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  • 1.
    Böhm, Annette
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Lidström, Kristoffer
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Larsson, Tony
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Evaluating CALM M5-based vehicle-to-vehicle communication in various road settings through field trials2010In: Proceedings - Conference on Local Computer Networks, LCN, (2010 12 01): 613-620, Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE Press, 2010, p. 613-620Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Future cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) applications aimed to improve safety, efficiency and comfort on our roads put high demands on the underlying wireless communication system. To gain better understanding of the limitations of the 5.9 GHz frequency band and the set of communication protocols for medium range vehicle to vehicle (V2V) communication, a set of field trials with CALM M5 enabled prototypes has been conducted. This paper describes five different real vehicle traffic scenarios covering both urban and rural settings at varying vehicle speeds and under varying line-of-sight (LOS) conditions and discusses the connectivity (measured as Packet Reception Ratio) that could be achieved between the two test vehicles. Our measurements indicate a quite problematic LOS sensitivity that strongly influences the performance of V2V-based applications. We further discuss how the awareness of these context-based connectivity problems can be used to improve the design of possible future cooperative ITS safety applications.

  • 2.
    Carlsson, Catharina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Johnsson, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Jämförande studie mellan en ZIP-balksbro och en traditionell plattrambro: Utifrån underhåll, materialåtgång, last av trafik samt en utvärdering av det färdiga broprojektet2020Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The ZIP-beam bridge is constructed as a beam bridge with inverted T-beams placed with flanges next to each other. The bridge system is originally from Spanbeton in Holland and it is having its premiere on the Swedish market during year 2019 with an ongoing project in Härnösand. The bridge span is 20,55 meters consisted with nine ZIP-beams. The project was finished in august 2019. 

    The purpose and goal were to examine differences between the ZIP-beam bridge and a traditional slab frame bridge. The aspects to examine was maintence, use of concrete and reinforcement and traffic loads. 

    The results show that the ZIP-beam bridge requires more maintenance than the slab frame bridge. The ZIP-beam bridge uses 29,38 % less concrete per metre. The use of reinforcement is negligible. The moment force of the horisontal and vertical traffic loads is 44,5 % respective 19,2 % larger at the ZIP-beam bridge.

    The conclusion of this paper shows that even though the ZIP-beam bridge requires more maintenance and a more complex moment force than a slab frame bridge, the safety during the building time as well as the less amount of concrete used can be a conclusive factor when building bridges in Sweden in the future.

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  • 3.
    Carpatorea, Iulian
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Slawomir, Nowaczyk
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Rögnvaldsson, Thorsteinn
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Elmer, Marcus
    Volvo Group Trucks Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Lodin, Johan
    Volvo Group Trucks Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Learning of Aggregate Features for Comparing Drivers Based on Naturalistic Data2016In: Proceedings: 2016 15th IEEE International Conference on Machine Learning and Applications (ICMLA) / [ed] Lisa O’Conner, Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society, 2016, p. 1067-1072Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fuel used by heavy duty trucks is a major cost for logistics companies, and therefore improvements in this area are highly desired. Many of the factors that influence fuel consumption, such as the road type, vehicle configuration or external environment, are difficult to influence. One of the most under-explored ways to lower the costs is training and incentivizing drivers. However, today it is difficult to measure driver performance in a comprehensive way outside of controlled, experimental setting.

    This paper proposes a machine learning methodology for quantifying and qualifying driver performance, with respect to fuel consumption, that is suitable for naturalistic driving situations. The approach is a knowledge-based feature extraction technique, constructing a normalizing fuel consumption value denoted Fuel under Predefined Conditions (FPC), which captures the effect of factors that are relevant but are not measured directly.

    The FPC, together with information available from truck sensors, is then compared against the actual fuel used on a given road segment, quantifying the effects associated with driver behavior or other variables of interest. We show that raw fuel consumption is a biased measure of driver performance, being heavily influenced by other factors such as high load or adversary weather conditions, and that using FPC leads to more accurate results. In this paper we also show evaluation the proposed method using large-scale, real-world, naturalistic database of heavy-duty vehicle operation.

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  • 4.
    Cederholm, Sebastian
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Hussein Nizarki, Bafrin
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Elnätets kapacitet för framtida belastningar från elbilar: En känslighetsanalys på ett av Halmstads lokalnät2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish government have a vision that up untill 2050 Sweden’s transport system is going to be free of fossil fuels and to achieve this vision, electricity is going to be the main fuel and will play a decisive role in the future transportional market. As a result of this, HEM Nät AB is now interested in knowing how their local electrical grid will be affected by a larger amount of electric vehicles, EVs, charged through households. Along the local grid’s high voltage line there are nine substations, which provide power to 815 customers. A sensitivity analysis was conducted on the local grid to appreciate the available capacity for the future load of EVs. The analysis was based on four different gridparameters, which possibly can affect the set conditions of an electrical grid when an EV is being charged: voltage drop, transformer load, harmonics and dissymmetry. Different chargepowers and wirings have also been compared to see what roles they will have in the future. After the simulations and hand calculations all of the gridparameters exceeded the set conditions. This happened at different percentages of the households, which were charging their vehicles. The voltage drop and transformer load for both of the powers, 3,7 kW and 11 kW exceeded the limitations when 40 % respectively 20 % of the studied are was being loaded. Two scientific methods were used to appreciate the added current harmonics, where the first one regarded a reduction of the summarized value of the current harmonics, where the second did not. The results showed, that either of the methods would indicate a problem on the grid. The simulation of the dissymmetry, the limitation was met after 7 % more load was done under one and the same of the phases. Finally, the study concluded that the local grid is relatively strong and can hold 332 EVs with 3,7 kW and 161 EVs with 11 kW.

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  • 5.
    Deutschmann, Oliver
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science.
    Framtidens elbilar utmanar nutidens elnät: Påverkan av ett ökat antal elbilar på ett halländskt elnät2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The challenges facing low voltage grids are rising as an increasing number of domestic houses transition from fossil fueled heating to electricity based heating. Several environmental goals and visions have the same transition from fossil based power to electricity based power in mind for the transportation sector. One of the most important tools for this transformation is widely regarded to be the electric vehicle. With the demands of the electric vehicle pressuring the power grid, several questions arise regarding the growth of the electric vehicle market and what repercussions it may have on the grid. This paper focuses on a typical low voltage grid in southern Sweden and what effects a growing electric vehicle market may have on it. Through computer-assisted simulations based on several future scenarios regarding the EV market, this paper finds that few modifications and reinforcements are needed on this particular grid within the next 10 to 15 years. After this timeframe the voltage drop becomes a serious concern and should be addressed.

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  • 6.
    Englund, Cristofer
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Aware and intelligent infrastructure for action intention recognition of cars and bicycles2020In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Vehicle Technology and Intelligent Transport Systems - Volume 1: VEHITS / [ed] Berns K.,Helfert M.,Gusikhin O., SciTePress, 2020, p. 281-288Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Action intention recognition is becoming increasingly important in the road vehicle automation domain. Autonomous vehicles must be aware of their surroundings if we are to build safe and efficient transport systems. This paper explores methods for predicting the action intentions of road users based on an aware and intelligent 3D camera-based sensor system. The collected data contains trajectories of two different scenarios. The first one includes bicyclists and the second cars that are driving in a road approaching an intersection where they are either turning or continuing straight. The data acquisition system is used to collect trajectories of the road users that are used as input for models trained to predict the action intention of the road users. © 2020 by SCITEPRESS - Science and Technology Publications, Lda. All rights reserved

  • 7.
    Eriksson, Carl-Johan
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Erlingsson, Jonas
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    FRP i brokonstruktion: -varför används FRP inte i Sverige2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    FRP stands for Fiber Reinforced Polymer. FRP materials have yet to be introduced inbridge construction in Sweden. Composite materials can through combined componentsand manufacturing processes be tailored to fit advanced bridge designs. FRP materials arestrong, durable and of low weight. FRP materials give the superstructure reduced weightand are therefore a suitable alternative for industrial prefabrication. This report shows thatFRP materials are possible to use in bridge construction. With the introduction of a specificEurocode we are confident that FRP materials will become a competitive alternative inbridge construction in Sweden in the future.

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  • 8.
    Fattori, Fabrizio
    et al.
    Energy Department, Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Dénarié, Alice
    Energy Department, Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Spirito, Giulia
    Energy Department, Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Macchi, Samuel
    Energy Department, Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Pozzi, Marianna
    Energy Department, Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Motta, Mario
    Energy Department, Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Persson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    An open spatial optimisation model to assess economically sustainable national district heating potential2021In: Book of Abstracts : 7th International Conference on Smart Energy Systems, 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The economical sustainability of DH compared to individual heating systems depends on the cost of producing heat, transporting and distributing it. Assessing economically sustainable potential of district heating DH thus requires the ability to combine this costs, detecting the relative distance of sources and demands and the density of demand, comparing it to the alternative solution. In this work we present an open model, based on the Oemof modelling framework, which is able to take into account the possibility of connecting sources and demands on national scale level with a high spatial resolution. The model considers the investment and operating costs of production and distribution of heat in competition with the individual heating systems costs specific to each area. The end result is the most economically viable heat supply configuration, identifying the demand shares where the most cost-effective solutions are individual systems or DH and its composition in terms of energy sources. The model is part of the method used for the assessment of district heating potential in Italy. The latter is based on GIS maps of both energy demand, waste and renewable heat sources. Of the 114 TWh of potential demand for DH, 38 TWh are those that the optimisation suggests could be economically served by DH. The composition is mostly waste heat, 22 TWh, geothermal heat, 11 TWh and a minority of solar thermal, 2 TWh with 3 TWH of natural gas CHP back up.

  • 9.
    Halili, Endrit
    et al.
    Halmstad University.
    Lundin, Lucas
    Halmstad University.
    Förtätning av svenska städer: En undersökning av konflikten mellan stadsförtätning och gröna områden 2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie har undersökt förtätningen av städer och dess påverkan på gröna områden. Tidigare forskning inom samma område har visat att förtätningen av städer runt om i världen har ökat drastiskt de senaste decennierna och att vissa städer har tredubblats i storlek. Den mest berörda världsdelen är sydöstra Asien där urbaniseringen har ökat med 2,8 % jämför med andra delar av världen. En av de största konsekvenserna som kan medfölja med förtätningen är minskning av gröna områden, vilket påverkar negativt ekosystemet, umgängeplatser, psykiskt och fysiskt välmående av invånarna. Förvandlingen av gröna områden till bebyggda områden har blivit en av de största orsakerna till försämrad livsmiljö världen över. 

    I denna studie undersöktes fyra svenska städer och för att se hur de hanterar förtätningen samt vilka strategier de använder sig av för att skydda gröna områden. Kommunerna som har undersökts är Falkenberg, Varberg, Halmstad och Helsingborg. Dessa är mellanstora kommuner i Sverige som har haft stor ökning av befolkningen de senaste åren. 

    Undersökningen har varit baserad på kvalitativa undersökningsmetoder, där intervjuer, dokumentanalys och litteraturstudie har använts för att komma fram till ett resultat. Denna studie resulterade i att förtätningen måste ske ur ett hållbarhetsperspektiv och att det är viktigt att förtätningen är välplanerad. Om gråa ytor tar över de gröna så kan livskvaliten bli försämrad för invånarna. Men det visade sig att de undersökta kommuner har detta under kontroll, där vardera kommun har skapa ett sorts program där skyddandet av gröna områden är en del av programmet 

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  • 10.
    Johnsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Nilsson, Viktor
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Fel i produktionen: En studie om uppkomna fel i två anläggningsprojekt2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study was to identify problems that may occur in the execution of a civil engineering project and suggest measures to reduce the risk of errors. The study was conducted in cooperation with a civil engineering company in the Gothenburg area. During two weeks in February 2012, a field study took place on two construction sites where disruption and problems that took more than 15 minutes to correct were noted. During the field study we identified 39 such occurrences in the projects and then these were classified into different categories according to their cause.

    The two largest categories were "Design" and "Planning", which accounted for half of the errors that were discovered.

    In the study results were evaluated to decide whether it was possible to detect discrepancies at an earlier stage. The cost to fix an error in the design stage may be significantly less than to correct the problem in production.

    According to the evaluation, 55% of the errors could have been detected earlier if there was a greater degree of observation for such issues by everyone involved in the project. The conclusion for this study was that there was potential to reduce time-consuming and costly errors occurring in production through an increased involvement from all involved in both investigated projects and improved communication between all those involved.

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    Fel i pruduktionen- En studie om uppkomna fel i två anläggningsprojekt
  • 11.
    Larsson, Wilma
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Förbättrad trafiksäkerhet: För de oskyddade trafikanterna i samband med cirkulationsplatser2022Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is a trend in modern society to build roundabouts. The main reason that can be found is because of the safety benefits a roundabout has compared to other intersections. The safety benefit does however not include all perspectives, it has been noted in different studies that the cyclists have many accidents when the intersection is a roundabout. How can a roundabout be more safe for cyclists and other unprotected road users, that is the question this paper focuses on. This paper also focuses on the decision making when it comes to roundabouts. When it comes to safety the most important decisions is how the roundabout is designed. 

    There are nine interviews that have been important for the method of this paper, those interviews have been with people that have different roles in the decision making for the design of a roundabout. The result of these interviews is that the safest way to protect cyclists and pedestrians from traffic is to make sure they never cross paths, this is usually done with tunnels underneath the road. When it is not possible to make tunnels and the unprotected road users have to pass the traffic, then raised crossroads is the best way to protect because of the lowered speed on traffic. This paper also takes up the perspective of road workers and the importance of maintenance of the roads. 

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  • 12.
    Möller, Bernd
    et al.
    Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany.
    Wiechers, Eva
    Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany.
    Persson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Sánchez-García, Luis
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    An empirical high-resolution geospatial model of future population distribution for assessing heat demands2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The future population distribution informs decisions on investment in district heating. Across Europe, demographic change has been associated with structural changes of the past. Trends towards urban or rural migration, urban sprawl or the depopulation of city centers will continue. Using gridded population data since 1990, past development is mapped using spatial disaggregation to grid cells by intensity of urban development. An empirical method proposed captures increment of population in each grid cell and relates it to the focal statistics of the cell neighbourhood. A positive population trend in populated cells leads to a future population increase and a spill over into new development areas, while a negative trend leads to lower future population. New areas are modelled based on the principles of proximity and similarity using neighbourhood trends and land cover suitability, adjusted to national and regional population trends. The result is a set of future 1-hectare population grids, which have been used to model the distribution of future heat demands. The distribution of heat demand densities, the zoning of heat supply, and the potential for individual heat pumps have been modelled. Results show that reductions of heat demands and demographic developments leave a window of opportunities to develop heating infrastructures with known technology in the present decade, after which 4th Generation District Heat technology is required to decarbonise the heating sector.

  • 13.
    Pedersen, Eja
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    van den Berg, Frits
    GGD Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Bakker, Roel
    University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, Netherlands.
    Bouma, Jelte
    University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, Netherlands.
    Can road traffic mask sound from wind turbines?: Response to wind turbine sound at different levels of road traffic sound2010In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 38, no 5, p. 2520-2527Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wind turbines are favoured in the switch-over to renewable energy. Suitable sites for further developments could be difficult to find as the sound emitted from the rotor blades calls for a sufficient distance to residents to avoid negative effects. The aim of this study was to explore if road traffic sound could mask wind turbine sound or, in contrast, increases annoyance due to wind turbine noise. Annoyance of road traffic and wind turbine noise was measured in the WINDFARMperception survey in the Netherlands in 2007 (n = 725) and related to calculated levels of sound. The presence of road traffic sound did not in general decrease annoyance with wind turbine noise, except when levels of wind turbine sound were moderate (35-40 dB(A) Lden) and road traffic sound level exceeded that level with at least 20 dB(A). Annoyance with both noises was intercorrelated but this correlation was probably due to the influence of individual factors. Furthermore, visibility and attitude towards wind turbines were significantly related to noise annoyance of modern wind turbines. The results can be used for the selection of suitable sites, possibly favouring already noise exposed areas if wind turbine sound levels are sufficiently low. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 14.
    Raihle, Albin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Eskelid, Jacob
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Digitaliserad dokumentation vid kabelskåpsbyte2023Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The company Linjeutrustning AB works with replacing cable cabinets and needs a simpler and more structured method for documenting the work. There is a need to document the work in a structured way to simplify subsequent processes such as service and maintenance. There is also a need to take pictures and plan projects over specific areas to streamline work. The project group has taken on the task of meeting these needs through the development of a digital tool, an app. The goal of the app is to simplify the documentation of work and increase efficiency by allowing electricians to take pictures and plan projects in specific areas directly from their mobile phones. The result is an app that makes it easier and more structured for electricians to document their work by taking pictures and planning projects in specific areas directly from their mobile phones. The app enables more structured documentation of work, which in turn can streamline subsequent processes such as service and maintenance. Electricians can also plan projects and take pictures of specific areas to increase efficiency and safety for the future.

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  • 15.
    Saeed, Nausheen
    et al.
    Dalarna University, Borlänge, Sweden.
    Alam, Moudud
    Dalarna University, Borlänge, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Roger G.
    Dalarna University, Borlänge, Sweden.
    Dougherty, Mark
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Jomaa, Diala
    Dalarna University, Borlänge, Sweden.
    Rebreyend, Pascal
    Dalarna University, Borlänge, Sweden.
    Comparison of Pattern Recognition Techniques for Classification of the Acoustics of Loose Gravel2020In: ISCMI 2020: 2020 7th International Conference on Soft Computing and Machine Intelligence, Piscataway: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2020, p. 237-243Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Road condition evaluation is a critical part of gravel road maintenance. One of the parameters that are assessed is loose Gravel. An expert does this evaluation by subjectively looking at images taken and written text for deciding on the road condition. This method is labor-intensive and subjected to an error of judgment; therefore, it is not reliable. Road management agencies are looking for more efficient and automated objective measurement methods. In this study, acoustic data of gravel hitting the bottom of the car is used, and the relation between these acoustics and the condition of loose gravel on gravel roads is seen. A novel acoustic classification method based on Ensemble bagged tree (EBT) algorithm is proposed in this study for the classification of loose gravel sounds. The accuracy of the EBT algorithm for Gravel and Nongravel sound classification is found to be 97.5. The detection of the negative classes, i.e., non-gravel detection, is preeminent, which is considerably higher than Boosted Trees, RUSBoosted Tree, Support vector machines (SVM), and decision trees. © 2020 IEEE.

  • 16.
    Saeed, Nausheen
    et al.
    Dalarna University, Borlänge, Sweden.
    Dougherty, Mark
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology. Dalarna University, Borlänge, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Roger G.
    Dalarna University, Borlänge, Sweden.
    Rebreyend, Pascal
    Dalarna University, Borlänge, Sweden.
    Jomaa, Diala
    Dalarna University, Borlänge, Sweden.
    A Review of Intelligent Methods for Unpaved Roads Condition Assessment2020In: 2020 15th IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications (ICIEA), New York, NY: IEEE, 2020, p. 79-84Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conventional road condition evaluation is an expensive and time-consuming task. Therefore data collection from indirect economical methods is desired by road monitoring agencies. Recently intelligent road condition monitoring has become popular. More studies have focused on automated paved road condition monitoring, and minimal research is available to date on automating gravel road condition assessment. Road roughness information gives an overall picture of the road but does not help in identifying the type of defect; therefore, it cannot be helpful in the more specific road maintenance plan. Road monitoring can be automated using data from conventional sensors, vehicles' onboard devices, and audio and video streams from cost-effective devices. This paper reviews classical and intelligent methods for road condition evaluation in general and, more specifically, reviews studies proposing automated solutions targeting gravel or unpaved roads. © 2020 IEEE.

  • 17.
    Sporrong, Kristofer
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Harrysson, Mattias
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Elektrisk integrering och projektering av förnybar energi i svagt lokalt elnät2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To achieve a reliable and qualitative power conversion from the wind into electric power, a variety of factors and demands need to be obtained. Climatological and technological factors requires proper dimensioning and adjustment of the conversion technology, to harvest the greatest possible amount of energy and to be converted in a reliable and energy efficient way, that windmill owners, power grid owners require. The wind is as familiar an unpredictable power supply. The variations in intensity over time could mean a number of drive optimization problems with after-effects of the wind turbine, power grid and load. The consequences may depend on which type of technology that is installed in the different parts of the energy system. The area's power grid and varying power needs with characteristics over time, also has a significant importance. The turbulent wind gives deviations of voltage and power flow, especially in various extreme situations in weak power grids. Good interaction between the wind turbine and power grid with varying active and reactive power demand for the energy users, provides conditions for a good power quality and thus, an optimal and safe operation with few interruptions over time. It can be, and often is the mechanics, electro-technical choices in the wind turbine and associated electrical systems that play a critical role in how profitable installation is during the wind turbines technological life. The power grid owner strives for a good interaction between the power grid and electrical generation which rise for few faults between interruptions and errors. In the branch this is known as "Mean time between failures" MTBF. 

    According to the Swedenergy, harmonics, slow and fast voltage variations including required short-circuit power should be investigated and compared with those requirements and terms that prevails with electrical integration of power into the grid. The feasibility study has concluded two suitable power connection proposals including wind mapping research, later in this report it is described and suggested two related Smart Grid variants with energy storage for the two power connection proposals in the existing weak local grid. 

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  • 18.
    Sporrong, Kristofer
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Ringvall, Angelica
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Pettersson, Per-Johan
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Smarta lokala energisystem, Vision-Teknik-Tillämpning2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The energy sector is facing an impending paradigm shift. Today’s technology enables the end-user to generate their own energy locally at home. Furthermore, recently developed storage technologies make it possible to balance energy demand with stored energy and integrate district heating with the local power grid. This means that in the future heat and electric power will interact and energy flows is converted over energy boundaries. This places high demands on the energy systems dynamic and adaptive functions as a whole. Distributed System Operator (DSO) will therefore need to transform the local energy system, which requires initial investment of energy technology and intelligent system solutions that are technically efficient, flexible, and economically viable.Halmstad Energi och Miljö (HEM) owns a local energy system that is well prepared to implement the vision of a sustainable energy system. The city of Halmstad has politically established that renewable energy will play a more crucial role in the future. A greater proportion of "locally-generated" renewable energy will be implemented in this reference system that includes about 60 000 inhabitants, a great number of different heating/cooling customers and 40,000 electricity customers.In the future, it will be required by HEM to integrate intelligent energy solutions, where energy consumers are increasingly micro generation and able to control their energy demand patterns according to the most economical forecast. The local energy system needs to be able to handle a larger share of intermittent electricity from solar, wind or hydropower that can automatically interact with thermal energy from biomass and waste in a flexible, efficient and economical manner. The project group therefore advice HEM to urgently take steps to reserve the rights to a future aggregator role within the municipality. For this to be possible, new business models and contracts are examined within the energy branch.This master thesis provides suggestions for an appropriate mix of energy that can be achieved by 2030 for the reference system. The proposed energy mix generates 20% of the electricity demand and 100% heat production (except peak load) locally from Renewable Energy Sources (RES) according to local political goals. It also provides suggestions for alternative technological configurations where electricity and district heating systems interact across system boundaries.

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    MSc Ex-Jobb version 10 Smarta lokala förnybara energisystem 14 juni
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