienting camera viewpoints, and significant time delays. In this work, a constraint-based method for enhancing operator performance by seamlessly coordinating human and controller commands is presented. This method uses onboard LIDAR sensing to identify environmental hazards, designs a collision-free path homotopy traversing that environment, and coordinates the control commands of a driver and an onboard controller to ensure that the vehicle trajectory remains within a safe homotopy. This system's performance is demonstrated via off-road teleoperation of a Kawasaki Mule in an open field among obstacles. In these tests, the system safely avoids collisions and maintains vehicle stability even in the presence of "routine" operator error, loss of operator attention, and complete loss of communications.

  • 8.
    Anderson, Sterling J.
    et al.
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
    Peters, Steven C.
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
    Iagnemma, Karl
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
    Pilutti, Tom E.
    Ford Research Laboratories, Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI, United States.
    A Unified Approach to Semi-Autonomous Control of Passenger Vehicles in Hazard Avoidance Scenarios2009Ingår i: IEEE 2009 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, SMC 2009, VOLS 1-9, Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE Press, 2009, s. 2032-2037Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the design of unified active safety framework that combines trajectory planning, threat assessment, and semi-autonomous control of passenger vehicles into a single constrained-optimal-control-based system. This framework allows for multiple actuation modes, diverse trajectory-planning objectives, and varying levels of autonomy. The vehicle navigation problem is formulated as a constrained optimal control problem with constraints bounding a navigable region of the road surface. A model predictive controller iteratively plans the best-case vehicle trajectory through this constrained corridor. The framework then uses this trajectory to assess the threat posed to the vehicle and intervenes in proportion to this threat. This approach minimizes controller intervention while ensuring that the vehicle does not depart from a navigable corridor of travel. Simulated results are presented here to demonstrate the framework's ability to incorporate multiple threat thresholds and configurable intervention laws while sharing control with a human driver. ©2009 IEEE.

  • 9.
    Anderson, Sterling J.
    et al.
    MIT.
    Peters, Steven C.
    MIT.
    Pilutti, Tom E.
    Ford Research Laboratories, Dearborn, MI 48124, United States.
    Iagnemma, Karl
    MIT.
    Design and Development of an Optimal-Control-Based Framework for Trajectory Planning, Threat Assessment, and Semi-autonomous Control of Passenger Vehicles in Hazard Avoidance Scenarios2011Ingår i: Robotics Research, Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2011, s. 39-54Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the design of an optimal-control-based active safety framework that performs trajectory planning, threat assessment, and semi-autonomous control of passenger vehicles in hazard avoidance scenarios. This framework allows for multiple actuation modes, diverse trajectory-planning objectives, and varying levels of autonomy. A model predictive controller iteratively plans a best-case vehicle trajectory through a navigable corridor as a constrained optimal control problem. The framework then uses this trajectory to assess the threat posed to the vehicle and intervenes in proportion to this threat. This approach minimizes controller intervention while ensuring that the vehicle does not depart from a navigable corridor of travel. Simulation and experimental results are presented here to demonstrate the framework's ability to incorporate configurable intervention laws while sharing control with a human driver. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  • 10.
    Anderson, Sterling J.
    et al.
    MIT.
    Peters, Steven C.
    MIT.
    Pilutti, Tom E.
    Ford Research Laboratories, Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI, United States.
    Iagnemma, Karl
    MIT.
    Experimental Study of an Optimal-Control-Based Framework for Trajectory Planning, Threat Assessment, and Semi-Autonomous Control of Passenger Vehicles in Hazard Avoidance Scenarios2010Ingår i: FIELD AND SERVICE ROBOTICS, Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2010, s. 59-68Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the design of an optimal-control-based active safety framework that performs trajectory planning, threat assessment, and semi-autonomous control of passenger vehicles in hazard avoidance scenarios. The vehicle navigation problem is formulated as a constrained optimal control problem with constraints bounding a navigable region of the road surface. A model predictive controller iteratively plans an optimal vehicle trajectory through the constrained corridor. Metrics from this "best-case" scenario establish the minimum threat posed to the vehicle given its current state. Based on this threat assessment, the level of controller intervention required to prevent departure from the navigable corridor is calculated and driver/controller inputs are scaled accordingly. This approach minimizes controller intervention while ensuring that the vehicle does not depart from a navigable corridor of travel. It also allows for multiple actuation modes, diverse trajectory-planning objectives, and varying levels of autonomy. Experimental results are presented here to demonstrate the framework's semi-autonomous performance in hazard avoidance scenarios.

  • 11.
    Andreasson, Henrik
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Bouguerra, Abdelbaki
    Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Åstrand, Björn
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR Centrum för tillämpade intelligenta system (IS-lab).
    Rögnvaldsson, Thorsteinn
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR Centrum för tillämpade intelligenta system (IS-lab).
    Gold-fish SLAM: An application of SLAM to localize AGVs2014Ingår i: Field and Service Robotics: Results of the 8th International Conference / [ed] Kazuya Yoshida & Satoshi Tadokoro, Heidelberg: Springer, 2014, s. 585-598Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The main focus of this paper is to present a case study of a SLAM solution for Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs) operating in real-world industrial environments. The studied solution, called Gold-fish SLAM, was implemented to provide localization estimates in dynamic industrial environments, where there are static landmarks that are only rarely perceived by the AGVs. The main idea of Gold-fish SLAM is to consider the goods that enter and leave the environment as temporary landmarks that can be used in combination with the rarely seen static landmarks to compute online estimates of AGV poses. The solution is tested and verified in a factory of paper using an eight ton diesel-truck retrofitted with an AGV control system running at speeds up to 3m/s. The paper includes also a general discussion on how SLAM can be used in industrial applications with AGVs. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014.

  • 12.
    Antonelo, Eric Aislan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för Informationsvetenskap, Data– och Elektroteknik (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Figueiredo, Maurício Fernandes
    Department of Computer Science, State University of Maringá, 87020-900, Maringá - PR, Brazil.
    Baerveldt, Albert Jan
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för Informationsvetenskap, Data– och Elektroteknik (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Calvo, Rodrigo A.
    Department of Computer Science and Statistics, University of São Paulo, São Carlos, Brazil.
    Intelligent autonomous navigation for mobile robots: Spatial concept acquisition and object discrimination2005Ingår i: 2005 IEEE International Symposium on Computational Intelligence in Robotics and Automation, Proceedings, New York: IEEE Press, 2005, s. 553-557Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An autonomous system able to construct its own navigation strategy for mobile robots is proposed. The navigation strategy is molded from navigation experiences (succeeding as the robot navigates) according to a classical reinforcement learning procedure. The autonomous system is based on modular hierarchical neural networks. Initially the navigation performance is poor (many collisions occur). Computer simulations show that after a period of learning the autonomous system generates efficient obstacle avoidance and target seeking behaviors. Experiments also offer support for concluding that the autonomous system develops a variety of object discrimination capability and of spatial concepts.

  • 13.
    Arndt, David
    et al.
    L3 Communications, Inc, Pasadena, CA, United States.
    Bobrow, James E.
    Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Irvine, United States.
    Peters, Steven
    MIT, United States.
    Iagnemma, Karl
    MIT, United States.
    Dubowsky, Steven
    MIT, United States.
    Two-Wheel Self-Balancing of a Four-Wheeled Vehicle2011Ingår i: IEEE Control Systems Magazine, ISSN 1066-033X, Vol. 31, nr 2, s. 29-37Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cars and trucks are susceptible to accidents due to rollover. In the United States in 2005, 21.1 of a total of 54,718 deaths in vehicle crashes were caused by rollover [1]. Significant research has therefore been devoted to detecting and preventing rollover through active control. Numerous approaches attempt to detect or predict wheel liftoff using onboard sensing and a combination of automatic steering and braking to keep the wheels on the ground [2][4]. © 2006 IEEE.

  • 14.
    Arvidson, R. E.
    et al.
    Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130, United States.
    Ashley, J. W.
    School of Earth and Space Exploration, Mars Space Flight Facility, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, United States.
    Bell III, J. F.
    Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, United States.
    Chojnacki, M.
    Planetary Geosciences Institute, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, United States.
    Cohen, J.
    Honeybee Robotics Spacecraft Mechanisms Corporation, 460 W. 34th St., New York, NY 10001, United States.
    Economou, T. E.
    Laboratory for Astrophysics and Space Research, Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, United States.
    Farrand, W. H.
    Space Science Institute, 4750 Walnut St., Boulder, CO 80301, United States.
    Fergason, R.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2255 N. Gemini Dr., Flagstaff, AZ 86001, United States.
    Fleischer, I.
    Institut für Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
    Geissler, P.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2255 N. Gemini Dr., Flagstaff, AZ 86001, United States.
    Gellert, R.
    Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada.
    Golombek, M. P.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109, United States.
    Grotzinger, J. P.
    Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, United States.
    Guinness, E. A.
    Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130, United States.
    Haberle, R. M.
    NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035, United States.
    Herkenhoff, K. E.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2255 N. Gemini Dr., Flagstaff, AZ 86001, United States.
    Herman, J. A.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109, United States.
    Iagnemma, Karl
    MIT, USA.
    Jolliff, B. L.
    Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130, United States.
    Johnson, J. R.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2255 N. Gemini Dr., Flagstaff, AZ 86001, United States.
    Klingelhöfer, G.
    Institut für Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
    Knoll, A. H.
    Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, United States.
    Knudson, A. T.
    Planetary Science Institute, 1700 East Fort Lowell, Tucson, AZ 85719, United States.
    Li, R.
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Geodetic Science, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, United States.
    McLennan, S. M.
    Department of Geosciences, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794, United States.
    Mittlefehldt, D. W.
    NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 77058, United States.
    Morris, R. V.
    NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 77058, United States.
    Parker, T. J.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109, United States.
    Rice, M. S.
    Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, United States.
    Schröder, C.
    Department of Hydrology, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Soderblom, L. A.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2255 N. Gemini Dr., Flagstaff, AZ 86001, United States.
    Squyres, S. W.
    Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, United States.
    Sullivan, R. J.
    Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, United States.
    Wolff, M. J.
    Space Science Institute, 4750 Walnut St., Boulder, CO 80301, United States.
    Opportunity Mars Rover mission: Overview and selected results from Purgatory ripple to traverses to Endeavour crater2011Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research, ISSN 0148-0227, E-ISSN 2156-2202, Vol. 116, s. E00F15-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Opportunity has been traversing the Meridiani plains since 25 January 2004 (sol 1), acquiring numerous observations of the atmosphere, soils, and rocks. This paper provides an overview of key discoveries between sols 511 and 2300, complementing earlier papers covering results from the initial phases of the mission. Key new results include (1) atmospheric argon measurements that demonstrate the importance of atmospheric transport to and from the winter carbon dioxide polar ice caps; (2) observations showing that aeolian ripples covering the plains were generated by easterly winds during an epoch with enhanced Hadley cell circulation; (3) the discovery and characterization of cobbles and boulders that include iron and stony-iron meteorites and Martian impact ejecta; (4) measurements of wall rock strata within Erebus and Victoria craters that provide compelling evidence of formation by aeolian sand deposition, with local reworking within ephemeral lakes; (5) determination that the stratigraphy exposed in the walls of Victoria and Endurance craters show an enrichment of chlorine and depletion of magnesium and sulfur with increasing depth. This result implies that regional-scale aqueous alteration took place before formation of these craters. Most recently, Opportunity has been traversing toward the ancient Endeavour crater. Orbital data show that clay minerals are exposed on its rim. Hydrated sulfate minerals are exposed in plains rocks adjacent to the rim, unlike the surfaces of plains outcrops observed thus far by Opportunity. With continued mechanical health, Opportunity will reach terrains on and around Endeavour's rim that will be markedly different from anything examined to date. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  • 15.
    Arvidson, R. E.
    et al.
    Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States.
    Bell III, J. F.
    Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, United States.
    Bellutta, P.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, United States.
    Cabrol, N. A.
    NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, United States.
    Catalano, J. G.
    Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States.
    Cohen, J.
    Honeybee Robotics Spacecraft Mechanisms Corporation, New York, NY, United States.
    Crumpler, L. S.
    New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Albuquerque, United States.
    Marais, D. J. Des
    NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, United States.
    Estlin, T. A.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, United States.
    Farrand, W. H.
    Space Science Institute, Boulder, CO, United States.
    Gellert, R.
    Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada.
    Grant, J. A.
    Center for Earth and Planetary Studies, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, United States.
    Greenberger, R. N.
    Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States.
    Guinness, E. A.
    Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States.
    Herkenhoff, K. E.
    U.S. Geological Survey, Flagstaff, AZ, United States.
    Herman, J. A.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, United States.
    Iagnemma, Karl
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, United States.
    Johnson, J. R.
    U.S. Geological Survey, Flagstaff, AZ, United States.
    Klingelhöfer, G.
    Institut für Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Mainz, Germany.
    Li, R.
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Geodetic Science, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States.
    Lichtenberg, K. A.
    Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States.
    Maxwell, S. A.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, United States.
    Ming, D. W.
    NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, United States.
    Morris, R. V.
    NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, United States.
    Rice, M. S.
    Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, United States.
    Ruff, S. W.
    School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, United States.
    Shaw, A.
    Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States.
    Siebach, K. L.
    Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States.
    de Souza, P. A.
    Information and Communication Technologies Centre, CSIRO, Hobart, Australia.
    Stroupe, A. W.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, United States.
    Squyres, S. W.
    Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, United States.
    Sullivan, R. J.
    Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, United States.
    Talley, K. P.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, United States.
    Townsend, J. A.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, United States.
    Wang, A.
    Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States.
    Wright, J. R.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, United States.
    Yen, A. S.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, United States.
    Spirit Mars Rover Mission: Overview and selected results from the northern Home Plate Winter Haven to the side of Scamander crater2010Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research, ISSN 0148-0227, E-ISSN 2156-2202, Vol. 115, nr 9, s. E00F03-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 16.
    Arvidson, R.
    et al.
    Washington University in Saint Louis.
    Fuller, D.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA.
    Heverly, M.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA.
    Iagnemma, Karl
    MIT.
    Lin, J.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA.
    Matthews, J.
    SpaceX, Los Angeles, CA.
    Sletten, R.
    5University of Washington.
    Stein, N.
    Washington University in Saint Louis.
    Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity Rover Terramechanics Initial Results2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 17.
    Arvidson, R.
    et al.
    Washington University in Saint Louis.
    van Dyke, L.
    Washington University in Saint Louis.
    Bennett, K.
    Washington University in Saint Louis.
    Zhou, F.
    Washington University in Saint Louis.
    Iagnemma, Karl
    MIT.
    Senatore, C.
    MIT.
    Lindemann, R.
    Caltech, Pasadena.
    Trease, B.
    Caltech, Pasadena.
    Maxwell, S.
    Caltech, Pasadena.
    Bellutta, P.
    Caltech, Pasadena.
    Stroupe, A.
    Caltech, Pasadena.
    Hartman, F.
    Caltech, Pasadena.
    Verma, V.
    Caltech, Pasadena.
    Ali, K.
    Caltech, Pasadena.
    Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity Terramechanics Across Ripple Covered Bedrock In Meridiani Planum2011Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 18.
    Baerveldt, Albert-Jan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Björnberg, A.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Gisbert, M.
    Visual guidance of mobile robots using a neural network1998Ingår i: Mechatronics '98, Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1998, s. 427-431Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a self-learning method for low-level navigation for autonomous mobile robots, based on a neural network. Both corridor following and obstacle avoidance in indoor environments are successfully managed by the same network. Raw gray scale images of size 32 by 23 pixels are processed one by one by a feed forward neural network. The output signals of the network represent the appropriate steering actions of the robot.

  • 19.
    Baerveldt, Albert-Jan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Åstrand, Björn
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    A low-cost colour vision-system for robot design competitions1998Ingår i: Mechatronics '98 / [ed] Josef Adolfsson and Jeanette Karlsén, Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1998, s. 595-600Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a low-cost colour vision system mainly intended for robot design competitions, which nowadays is a popular, project-oriented, way of teaching mechatronics in engineering curriculums. The estimated cost is about 450 dollar inclusive colour camera and the system is small enough to be carried on-board relative small mobile robots. The system is build around a signal processor TMS C31. We also present and discuss the experiences made with the system in our robot design competition.

  • 20.
    Bellone, Mauro
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Qutteineh, Jafar
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi.
    Extension of Trajectory Planning in Parameterized Spaces to Articulated Vehicles2017Ingår i: Proceedings of the 2017 22nd IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, Piscataway: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this research is to study a novel method for safe maneuvering of articulated vehicles in warehouses. The presented method extends the concept of probabilistic planning on manifolds to articulated vehicles, which will be capable of driving, maneuvering and performing obstacle avoidance in any scenario. The proposed technique involves the extension of a parameterized space, developed for the reactive navigation of differential driven vehicles, to include an additional degree of freedom and use a probabilistic planner to calculate kinematically feasible trajectories. As a result, the algorithm is able to successfully generate maneuvers for an articulated truck and to navigate towards specific target points. The approach was validated using three problems representing different driving scenarios, demonstrating the possible utilization of the method in real-case scenarios. The solutions have been further benchmarked on multiple runs to evaluate success rate and to demonstrate the validity of the algorithm.

  • 21.
    Bosshard, Pascal Fabian
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR Centrum för tillämpade intelligenta system (IS-lab).
    Investigation of Trajectory Optimization for Multiple Car-Like Vehicles2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 22.
    Brooks, C.
    et al.
    MIT.
    Iagnemma, Karl
    MIT.
    Visual Detection of Novel Terrain via Two-Class Classification2009Ingår i: Proceedings of the 24th Annual ACM: Symposium on Applied Computing 2009, New York: ACM Press, 2009, s. 1145-1150Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Remote sensing of terrain characteristics is an important component for autonomous operation of mobile robots in natural terrain. Often this involves classification of terrain into one of a set of a priori known terrain classes. Situations can frequently arise, however, where an autonomous robot encounters a terrain class that does not belong to one of these known classes. This paper proposes an approach for visual detection of novel terrain based on a two-class support vector machine (SVM) for situations when known terrain classes can be confidently associated with only a subset of the training data. Experimental results from a four-wheeled mobile robot in Mars analog terrain demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach. Copyright 2009 ACM.

  • 23.
    Brooks, C.
    et al.
    Field and Space Robotics Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139, United States.
    Iagnemma, Karl
    Field and Space Robotics Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139, United States.
    Dubowsky, S.
    Field and Space Robotics Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139, United States.
    Vibration-based terrain analysis for mobile robots2005Ingår i: Robotics and Automation, 2005. ICRA 2005. Proceedings of the 2005 IEEE International Conference on, Washington, DC: IEEE Computer Society, 2005, s. 3415-3420Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Safe, autonomous mobility in rough terrain is an important requirement for planetary exploration rovers. Knowledge of local terrain properties is critical to ensure a rover's safety on slopes and uneven surfaces. This paper presents a method to classify terrain based on vibrations induced in the rover structure by wheel-terrain interaction during driving. Vibrations are measured using an accelerometer on the rover structure. The classifier is trained using labeled vibration data during an off-line learning phase. Linear discriminant analysis is used for on-line identification of terrain classes such as sand, gravel, or clay. This approach is experimentally validated on a laboratory testbed.

  • 24.
    Brooks, C.A.
    et al.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, United States.
    Iagnemma, Karl
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, United States.
    Vibration-based terrain classification for planetary exploration rovers2005Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on robotics, ISSN 1552-3098, E-ISSN 1941-0468, Vol. 21, nr 6, s. 1185-1191Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Safe, autonomous mobility in rough terrain is an important requirement for planetary exploration rovers. Knowledge of local terrain properties is critical to ensure a rover's safety on slopes and uneven surfaces. Visual features are often used to classify terrain; however, vision can be sensitive to lighting variations and other effects. This paper presents a method to classify terrain based on vibrations induced in the rover structure by wheel-terrain interaction during driving. This sensing mode is robust to lighting variations. Vibrations are measured using an accelerometer mounted on the rover structure. The classifier is trained using labeled vibration data during an offline learning phase. Linear discriminant analysis is used for online identification of terrain classes, such as sand, gravel, or clay. This approach has been experimentally validated on a laboratory testbed and on a four-wheeled rover in outdoor conditions.

  • 25.
    Brooks, Christopher A.
    et al.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139, United States.
    Iagnemma, Karl
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139, United States.
    Self-Supervised Classification for Planetary Rover Terrain Sensing2007Ingår i: Aerospace Conference, 2007 IEEE, Piscataway: IEEE Press, 2007, s. 1-9Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomous mobility in rough terrain is key to enabling increased science data return from planetary rover missions. Current terrain sensing and path planning approaches can be used to avoid geometric hazards, such as rocks and steep slopes, but are unable to remotely identify and avoid non-geometric hazards, such as loose sand in which a rover may become entrenched. This paper proposes a self-supervised classification approach to learning the visual appearance of terrain classes which relies on vibration-based sensing of wheel-terrain interaction to identify these terrain classes. Experimental results from a four-wheeled rover in Mars analog terrain demonstrate the potential for this approach.

  • 26.
    Brooks, Christopher A.
    et al.
    MIT.
    Iagnemma, Karl
    MIT.
    Self-supervised terrain classification for planetary surface exploration rovers2012Ingår i: Journal of Field Robotics, ISSN 1556-4959, Vol. 29, nr 3, s. 445-468Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In future planetary exploration missions, improvements in autonomous rover mobility have the potential to increase scientific data return by providing safe access to geologically interesting sites that lie in rugged terrain, far from landing areas. To improve rover-based terrain sensing, this paper proposes a self-supervised learning framework that will enable a robotic system to learn to predict mechanical properties of distant terrain, based on measurements of mechanical properties of similar terrain that has been traversed previously. In this framework, a proprioceptive terrain classifier is used to distinguish terrain classes based on features derived from rover-terrain interaction, and labels from this classifier are used to train an exteroceptive (i.e., vision-based) terrain classifier. Once trained, the vision-based classifier is able to recognize similar terrain classes in stereo imagery. This paper presents two distinct proprioceptive classifiers-a novel approach based on optimization of a traction force model and a previously described approach based on wheel vibration-as well as a vision-based terrain classification approach suitable for environments with unexpected appearances. The high accuracy of the self-supervised learning framework and its supporting algorithms is demonstrated using experimental data from a four-wheeled robot in an outdoor Mars-analogue environment. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 27.
    Brooks, Christopher A.
    et al.
    Tau Beta Pi, United States.
    Iagnemma, Karl
    MIT, USA.
    Dubowsky, Steven
    MIT, USA.
    Visual wheel sinkage measurement for planetary rover mobility characterization2006Ingår i: Autonomous Robots, ISSN 0929-5593, E-ISSN 1573-7527, Vol. 21, nr 1, s. 55-64Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Wheel sinkage is an important indicator of mobile robot mobility in natural outdoor terrains. This paper presents a vision-based method to measure the sinkage of a rigid robot wheel in rigid or deformable terrain. The method is based on detecting the difference in intensity between the wheel rim and the terrain. The method uses a single grayscale camera and is computationally efficient, making it suitable for systems with limited computational resources such as planetary rovers. Experimental results under various terrain and lighting conditions demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the algorithm.

  • 28.
    Brunnegård, Oliver
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Wikestad, Daniel
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Visual SLAM using sparse maps based on feature points2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Visual Simultaneous Localisation And Mapping is a useful tool forcreating 3D environments with feature points. These visual systemscould be very valuable in autonomous vehicles to improve the localisation.Cameras being a fairly cheap sensor with the capabilityto gather a large amount of data. More efficient algorithms are stillneeded to better interpret the most valuable information. This paperanalyses how much a feature based map can be reduced without losingsignificant accuracy during localising.

    Semantic segmentation created by a deep neural network is used toclassify the features used to create the map, the map is reduced by removingcertain classes. The results show that feature based maps cansignificantly be reduced without losing accuracy. The use of classesresulted in promising results, large amounts of feature were removedbut the system could still localise accurately. Removing some classesgave the same results or even better in certain weather conditionscompared to localisation with a full-scale map.

  • 29.
    Buehler, Martin
    et al.
    Boston Dynamics, 515 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, United States.
    Iagnemma, Karl
    MIT, USA.
    Editorial for Journal of Field Robotics - Special issue on the DARPA Grand Challenge2006Ingår i: Journal of Field Robotics, ISSN 1556-4959, Vol. 23, nr 8, s. 461-462Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 30.
    Buehler, Martin
    et al.
    Vecna Technologies, Cambridge, USA.
    Iagnemma, Karl
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, United States.
    Singh, Sanjiv
    Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, USA.
    Editorial: [for the Special issue on the 2007 DARPA Urban Challenge, Part I]2008Ingår i: Journal of Field Robotics, ISSN 1556-4959, Vol. 25, nr 8, s. 423-424Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 31.
    Buehler, Martin
    et al.
    Vecna Technologies, Cambridge, USA.
    Iagnemma, Karl
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.
    Singh, Sanjiv
    Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, USA.
    Editorial: [Special issue on the 2007 DARPA Urban Challenge, Part II]2008Ingår i: Journal of Field Robotics, ISSN 1556-4959, Vol. 25, nr 9, s. 567-568Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 32.
    Buehler, Martin
    et al.
    Vecna Technologies, Cambridge, USA.
    Iagnemma, Karl
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.
    Singh, Sanjiv
    Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, USA.
    Editorial: [Special Issue on the 2007 DARPA Urban Challenge, Part III]2008Ingår i: Journal of Field Robotics, ISSN 1556-4959, Vol. 25, nr 10, s. 725-726Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 33.
    Carina, Bui
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi.
    Eric, Oscarsson
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi.
    Chocolat3D: En choklad 3D-skrivare med dubbla skrivhuvuden och hantering av två typer av choklad2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur långt spänner sig utvecklingen av 3D-skrivare?

    Projektet Chocolat3D syftar till att expandera det hastigt växande användningsområdet för 3D-skrivartekniken. Genom att utveckla ett nytt 3D-skrivarsystem där användaren enbart behöver tillsätta choklad till systemet, börjar skrivaren automatiskt smälta och temperera choklad för att sedan påbörja en utskrift. Systemet kan göra en utskrift med två typer av choklad, och ett koncept för hur rengöring av skrivaren är framtagen.

    Projektet består av två projektgrupper, där projektgrupperna har indelade fokusområden mot mekatronik, respektive data och elektronik. Rapporten avhandlar arbetet som utförs av två högskoleingenjörsteknologer med inriktning inom mekatronik, på Högskolan i Halmstad.

    Målet med arbetet är att identifiera och konstruera de delsystem som behövs för att modifiera en 3D-skrivare framtagen för utskrift med plast, till en 3D-skrivare för utskrift med choklad. Metoderna som gruppen undersöker, utvärderar och tillämpar är befintliga lösningar inom chokladindustrin, samt dagens 3D-skrivarteknologi. Tester för metoder presenteras för att göra kritska val för de ingående delsystemen.

    Arbetet resulterade i utveckling av fyra delsystem. Skrivaren och designen, som bas för projektet, ett extruderingssystem för utskriften av choklad. Ett tempereringssystem, för automatisk temperering av choklad, samt ett koncept för invändig rengöring av skrivaren. Det är en kombination av befintliga metoder som bidrar till en innovativ choklad 3D-skrivarprototyp för marknaden inom additiv tillverkning.

  • 34. Carlsén Stenström, Jakob
    et al.
    Rodén, Marcus
    Obstacle avoidance and altitude control for autonomous UAV2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Drones or UAVs are quickly becoming a bigger part of today's society. Delivery servicesand transportation are elds were big development is being done. For the UAVs to beable to perform its given tasks safely more and more sensors are implemented.This report covers the development and implementation of a sensor system to helpan UAV to keep a xed altitude and provide proximity measurements of the environ-ment to avoid obstacles. The system is build around the ATmega328P microprocessorand uses I2C to communicate with the sensors. Measurements are ltered and pub-lished into ROS where the autopilot can reach the measurements and make decisionsbased on the readings. Additionally, simple algorithms to avoid obstacles have beenimplemented and simulated in the simulation software Gazebo. The altitude controlsystem which has been the main focus of the project has been implemented with goodresults in both simulation and real ight tests. The system will be used in a competi-tion held in Arizona, USA where the project team together with two other project willcompete in the prestigious CPS-challenge.

  • 35.
    Cheng, N. G.
    et al.
    MIT.
    Lobovsky, M. B.
    MIT.
    Keating, S. J.
    MIT.
    Setapen, A. M.
    MIT.
    Gero, K. I.
    MIT.
    Hosoi, A. E.
    MIT.
    Iagnemma, Karl
    MIT.
    Design and Analysis of a Robust, Low-cost, Highly Articulated manipulator enabled by jamming of granular media2012Ingår i: Robotics and Automation (ICRA), 2012 IEEE International Conference on, 2012, s. 4328-4333Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Hyper-redundant manipulators can be fragile, expensive, and limited in their flexibility due to the distributed and bulky actuators that are typically used to achieve the precision and degrees of freedom (DOFs) required. Here, a manipulator is proposed that is robust, high-force, low-cost, and highly articulated without employing traditional actuators mounted at the manipulator joints. Rather, local tunable stiffness is coupled with off-board spooler motors and tension cables to achieve complex manipulator configurations. Tunable stiffness is achieved by reversible jamming of granular media, which - by applying a vacuum to enclosed grains - causes the grains to transition between solid-like states and liquid-like ones. Experimental studies were conducted to identify grains with high strength-to-weight performance. A prototype of the manipulator is presented with performance analysis, with emphasis on speed, strength, and articulation. This novel design for a manipulator - and use of jamming for robotic applications in general - could greatly benefit applications such as human-safe robotics and systems in which robots need to exhibit high flexibility to conform to their environments. © 2012 IEEE.

  • 36.
    Cheng, Nadia
    et al.
    MIT, USA.
    Ishigami, Genya
    MIT, USA.
    Hawthorne, Stephan
    MIT, USA.
    Chen, Hao
    University of California, USA.
    Hansen, Malik
    Boston Dynamics, USA.
    Telleria, Maria
    MIT, USA.
    Playter, Robert
    Boston Dynamics, USA.
    Iagnemma, Karl
    MIT, USA.
    Design and Analysis of a Soft Mobile Robot Composed of Multiple Thermally Activated Joints Driven by a Single Actuator2010Ingår i: 2010 IEEE international conference on robotics and automation, Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE Press, 2010, s. 5207-5212Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Soft robotic systems have applications in industrial, medical, and security applications. Many applications require these robots to be small and lightweight. One challenge in developing a soft robotic system is to drive multiple degrees-of-freedom (DOF) with few actuators, thereby reducing system size and weight. This paper presents the analysis and design of an inchworm-like mobile robot that consists of multiple, independent thermally activated joints but is driven by a single actuator. To realize control of this under-actuated system, a solder-based locking mechanism has been developed to selectively activate individual joints without requiring additional actuators. The design and performance analysis of a prototype mobile robot that is capable of inchworm-like translational and steering motion is described. The design of novel "feet" with anisotropic friction properties is also described. ©2010 IEEE.

  • 37.
    Chronwall, Anton
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi.
    Haapala, Jacob
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi.
    Brolle ny på jobbet: En studie om RPAs påverkan på digital arbetsmiljö2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den ökade datakraften och digitaliseringen av arbete har bidragit till möjligheten att automatisera processer. En metod för att automatisera processer är med Robotic Process Automation (RPA), vilket utför regelstyrda uppgifter baserat på detaljerade processbeskrivningar. Användningen av RPA blir allt vanligare inom den offentliga sektorn. Ett exempel på detta är Trafikverket som infört RPA för att automatisera processer med målet att frigöra tid för medarbetare. Denna studie har undersökt vad Trafikverkets införande och användning av RPA har inneburit för den digitala arbetsmiljön. Studien har undersökt detta genom att genomföra intervjuer med medarbetare som påverkats till följd av införandet och användning av RPA eller varit delaktig i införandet av RPA-lösningen.

    Studiens bidrag skapar en ökad förståelse för vad införandet och användandet av RPA har för konsekvenser på digital arbetsmiljö i organisationer i den offentliga sektorn genom att presentera tre konsekvenser. Studien visar att användningen av RPA kan resultera i en initial oro och en upplevd minskad anställningstrygghet bland medarbetarnas. Nya arbetsuppgifter kan uppstå till följd av införandet av RPA, dessa kan upplevas som monotona och irritationsmoment av medarbetarna. Slutligen kan det innebära att medarbetare får mer tid till varierande och kvalificerade arbetsuppgifter med möjlighet till kompetensutveckling. Detta resulterar i att medarbetarna uttrycker en ökad förändringsbenägenhet gentemot fortsatt automatisering med RPA.

  • 38.
    Claesson, Göran
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för Informationsvetenskap, Data– och Elektroteknik (IDE).
    Silverborn, Jonas
    Multifunktionell CNC-maskin2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 39.
    Cooney, Martin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR Centrum för tillämpade intelligenta system (IS-lab).
    Bigun, Josef
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR Centrum för tillämpade intelligenta system (IS-lab).
    PastVision: Exploring “Seeing” into the Near Past with Thermal Touch Sensing and Object Detection – For Robot Monitoring of Medicine Intake by Dementia Patients2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present PastVision, a proof-of-concept approach that explores combining thermal touch sensing and object detection to infer recent actions by a person which have not been directly observed by a system. Inferring such past actions has received little attention yet in the literature, but would be highly useful in scenarios in which sensing can fail (e.g., due to occlusions) and the cost of not recognizing an action is high. In particular, we focus on one such application, involving a robot which should monitor if an elderly person with dementia has taken medicine. For this application, we explore how to combine detection of touches and objects, as well as how heat traces vary based on materials and a person’s grip, and how robot motions and activity models can be leveraged. The observed results indicate promise for the proposed approach.

  • 40.
    Cooney, Martin
    et al.
    Advanced Telecommunications Research Institute International IRC/HIL, Keihanna Science City, Kyoto, Japan.
    Kanda, Takayuki
    Advanced Telecommunications Research Institute International IRC/HIL, Keihanna Science City, Kyoto, Japan.
    Alissandrakis, Aris
    Center for Learning and Knowledge Technologies Organization, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Ishiguro, Hiroshi
    Advanced Telecommunications Research Institute International IRC/HIL, Keihanna Science City, Kyoto, Japan.
    Designing Enjoyable Motion-Based Play Interactions with a Small Humanoid Robot2014Ingår i: International Journal of Social Robotics, ISSN 1875-4791, E-ISSN 1875-4805, Vol. 6, nr 2, s. 173-193Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Robots designed to co-exist with humans in domestic and public environments should be capable of interacting with people in an enjoyable fashion in order to be socially accepted. In this research, we seek to set up a small humanoid robot with the capability to provide enjoyment to people who pick up the robot and play with it by hugging, shaking and moving the robot in various ways. Inertial sensors inside a robot can capture how the robot’s body is moved when people perform such “full-body gestures”. Unclear is how a robot can recognize what people do during play, and how such knowledge can be used to provide enjoyment. People’s behavior is complex, and naïve designs for a robot’s behavior based only on intuitive knowledge from previous designs may lead to failed interactions. To solve these problems, we model people’s behavior using typical full-body gestures observed in free interaction trials, and devise an interaction design based on avoiding typical failures observed in play sessions with a naïve version of our robot. The interaction design is completed by investigating how a robot can provide “reward” and itself suggest ways to play during an interaction. We then verify experimentally that our design can be used to provide enjoyment during a playful interaction. By describing the process of how a smallhumanoid robot can be designed to provide enjoyment, we seek to move one step closer to realizing companion robots which can be successfully integrated into human society. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  • 41.
    Cooney, Martin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR Centrum för tillämpade intelligenta system (IS-lab).
    Menezes, Maria Luiza Recena
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR Centrum för tillämpade intelligenta system (IS-lab).
    Design for an Art Therapy Robot: An Explorative Review of the Theoretical Foundations for Engaging in Emotional and Creative Painting with a Robot2018Ingår i: Multimodal Technologies Interact. Special Issue Emotions in Robots: Embodied Interaction in Social and Non-Social Environments, ISSN 2414-4088, Vol. 2, nr 3, artikel-id 52Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Social robots are being designed to help support people’s well-being in domestic and public environments. To address increasing incidences of psychological and emotional difficulties such as loneliness, and a shortage of human healthcare workers, we believe that robots will also play a useful role in engaging with people in therapy, on an emotional and creative level, e.g., in music, drama, playing, and art therapy. Here, we focus on the latter case, on an autonomous robot capable of painting with a person. A challenge is that the theoretical foundations are highly complex; we are only just beginning ourselves to understand emotions and creativity in human science, which have been described as highly important challenges in artificial intelligence. To gain insight, we review some of the literature on robots used for therapy and art, potential strategies for interacting, and mechanisms for expressing emotions and creativity. In doing so, we also suggest the usefulness of the responsive art approach as a starting point for art therapy robots, describe a perceived gap between our understanding of emotions in human science and what is currently typically being addressed in engineering studies, and identify some potential ethical pitfalls and solutions for avoiding them. Based on our arguments, we propose a design for an art therapy robot, also discussing a simplified prototype implementation, toward informing future work in the area.

  • 42.
    Cooney, Martin
    et al.
    Hiroshi Ishiguro Lab (HIL), Advanced Telecommunications Research Institute International (ATR), Seika, Japan.
    Nishio, Shuichi
    Hiroshi Ishiguro Lab (HIL), Advanced Telecommunications Research Institute International (ATR), Seika, Japan.
    Ishiguro, Hiroshi
    Hiroshi Ishiguro Lab (HIL), Advanced Telecommunications Research Institute International (ATR), Seika, Japan.
    Affectionate Interaction with a Small Humanoid Robot Capable of Recognizing Social Touch Behavior2014Ingår i: ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems, ISSN 2160-6455, Vol. 4, nr 4, artikel-id 19Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Activity recognition, involving a capability to recognize people’s behavior and its underlying significance, will play a crucial role in facilitating the integration of interactive robotic artifacts into everyday human environments. In particular, social intelligence in recognizing affectionate behavior will offer value by allowing companion robots to bond meaningfully with interacting persons. The current article addresses the issue of designing an affectionate haptic interaction between a person and a companion robot by exploring how a small humanoid robot can behave to elicit affection while recognizing touches. We report on an experiment conducted to gain insight into how people perceive three fundamental interactive strategies in which a robot is either always highly affectionate, appropriately affectionate, or superficially unaffectionate (emphasizing positivity, contingency, and challenge, respectively). Results provide insight into the structure of affectionate interaction between humans and humanoid robots—underlining the importance of an interaction design expressing sincere liking, stability and variation—and suggest the usefulness of novel modalities such as warmth and cold. © 2014 ACM.

  • 43.
    Cooney, Martin
    et al.
    Advanced Telecommunications Research Institute International (ATR) Hiroshi Ishiguro Lab (HIL), 2-2-2 Hikaridai, Keihanna Science City, Kyoto 619-0288, Japan & Department of Systems Innovation, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531, Japan.
    Nishio, Shuichi
    Advanced Telecommunications Research Institute International (ATR) Hiroshi Ishiguro Lab (HIL), 2-2-2 Hikaridai, Keihanna Science City, Kyoto 619-0288, Japan.
    Ishiguro, Hiroshi
    Advanced Telecommunications Research Institute International (ATR) Hiroshi Ishiguro Lab (HIL), 2-2-2 Hikaridai, Keihanna Science City, Kyoto 619-0288, Japan & Department of Systems Innovation, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531, Japan.
    Designing Robots for Well-being: Theoretical Background and Visual Scenes of Affectionate Play with a Small Humanoid Robot2014Ingår i: Lovotics, ISSN 2090-9888, Vol. 1, nr 1, artikel-id 1000101Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Social well-being, referring to a subjectively perceived long-term state of happiness, life satisfaction, health, and other prosperity afforded by social interactions, is increasingly being employed to rate the success of human social systems. Although short-term changes in well-being can be difficult to measure directly, two important determinants can be assessed: perceived enjoyment and affection from relationships. The current article chronicles our work over several years toward achieving enjoyable and affectionate interactions with robots, with the aim of contributing to the perception of social well-being in interacting persons. Emphasis has been placed on both describing in detail the theoretical basis underlying our work, and relating the story of each of several designs from idea to evaluation in a visual fashion. For the latter, we trace the course of designing four different robotic artifacts intended to further our understanding of how to provide enjoyment, elicit affection, and realize one specific scenario for affectionate play. As a result, by describing (a) how perceived enjoyment and affection contribute to social well-being, and (b) how a small humanoid robot can proactively engage in enjoyable and affectionate play—recognizing people’s behavior and leveraging this knowledge—the current article informs the design of companion robots intended to facilitate a perception of social well-being in interacting persons during affectionate play.

  • 44.
    Cooney, Martin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR Centrum för tillämpade intelligenta system (IS-lab).
    Pashami, Sepideh
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR Centrum för tillämpade intelligenta system (IS-lab).
    Pinheiro Sant'Anna, Anita
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR Centrum för tillämpade intelligenta system (IS-lab).
    Fan, Yuantao
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR Centrum för tillämpade intelligenta system (IS-lab).
    Nowaczyk, Sławomir
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR Centrum för tillämpade intelligenta system (IS-lab).
    Pitfalls of Affective Computing: How can the automatic visual communication of emotions lead to harm, and what can be done to mitigate such risks?2018Ingår i: WWW '18 Companion Proceedings of the The Web Conference 2018, New York, NY: ACM Publications, 2018, s. 1563-1566Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    What would happen in a world where people could "see'' others' hidden emotions directly through some visualizing technology Would lies become uncommon and would we understand each other better Or to the contrary, would such forced honesty make it impossible for a society to exist The science fiction television show Black Mirror has exposed a number of darker scenarios in which such futuristic technologies, by blurring the lines of what is private and what is not, could also catalyze suffering. Thus, the current paper first turns an eye towards identifying some potential pitfalls in emotion visualization which could lead to psychological or physical harm, miscommunication, and disempowerment. Then, some countermeasures are proposed and discussed--including some level of control over what is visualized and provision of suitably rich emotional information comprising intentions--toward facilitating a future in which emotion visualization could contribute toward people's well-being. The scenarios presented here are not limited to web technologies, since one typically thinks about emotion recognition primarily in the context of direct contact. However, as interfaces develop beyond today's keyboard and monitor, more information becomes available also at a distance--for example, speech-to-text software could evolve to annotate any dictated text with a speaker's emotional state.

  • 45.
    Cooney, Martin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR Centrum för tillämpade intelligenta system (IS-lab).
    Yang, Can
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi.
    Arunesh, Sanjana
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi.
    Padi Siva, Abhilash
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi.
    David, Jennifer
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR Centrum för tillämpade intelligenta system (IS-lab).
    Teaching Robotics with Robot Operating System (ROS): A Behavior Model Perspective2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Robotics skills are in high demand, but learning robotics can be difficult due to the wide range of required knowledge, increasingly complex and diverse platforms, and components requiring dedicated software. One way to mitigate such problems is by utilizing a standard framework such as Robot Operating System (ROS), which facilitates development through the reuse of opensource code—a challenge is that learning curves can be steep for students who are also first-time users. In the current paper, we suggest the use of a behavior model to structure the learning of complex frameworks like ROS in an engaging way. A practical example is provided, of integrating ROS into a robotics course called the “Design of Embedded and Intelligent Systems” (DEIS), along with feedback suggesting that some students responded positively to learning experiences enabled by our approach. Furthermore, some course materials, videos, and code have been made available online, which we hope might provide useful insights.

  • 46.
    David, Jennifer
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR Centrum för tillämpade intelligenta system (IS-lab).
    Philippsen, Roland
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR Centrum för tillämpade intelligenta system (IS-lab).
    Task assignment and trajectory planning in dynamic environments for multiple vehicles2015Ingår i: Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications, ISSN 0922-6389, E-ISSN 1879-8314, Vol. 278, s. 179-181Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider the problem of finding collision-free trajectories for a fleet of automated guided vehicles (AGVs) working in ship ports and freight terminals. Our solution computes collision-free trajectories for a fleet of AGVs to pick up one or more containers and transport it to a given goal without colliding with other AGVs and obstacles. We propose an integrated framework for solving the goal assignment and trajectory planning problem minimizing the maximum cost over all vehicle trajectories using the classical Hungarian algorithm. To deal with the dynamics in the environment, we refine our final trajectories with CHOMP (Covariant Hamiltonian optimization for motion planning) in order to trade off between path smoothness and dynamic obstacle avoidance. © 2015 The authors and IOS Press. All rights reserved.

  • 47.
    David, Jennifer
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR Centrum för tillämpade intelligenta system (IS-lab).
    Valencia, Rafael
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR Centrum för tillämpade intelligenta system (IS-lab).
    Iagnemma, Karl
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA.
    Task Assignment and Trajectory Planning in Dynamic environments for Multiple Vehicles2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider the problem of finding collision-free trajectories for a fleet of automated guided vehicles (AGVs) working in ship ports and freight terminals. Our solution computes collision-free trajectories for a fleet of AGVs to pick up one or more containers and transport it to a given goal without colliding with other AGVs and obstacles. We propose an integrated framework for solving the goal assignment and trajectory planning problem minimizing the maximum cost overall vehicle trajectories using the classical Hungarian algorithm.To deal with the dynamics in the environment, we refine our final trajectories with CHOMP (Covariant Hamiltonianoptimization for motion planning) in order to trade off between path smoothness and dynamic obstacle avoidance.

  • 48.
    David, Jennifer
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR Centrum för tillämpade intelligenta system (IS-lab).
    Valencia, Rafael
    Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, USA.
    Philippsen, Roland
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR Centrum för tillämpade intelligenta system (IS-lab).
    Iagnemma, Karl
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, USA.
    Local Path Optimizer for an Autonomous Truck in a Harbour Scenario2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, functional gradient algorithms like CHOMP have been very successful in producing locally optimal motion plans for articulated robots. In this paper, we have adapted CHOMP to work with a non-holonomic vehicle such as an autonomous truck with a single trailer and a differential drive robot. An extended CHOMP with rolling constraints have been implemented on both of these setup which yielded feasible curvatures. This paper details the experimental integration of the extended CHOMP motion planner with the sensor fusion and control system of an autonomous Volvo FH-16 truck. It also explains the experiments conducted on the differential-drive robot. Initial experimental investigations and results conducted in a real-world environment show that CHOMP can produce smooth and collision-free trajectories for mobile robots and vehicles as well. In conclusion, this paper discusses the feasibility of employing CHOMP to mobile robots.

  • 49.
    David, Jennifer
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR Centrum för tillämpade intelligenta system (IS-lab).
    Valencia, Rafael
    The Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, USA.
    Philippsen, Roland
    Iagnemma, Karl
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, USA.
    Trajectory Optimizer for an Autonomous Truck in Container Terminal2017Ingår i: ICRA 2017 Workshop on Robotics and Vehicular Technologies for Self-driving cars, 2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 50.
    Dimopoulos, A.
    et al.
    Natl Tech Univ Athens, Dept Mech Engn, Athens 15780, Greece.
    Papadopoulos, E.
    Natl Tech Univ Athens, Dept Mech Engn, Athens 15780, Greece.
    Iagnemma, Karl
    MIT, USA.
    Experimental tissue parameter identification for use in endoscopic urological haptic simulators2009Ingår i: Control and Automation, 2009. MED ’09. 17th Mediterranean Conference on, Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE Press, 2009, s. 1131-1136Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A method is developed for obtaining parameters for tube-like soft-tissues, to be used in urological haptic simulators. A device was designed and built that allows the acquisition of forces and displacements during endoscope insertion in a tubelike soft tissue. The device consists of a mechatronic ball screw mechanism, with a 6 DOF force/ torque sensor attached to it. The steel shaft representing the endoscope, is commanded to follow desired trajectories with micrometric accuracy under the application of an IPD controller, implemented on a dSpace 1103 system. The experimental data acquired is fitted to polynomials to yield a tissue model that can be used to predict insertion forces required for haptic simulator feedback.

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