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  • 1.
    Andersson, Emelie
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Trulsson, Alexander
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Vilka invasiva främmande växter utgör ett hot mot ekskogar i Västra Götalands län?2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Invasive alien species pose one of the greatest threats against biodiversity, in Sweden and globally. The northern location of Sweden has limited the distribution of invasive alien species, however, issues concerning invasives are predicted to increase with future climate change. The Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences has compiled a report containing a list of more than 1000 invasive alien species which have been classified based on their ecological effect and invasion potential. The report will be the basis of the future national list of legislated species.

    In our report, we examine which invasive alien land-based plant species pose the greatest threats against oak tree forests in the county of Västra Götaland. Our results can be used to prioritize which invasive alien plant species the County Administrative Board, in an early stage, could direct measures against to protect oak tree forests in conservation management. The protection of oak is crucial since it is one of the most important genera in Europe, both economically and ecologically, entailing a national responsibility. Shading and competition are major threats, affecting oak trees negatively and prohibiting rejuvenation.  

    The species selected for analysis in our report was based on the list of invasive alien species compiled by the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences in combination with the EU’s list of species of union concern. This report contains a GIS analysis and a field study. The GIS analysis was based on observational data in SLU Artportalen and in the field study, 4 protected oak tree forests were surveyed. The difference in results may indicate inadequate data in SLU Artportalen. Our GIS analysis showed that Japanese knotweed (Reynoutria japonica) posed the largest present and future threat against analyzed oak tree forests, while red-berried elder (Sambucus racemosa) posed the largest present threat against examined oak tree forest according to the survey in our field study. The number of observations of selected invasive alien plant species in oak tree forests, with associated surrounding buffer zones of 2 km, close to urban areas was higher than in oak tree forest, with associated buffer zones, not close to urban areas. The difference in number of observations was significant. Our result can confirm that invasive alien plant species are more numerous in urban areas than in non-urban areas, meaning the threat against oak tree forest close to urban areas may be greater. This corresponds with previous research showing that the dispersal of invasive alien plant species is promoted by human activities, such as gardening and the disposal and transportation of waste from excavations. 

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  • 2.
    Andersson, Nelly
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Lindeberg, Richard
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Nattbelysningens påverkan på förekomsten av nattfjärilar i Halmstads urbana grönområden.2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Moths are a vulnerable group when exposed to night lighting, it affects their basic drives such as foraging and reproduction and increases their mortality through stress and increased risk of predation. Dark and illuminated localities in Halmstads’ urban green areas were inventoried to study the impact of night illumination on the number of individuals and species diversity of moths. In the study, significant differences were found in the individual number of moths and species diversity between the dark and illuminated localities, which could not be significantly correlated to illuminance present in the localities. However, there were indications that illuminance may still have negatively affected the number of individuals and species diversity of moths in this study. There was one illuminated locality that stood out from the rest where species diversity was the third highest measurement from the entire study, which can possibly be attributed to the presence of flowering shrubs. Therefore we suggest that flowering shrubbery can be implemented as a measure to prevent the impact of night illumination on moth populations and becomes the basis for supplementary and follow-up studies of the subject.

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  • 3.
    Anstrén, Ludwig
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    The Reliability of Cooper ́s Test in Subjects Between 28-60 Years of Age2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) is a determinant of an individual’s ability to handle oxygen during maximal exercise. To measure VO2max expensive equipment and expertise personnel are required. To make the process of measuring VO2max easier, several submaximal and maximal tests have been created in which an estimation of VO2max could be made. Cooper’s 12-minute run (12MR) was created in 1968 and was tested on 115 military men with a mean age of 22 years. Since then the 12MR test has been re- tested and validated towards maximal treadmill tests on several occasions. When an age of 30 years is reached, VO2max starts to decline with 9-10 percent per decade but can be halted by different forms of exercise. With exercise of moderate to high intensity the decline can be halted by almost 50 percent. Objective: To investigate the reliability of estimated VO2max in a test retest scenario of Cooper ́s 12MR on a mixed healthy population between the ages of 28-60. Method: Nine women and five men, healthy subjects with a mean age of 43 ± 8 participated in the present study. A test retest of Cooper ́s 12MR took place with a minimum of seven days between tests. The subjects had to run as many laps as possible on the track during a 12-minute period. Finished laps were then counted and the fraction of the last lap was measured with a measuring wheel and then added to the total distance. To estimate the subjects’ VO2max Cooper ́s table was used. Results: The single measure Intraclass correlation (ICC) that was found, between the estimated VO2max made from the initial test to the retest on Cooper ́s 12MR, was 0.979. ICC showed a small error variance correlation between the tests and was close to the optimal correlation of 1.0. Conclusion: A standardized protocol for performing Cooper ́s 12MR showed good repeatability for estimating VO2max in two separate tests for a mixed population between 28 to 60 years of age. 

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  • 4.
    Ardenstedt, Jonathan
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Fridefors, Patricia
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Effekter av en toxisk cocktail av Roundup och livsmedelsklassad polypropylenplast på vattenloppan Daphnia Magna2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Toxins and pollutants rarely come alone and studies about various toxic substances are often performed with only one substance at a time. There are studies that have examined different cocktails of substances, but sometimes it can be difficult to identify all sources that affect an organism. We have investigated how a combination of the herbicide Roundup and Food Safe polypropylene plastic affect the freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna. We found that Roundup causes 100% mortality before reaching fertility in higher doses, but that in small doses does not result in lower fitness compared to the control group, but even increases the initial survival rate when Roundup is added to plastic jars. A cocktail of Roundup and plastic resulted in a doubled development time for the eggs. Eggs from individuals in plastic jars also had a longer development time but there was also a much higher number of eggs from these individuals. Futiure studies ought to investigate the fitness of the offspring. Early in the study we discovered that there was most likely a third factor influencing the daphnia negatively, that could not be explained by plastic jars or Roundup, but one that we could not identify. Therefore, we also wish to urge that experiments can easily be influenced by unknown factors.   

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  • 5.
    Bried, Jason
    et al.
    Illinois Natural History Survey, University of Illinois, Urbana–Champaign, USA.
    Ries, Leslie
    Department of Biology at Georgetown University, Washington, DC, USA.
    Sahlén, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Towards Global Volunteer Monitoring of Odonate Abundance2020In: BioScience, ISSN 0006-3568, E-ISSN 1525-3244, Vol. 70, no 10, p. 914-923Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Insects are reportedly experiencing widespread declines, but we generally have sparse data on their abundance. Correcting this shortfall will take more effort than professional entomologists alone can manage. Volunteer nature enthusiasts can greatly help to monitor the abundance of dragonflies and damselflies (Odonata), iconic freshwater sentinels and one of the few nonpollinator insect groups appreciated by the public and amenable to citizen science. Although counting individual odonates is common in some locations, current data will not enable a global perspective on odonate abundance patterns and trends. Borrowing insight from butterfly monitoring efforts, we outline basic plans for a global volunteer network to count odonates, including organizational structure, advertising and recruiting, and data collection, submission, and synthesis. We hope our proposal serves as a catalyst for richer coordinated efforts to understand population trends of odonates and other insects in the Anthropocene. © The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Institute of Biological Sciences.

  • 6.
    Dejenfelt, Pontus
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Våtmarksfåglar i Stjärnarp, en inventering av nyanlagd våtmark utanför Halmstad, Halland2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    By doing a transect inventory combined with territory mapping at a recently constructed wetland in the area of Stjärnarp outside of Halmstad, during April-June in 2018, I have investigated species composition, species abundance and reproductive criteria shown by the bird species in the area. A comparison was made with five other wetlands in the county of Halland in matter of species composition and reproductive criteria to overlook if the age or area of the wetlands have an impact. After several visits in Stjärnarp, a total of 55 species of birds were recorded, of which 31 species were using the wetland area for reproduction, foraging or resting. Among all examined wetlands species richness varied more during 2018, when of different ages, compared to when they were about one year old. Overall analysis wasn’t significant for correlations, regressions or differences between the investigated variables of this study, though there were a significant correlation and regression between the amount of possibly reproductive species and the area of wetlands. According to others, characteristics of wetlands can have great impact on the presence of birds, e.g. size and age of wetlands, water depth, maintenance, location, presence of fish and more. According to this study, several reproductive species in particular have indicated attributes in Stjärnarp, e.g. early succession, nutrient rich waters, open meadows and more. Depending on what species or other biodiversity people which to benefit in the future, planning and continuous studies are needed here to find out if and how bird communities change with time, and to what causes.

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  • 7.
    Jensen, Tina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Langanger, Sofie
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Hunden som resurs inom svensk naturvård2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden the use of detection dogs as a tool in nature conservation has until now been a small field, with few practitioners. In the daily operations of customs, police and the armed forces, detection dogs are a natural part of the organization and the same could be possible in conservation work. The dog’s ability to select between scents and their willingness to work with humans make them unique, utilizing these traits can make conservation work more efficient. The Swedish practitioners are compiled, and the available research is reviewed, the practitioners are then compared to the international research, to suggest further implication in Sweden. There are some practitioners working with conservation detection dogs today, research supports the dog’s efficiency in some areas, but in some areas research is absent. These areas would need studies to confirm the dog’s efficiency. We suggest potential areas for implantation in Sweden, such as scat detection of bats, pests like elm decease, threatened species, invasive species, sewage leaks, disused landfills, and laboratory analyses. Our suggestion is a national database for all conservation detection dogs, to aid future work for both practitioners and customers.

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  • 8.
    Johannesson, Malin
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Prey choice of the snow leopard (Panthera uncia) in the Gobi desert in southern Mongolia.2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To properly plan a conservation strategy for large, elusive carnivores that lives in remote areas, there is a need for correct information about their diet. Problematically, endangered species such as the snow leopard are difficult to obtain information on, due to their camouflage, secretiveness and isolated lives in rugged ecosystems. Global positioning system (GPS) collars can thus provide useful information on snow leopard ecology and behavior. This study took place in the Gobi desert in southern Mongolia, and aimed to investigate the prey choices of the snow leopard. In total there were 19 snow leopards captured between 2008 and 2013 that were fitted with GPS collars. These collars registered a position every fifth to seventh hour. Kill sites were found by visiting clusters of GPS locations. Ibex was the prey most dominated (66 %), followed by goat, sheep (20 %), and argali (8 %). The ibex and argali were sex- and age-classified.  Age and sex ratio of the killed ibex differed from the age and sex ratio of the ibex population. Adult ibex males seemed to be overrepresented among the kills (males <5 years 10 % and males >5 years 35 %), whereas females seemed underrepresented. Also in argali, the category most killed were males (56 %). The results show that snow leopards do not only kill prey larger than themselves, they also seem to select the largest age and sex categories among ibex and argali, although the different categories killed varied between seasons. Possible explanations for the results are discussed. The findings of this study will help to understand the feeding ecology of the snow leopard, and how to address the conservation and management issues in how to conserve this felid and its most important preys.

  • 9.
    Johansson, Ida
    Halmstad University.
    Provtagningsdesign för en populationsgenetisk studie av violgubbe2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Population studies have become important tools in conservation biology and genetic analyses are used to investigate genetic diversity within and among populations. Genetic variation can help improve fitness and ecological resilience. However, knowledge about genetic diversity is scarce for most wild species in Sweden. Insight in genetic population structure, can help us understand a species ́ ecological traits and improve species conservation. Fungi are fundamental components in terrestrial ecosystems, yet they have gotten little attention in conservatory work in Europe. In my bachelor thesis, by a short literature review and GIS- analysis of species occurrence data, I have developed a sampling scheme for a conservatory, genetic population study of the threatened pig’s ear mushroom, Gomphus clavatus. The population study aims to investigate genetic structures of the pig’s ear mushroom, in Sweden and surrounding countries. I collected occurrence data from nine countries and processed a total of 3232 findings, which were all compiled in Arcmap. A preliminary selection of localities in Sweden was made through identifying around twenty localities with recent findings, in protected areas. Eight localities of particular interest were included in the selection, one location with findings of morphologically divergent specimens were among those localities. For the surrounding countries, the preliminary selection included localities with findings reported between years 2015–2020. In my literature review, previous studies were not comparable in a way that could guide the design of a sampling scheme for the pig ́s ear mushroom. For clonal species, one should prioritize the total number of localities rather than the number of samples per site, and vice versa for sexually reproducing species. Since the pig ́s ear mushroom belongs in both groups, I suggest a combination of higher density sampling efforts at two localities, together with single sampling at a greater number of geographically distributed localities.

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  • 10. Johansson, Jessica
    et al.
    Rankinen, Juha
    Inventering av flodpärlmussla i Fylleån norr om Gyltigesjön2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Freshwater environments are threatened worldwide, of which many of the species associatedwith freshwater. In 2014, 243 freshwater mussels were on the international Red List. One ofthem is the freshwater pearl mussel, Margaritifera margaritifera, which because of itscomplex life cycle can be counted as an indicator of whether a stream is worth protecting. It's since the early 1900's in decline throughout their range. Sweden is counted as a core area which is why we have not only a national but an international responsibility to conserve the species. The mussel is covered by the County Administrative Board of Hallands action plans for threatened species. The County Administrative Board has since 2004 made a number of inventories in the county to get an overview of the occurrence of the freshwater pearl mussel. Still, there are some streams that are not fully inventoried. We have inventoried the mainstream Fylleån from outlet to Gyltigesjön to Bygget, as well as tributaries. In the 80's some parts further downstream in Fylleån were inventoried and then no freshwater pearl mussels were found. Per Ingvarsson who is leading the inventories of freshwater pearl mussels in Halland has pointed out the upper part as an interesting area for mussels. This upper part of Fylleån has previously only been inventoried on two locations, therefore, we have now done a complete inventory to examine the presence of mussels.

    Some of the results of our survey:

    • No fresh water pearl mussels were found in the investigated waters.

    • The water in the river was heavily colored which complicated the inventory.

    • The majority of the route consisted of flowing water with a bottom of stone and/or blocks which are suitable habitat for mussels, but there were silt on the bottom.

    • No fish or fish larvae were found.

    • One duck mussel was found in the outlet to Gyltigesjön.

    In closing, we discuss what could be causing our results.

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  • 11.
    Karlsson, Joakim
    Halmstad University.
    Förekomst av mikroplaster i tångmärlor (Gammaridae) längs södra Hallandskusten2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since the middle of the 20th century, scientists have observed that marine organisms ingest plastics in various shapes, directly or through food. Plastics smaller than 5 millimetres, called microplastics, have in recent years gained more attention and been found to accumulate environmental toxins. A family of organisms which have been found to ingest microplastics is Gammaridae, which are important as food sources and detritivores in many ecosystems. In this study, the occurrence of microplastics in marine gammarids was investigated in three rural and three urban areas, along the coast of Halland and northern Skåne. The aim was to find out if these organisms contain microplastics and to compare the occurrence in rural versus urban areas. Microplastics were found in 33 (approx. 14.9 %) of 221 samples, ranging from 0 to 3 microplastics per individual. A significant difference in the average amount of microplastics per individual was found between the rural and urban areas; the urban areas had a higher average, with one exception. In other studies, urban areas have been found to often contain more microplastics than rural areas, increasing the possibility that organisms in these areas ingest plastics. With more boat traffic and inhabitants in general, along with streams transferring plastics from inland areas, the amount of emissions in urban areas can be greater than in rural parts. The result shows that microplastics occur in marine gammarids in the 3 examined areas and that these organisms therefore may have an important part in the transfer of microplastics between trophic levels.

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  • 12.
    Karlsson, Pauline
    Halmstad University.
    Anläggande av naturstig: ett sätt att främja intresset för och öka kunskapen om naturen2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En naturstig utgörs vanligtvis av ett antal skyltar längst med en promenadslinga. Genom attgå stigen och ta del av texter och bilder får besökaren en flexibel form av guidning inaturområdet. Naturstigar är på det sättet ett bra sätt att locka ut människor i naturen. Ennaturstig kan bli forum för bland annat undervisning, rekreation och närturism. Stigarnaerbjuder en mer tillgänglig och tillrättalagd natur, som i vissa sammanhang är mer attraktivän den helt vilda.Som en del av mitt syfte har jag anlagt en naturstig vid Stadsbondgården i Fyllinge utanförHalmstad. I linje med syftet innehåller rapporten även forskning relaterat till ekoturism ochnaturstigar, för att kunna fungera som en metodvägledning för framtida anläggande avnaturstigar.Via mina skyltar ville jag uppmuntra till upptäckarlust, och ge naturstigsbesökaren enbegynnande eller fördjupad relation till naturen. Jag jobbade med en grundtanke om att visapå den rika biologiska mångfalden som även den stadsnära naturen besitter.En utvärdering av den färdiga stigen visade på brister i tydlighet och vägvisning. Innehålletpå skyltarna beskrevs av de flesta som positivt. Naturstigen uppfattades av en majoritet somvacker, lärorik och värd ett återbesök.

  • 13.
    Kjellsdottir, Karin
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) growth and resource gathering: in faba bean (Vicia faba) fields with and without nearby flowering fallows.2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Bumblebees are important pollinators that provide vital ecosystem services. Unfortunately, they are negatively impacted by human factors such as climate change and agricultural intensification. Therefore, farmers are encouraged to implement measures to increase biodiversity. Planting flowering plants in fallows has been identified as a way to enhance pollinator diversity in agricultural landscapes, but further research is needed to determine if their effects are sufficient for pollinator survival. The aim of this study was to investigate whether flowering fallows can influence bumblebee growth and foraging behaviour. Colonies of buff-tailed bumblebees were placed near fields of Faba beans, with half of them located adjacent to flowering fallows. The bumblebee colonies were weighed, and their activity and pollen diversity were assessed through regular observations. The results showed no significant differences in bumblebee growth between the different fields. Only the fields with flowering fallows showed correlations between weight and activity in the colonies. Although there was a difference in pollen diversity, it did not contribute to a difference in weight gain, suggesting that other factors influenced bumblebee colony growth in the experiment. The bumblebees in both fields had similar access to flowering Faba beans, which may be a contributing factor to their growth since bumblebees rely on abundant pollen in the early stages of their life cycle. The short flowering period of Faba beans suggests that the flowering fallows could be an important resource later in the season. The findings of this report could enhance our understanding of bumblebee dynamics in the Swedish agricultural landscape and emphasize the importance of research on pollination measures.

  • 14.
    Korall, Elin
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Är Sveriges områdesskydd klimatanpassat?: En geografisk analys över hur mycket av Sveriges skyddade natur som påverkas vid en havsnivåhöjning.2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to climate change and global warming, there is an ongoing sea level rise. IPCC has published four climate scenarios that show the projected changes in climate until the year 2100. The global sea levels are estimated to rise between 28 and 98 cm, which will result in great consequences for coastal landscape and protected nature. This study is the first in Sweden to analyze which consequences a sea level rise will have on protected nature in Sweden. A geographical analysis has been made of how much of the Swedish nature reserves and Natura 2000-habitat types that are going to be covered by the sea in three of the climate scenarios. The sea will cover more than 5% of the total area in 34-102 nature reserves depending on which scenario takes place, which means a loss of 750-4640 hectares. More than 5% of 14-15 Natura 2000-habitat types in Sweden will be covered by the sea. Four of the habitat types that are most affected in the worst scenario are; Annual vegetation of drift lines (46%), Salicornia and other annuals colonizing mud and sand (85%), Atlantic salt meadows (42%) and Boreal Baltic coastal meadows (44%). Recent research has shown that habitat loss due to climate change and sea level rise can be avoided if species and habitats are allowed to move inland, and that management of surrounding areas are of high importance in conservation biology. It is therefore essential to use conservation strategies that are adapted to sea level rise.

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  • 15.
    Lindenfors, Patrik
    et al.
    Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jansson, Fredrik
    Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Mikael
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science, Center for Social Analysis (CESAM), Centre for Studies of Political Science, Communication and Media (CPKM).
    The Cultural Evolution of Democracy: Saltational Changes in A Political Regime Landscape2011In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, no 11, article id e28270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transitions to democracy are most often considered the outcome of historical modernization processes. Socio-economic changes, such as increases in per capita GNP, education levels, urbanization and communication, have traditionally been found to be correlates or ‘requisites’ of democratic reform. However, transition times and the number of reform steps have not been studied comprehensively. Here we show that historically, transitions to democracy have mainly occurred through rapid leaps rather than slow and incremental transition steps, with a median time from autocracy to democracy of 2.4 years, and overnight in the reverse direction. Our results show that autocracy and democracy have acted as peaks in an evolutionary landscape of possible modes of institutional arrangements. Only scarcely have there been slow incremental transitions. We discuss our results in relation to the application of phylogenetic comparative methods in cultural evolution and point out that the evolving unit in this system is the institutional arrangement, not the individual country which is instead better regarded as the ‘host’ for the political system.

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  • 16.
    Ljungkvist, Max
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Trapp, Adam
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Uppföljningsinventering av Karlsviks och Bohults naturreservat - observerade förändringar sedan reservaten bildades2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Broadleaved forests are highly valuable biotopes with important recreational value and contain rich occurrences of species of conservation concern. To monitor the development of nature values in a forest ecosystem during an interval of approximately ten years, follow-up inventories were carried out, following the first inventories which took place ten years ago in two nature reserves (Karlsvik and Bohult) dominated by broadleaved trees in the county of Halland, Sweden. Indicator species of lichen and moss were searched for and compared to the first inventories. The results show that both reserves contain more indicator species today than approximately ten years ago, though a change in the species composition was observed. In Bohult fewer indicator lichens were observed, although more observations were made of indicator mosses - making the total number of indicator species higher than in the previous inventory. Potential explanations to the differing results of the two reserves were discussed and assessed to be for varied reasons. The observed increased occurrences of indicator species may be due to increased continuity leading to bigger and older trees which make way for more epiphytes. The observed decreased occurrences of indicator species may be due to human activity such as newly carried out clearcutting in close proximity to the reserve (which could lead to edge effects or other environmental stresses), nitrogen deposition or exploitation. An observed threat for both reserves is the increasing growth of norway spruce (Picea abies) which may outcompete broadleaved species and the potential indicator species they may inhabit.

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  • 17.
    Lundén, Eric
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Mossfloran vid vattenkvarnar i sydöstra Sverige2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Bryophytes play an important role in ecosystems in running waters and are common growing on structures in and around watermills. These watermill habitats differ from other parts of the watercourse in terms of microclimate and disturbance regime, and in providing more suitable and variable substrates. Bryophytes were sampled in and around five watermills and five reference sites 300 meters up or downstream from the watermill in the province Småland, in south-eastern Sweden. Species richness was compared between the sites and differences in community structure were analysed by a Discriminant Analysis. In 90% of the cases, the species composition was found to be specific for watermills and reference sites, and the mean species number was 57% higher at watermills than at the reference sites. Rocks and boulders in a wide range of sizes, concrete and mortar structures with pH-levels higher than that of the underlying bedrock, and stronger currents were identified as some of the causes of the higher diversity at the watermills. Restauration projects in rivers, including dam removal, constitute a potential threat to the bryophyte flora of watermills since the structures they grow on may either be removed or destroyed. Changes in microclimate and disturbance regime are other potential threats to species in these habitats.

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  • 18. Mathlin, Alma
    Effekten av luckhuggning på lövträdsföryngring längs Nissans vattensystem2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie genomfördes längs med Nissans vattensystem i Jönköpings län mellan januari och april år 2023. Fältabetet utfördes i 19 lokaler på Sveaskogs mark som omfattas av Jönköpings Länsstyrelses nya vattenvårdsavtal. Ett av avtalets huvudmål är att utveckla och bevara ekologiskt funktionella kantzoner, det område av vattendragsfåran mellan lägsta och högsta vattenstånd samt övrig mark med direkt påverkan på vattendragets ekologi. Syftet i detta arbete har varit att följa upp ett delmål som syftar till att främja återväxten av lövträd i de skyddade kantzonerna. I denna studie har uppkommande trädplantor mellan 30-100 centimeter noterats i cirkelprovytor i de 19 lokalerna. Statistiska analyser utfördes sedan på den insamlade datan för att bedöma eventuella skillnader mellan de 11 lokaler som åtgärdats enligt avtalet jämfört med 8 som inte åtgärdats ännu. Även virkesvolymen för de olika områdena mättes som ett sätt att bedöma skillnaderna i ljusförhållanden.Resultaten av de statistiska analyserna visar att det kommer upp ett större antal lövträd i de åtgärdade lokalerna än i de oåtgärdade. Tidigare forskning tyder på att detta beror på den ökade ljustillgången.

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  • 19.
    Rathsman, Jens
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Ljung, Angelica
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Tillväxt och etablering efter nyplantering av ålgräs (Zostera marina) i Halland2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Eelgrass act as ecosystem engineers, providing both humans and nature with a variety of important ecosystem services and providing various ecosystem functions. The vegetation that eelgrass beds provide is a physical structure to the otherwise bare, soft clay or sand seabed and increases biodiversity. Another important function that eelgrass beds provide is that they create habitats that act as nurseries for various fish species, such as cod, flounder and pollock.

    It is estimated that around 30% of the known areas of eelgrass meadows have disappeared globally and that 7% is decreasing annually. In Sweden, similar historical losses of eelgrass can be seen, only in Bohuslän, 60% has disappeared since the 1980s and continues to decrease as a result of continued exploitation of coastal areas. 

    In this project, we have investigated the ability of eelgrass to establish as well as its growth after relocation and replanting in a new habitat on the coast of Halland. Planting of eelgrass has not previously been done in Halland, so the purpose of this study was to see if this was possible and how much growth occurs on leaves and the amount of new growing vegetative shoots.

    Our results showed that there were significant differences in the survival of the eelgrass between the three different methods we used when planting. Our method the single-shoot method proved to be most successful at the site, which was in an area with relatively high wave and wind exposure, which we believe is typical for the coast of Halland. The other two methods used, the netmethod and skewermethod, included anchoring the plants which resulted in poorer survival. This may have been because there were several stress factors at the site such as waves, wind and algae growth and that anchoring disturbed the establishment of the eelgrass.

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  • 20.
    Rennstam, Gilda
    Halmstad University.
    Does bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) colonies reproduction get effected by diverse resources?2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 21.
    Ronnedal, Alexander
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Tegnér, Tenn Louise
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    En inventering av snäckor och musslor i anlagda våtmarker i Trönningeåns avrinningsområde: Ett samarbete med Hushållningssällskapet i Halland2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wetlands are limnic ecosystems that greatly benefit biodiversity and provide ecosystem services like water purification and carbon sequestration across the globe. However, they have for centuries suffered disturbances and intentionally been altered to make way for anthropogenic activity. In recent times many wetlands are being restored and new ones are constructed in an effort to recreate the former dynamic between wetlands and the surrounding landscape and its ecosystems. The ecological status of wetlands can be monitored by performing inventories of invertebrate indicator species. Limnic snails and mussels make for good monitoring candidates, due to their ability to bioaccumulate toxic substances, sensitivity to environmental changes and general presence in wetland habitats. Snails and mussels are also among the most threatened groups of organisms in limnic ecosystems, but do despite this seldom get included in conservation plans. This study, a collaboration with Hushållningssällskapet in Halland, investigated the occurence of limnic snails and mussels in constructed wetlands ordered in different age categories. The general purpose of the study is to expand the knowledge about the species composition of snails and mussels that occur in the catchment area of Trönninge river. Furthermore, another aim is that the results will be of use for future studies of wetland ecology and the roles that snails and mussels fill in it.

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  • 22.
    Sandberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science, Center for Social Analysis (CESAM).
    Lundberg, Per
    Lunds universitet, Lund, Sweden.
    Political Institutions and Their Historical Dynamics2012In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 10, article id e45838Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally, political scientists define political institutions deductively. This approach may prevent from discovery of existing institutions beyond the definitions. Here, a principal component analysis was used for an inductive extraction of dimensions in Polity IV data on the political institutions of all nations in the world the last two centuries. Three dimensions of institutions were revealed: core institutions of democracy, oligarchy, and despotism. We show that, historically and on a world scale, the dominance of the core institutions of despotism has first been replaced by a dominance of the core institutions of oligarchy, which in turn is now being followed by an increasing dominance by the core institutions of democracy. Nations do not take steps from despotic, to oligarchic and then to democratic institutions, however. Rather, nations hosting the core democracy institutions have succeeded in historically avoiding both the core institutions of despotism and those of oligarchy. On the other hand, some nations have not been influenced by any of these dimensions, while new institutional combinations are increasingly influencing others. We show that the extracted institutional dimensions do not correspond to the Polity scores for autocracy, “anocracy” and democracy, suggesting that changes in regime types occur at one level, while institutional dynamics work on another. Political regime types in that sense seem “canalized”, i.e., underlying institutional architectures can and do vary, but to a considerable extent independently of regime types and their transitions. The inductive approach adds to the deductive regime type studies in that it produces results in line with modern studies of cultural evolution and memetic institutionalism in which institutions are the units of observation, not the nations that acts as host for them.

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  • 23.
    Selck, Henriette
    et al.
    Roskilde University, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Adamsen, Peter B.
    Ramboll Environ, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Backhaus, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Banta, Gary T.
    Roskilde University, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Bruce, Peter K.H.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Burton Jr., G. Allen
    University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.
    Butts, Michael B.
    DHI Group, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Boegh, Eva
    Roskilde University, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Clague, John J.
    Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada.
    Dinh, Khuong V.
    Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Doorn, Neelke
    Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands.
    Gunnarsson, Jonas S.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik
    Roskilde University, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Hazlerigg, Charles
    Enviresearch, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
    Hunka, Agnieszka D.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Jensen, John
    Aarhus University, Silkeborg, Denmark.
    Lin, Yan
    Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Oslo, Norway.
    Loureiro, Susana
    Department of Biology & CESAM, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal.
    Miraglia, Simona
    Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Munns Jr., Wayne R.
    US Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, Rhode Island, USA.
    Nadim, Farrokh
    Norwegian Geotechnical Institute, Oslo, Norway.
    Palmqvist, Annemette
    Roskilde University, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Rämö, Robert A.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Seaby, Lauren P.
    Roskilde University, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Syberg, Kristian
    Roskilde University, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Tangaa, Stine R.
    Roskilde University, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Thit, Amalie
    Roskilde University, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Windfeld, Ronja
    Roskilde University, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Zalewski, Maciej
    European Regional Centre for Ecohydrology (Polish Academy of Sciences), Lodz, Poland.
    Chapman, Peter M.
    Chapema Environmental Strategies, North Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
    Assessing and managing multiple risks in a changing world – The Roskilde recommendations2017In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 7-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Roskilde University (Denmark) hosted a November 2015 workshop, Environmental Risk—Assessing and Managing Multiple Risks in a Changing World. This Focus article presents the consensus recommendations of 30 attendees from 9 countries regarding implementation of a common currency (ecosystem services) for holistic environmental risk assessment and management; improvements to risk assessment and management in a complex, human-modified, and changing world; appropriate development of protection goals in a 2-stage process; dealing with societal issues; risk-management information needs; conducting risk assessment of risk management; and development of adaptive and flexible regulatory systems. The authors encourage both cross-disciplinary and interdisciplinary approaches to address their 10 recommendations: 1) adopt ecosystem services as a common currency for risk assessment and management; 2) consider cumulative stressors (chemical and nonchemical) and determine which dominate to best manage and restore ecosystem services; 3) fully integrate risk managers and communities of interest into the risk-assessment process; 4) fully integrate risk assessors and communities of interest into the risk-management process; 5) consider socioeconomics and increased transparency in both risk assessment and risk management; 6) recognize the ethical rights of humans and ecosystems to an adequate level of protection; 7) determine relevant reference conditions and the proper ecological context for assessments in human-modified systems; 8) assess risks and benefits to humans and the ecosystem and consider unintended consequences of management actions; 9) avoid excessive conservatism or possible underprotection resulting from sole reliance on binary, numerical benchmarks; and 10) develop adaptive risk-management and regulatory goals based on ranges of uncertainty. © 2016 SETAC

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  • 24.
    Thulin, Charlotta
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science.
    Taman, Nadia
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science.
    Utomhusundervisning i ämnet biologi: Utomhusmiljöns hinder och möjligheter i relation till elevers lärande i grundskolan2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 25. Zetterberg, Anders
    Inventering av floran på Hagöns naturreservat: En undersökning av effekten av ljungbränning och betesdrift.2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ljungheden i Sverige är ett landskap som gått från att prägla det Halländska landskapettill att nu finnas som rester längsmed kusten och inåt land. Den unika flora som ärknuten till dessa hedar är nu hotade. Ljungheden idag sköts med bränning och bete ochman strävar efter att ha en mosaikartad skötsel.Hagön är ett naturreservat som ligger söder om Halmstad och är ett av de mest artrika iHalland med höga naturvärden.I denna rapport undersöks effekterna av skötselåtgärderna bete och ljungbränning påvegetationen i naturreservatet Hagön genom att jämföra tre olika ljungsuccessioner medvarandra. Även en kartläggning av Ljungögontröstens och Kärrknipprotens utbredning ireservatet görs efter intresse från Halmstad kommuns sida.Inventeringen gjordes genom att kartlägga ljungens höjd med ögonmått och därefterdela in den i zoner efter ljunghöjd. En låg, medel och hög zon. Därefter inventeradeszonerna i två gånger två meters rutor som slumpades ut på respektive zon.Skillnader mellan arter, ljunghöjd och täckningsgrad ljung mättes och resultatet visadeatt det fanns en skillnad mellan zonerna. Ingen skillnad fanns mellan antal arter ochljunghöjd eller mellan antal arter och ljunghöjd i zon 1 (låg) och zon 2 (medel), men izon 3 (hög) fanns en negativ korrelation mellan täckningsgrad av ljung och artantal.Ljungögontröst inventerades i reservatet och hittades längs med sanddynerna och längrener i reservatet. Kärrknipprot fanns mest i den södra inhägnaden där jag uppmätte 5-7fröställningar per kvadratmeter.Artantalet var lägst i zonen med mest ljungtäckning (zon 3) medan artantalen i låg- ochhögzonerna var betydligt högre.Det kan förklaras med att det efter bränning skapas blottor för örtväxter att gro ochfrodas ett tag innan ljungen kommer tillbaka.

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  • 26.
    Åsedahl, Linnea
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Lindmark, Alexandra
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Identifiering av riskzoner för större vilt inom Halmstad kommuns vägnät2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An increased infrastructure is one of today’s biggest reasons for the fragmentation ofhabitats, making it harder for wildlife to move without risks when crossing roads. To see inwhich extent larger mammals crosses roads greenways were identified in the urban parts ofHalmstad municipality, after which a study was made on the presence of wildlife duringwinter 2015/2016. Ten areas were chosen along road 600 (Tylösandsvägen), road 610(Kustvägen), trunk road 15, trunk road 25 and trunk road 26 where inventories were carriedout for a period of seven days distributed over a period of two months. Wildlife abundanceof moose, roe deer, fallow deer, red deer, hare, wild boar, badger, red fox, wolf and lynxwere investigated by identification of track stamps in order to find out if any of the tenplaces constitutes a danger zone for wildlife-vehicle accidents and if there are anydifferences in wildlife abundance close to and further from the road as well as in woodlandand open land. The result of the study along with wildlife accident statistics show that someof the investigated areas form danger zones for larger animals; two adjacent areas alongtrunk road 26 and one area along trunk road 15. There were no significant difference inwildlife abundance on different distances from the road which means that wildlife followsthe greenways and do not see the road as an obstacle, thus more likely to crossover. Therewere also no significant difference in wildlife abundance in woodland and open land,meaning wildlife-vehicle accidents are not more likely to occur in one type of land over theother.

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