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  • 1.
    Ahl, Johanna
    Halmstad University.
    Förebygga okontrollerade skogsbränder genom ett skogsbruk med fokus på boreal skogsekologi2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 2.
    Aikens, Ellen O.
    et al.
    Wyoming Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Department of Zoology and Physiology, University of Wyoming, Laramie, United States.
    Mysterud, Atle
    Center for Ecological and Evolutionary Synthesis, Department of Bioscience, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Merkle, Jerod A.
    Department of Zoology and Physiology, University of Wyoming, Laramie, United States.
    Cagnacci, Francesca
    Department of Biodiversity and Molecular Ecology, Research and Innovation Centre, Fondazione Edmund Mach, San Michele all'Adige, Italy.
    Rivrud, Inger Maren
    Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Oslo, Norway.
    Hebblewhite, Mark
    Wildlife Biology Program, Department of Ecosystem and Conservation Sciences, W.A. Franke College of Forestry and Conservation, University of Montana, Missoula, United States.
    Hurley, Mark A.
    Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, United States.
    Peters, Wibke
    Center for Ecological and Evolutionary Synthesis, Department of Bioscience, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway, Bayerische Landesanstalt für Wald und Forstwirtschaft, Abteilung Biodiversität, Naturschutz, Jagd, Freising, Germany.
    Bergen, Scott
    Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, United States.
    De Groeve, Johannes
    Department of Biodiversity and Molecular Ecology, Research and Innovation Centre, Fondazione Edmund Mach, San Michele all'Adige, Italy, Department of Geography, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    Dwinnell, Samantha P. H.
    Haub School of Environment and Natural Resources, University of Wyoming, Laramie, United States.
    Gehr, Benedikt
    Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionelle & Evolutive, CNRS, Montpellier, France, Department of Evolutionary Biology and Environmental Studies, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Heurich, Marco
    Department of Visitor Management and National Park Monitoring, Bavarian Forest National Park, Grafenau, Germany, Chair of Wildlife Ecology and Management, Albert Ludwigs University Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.
    Hewison, A. J. Mark
    CEFS, Université de Toulouse, INRAE, Castanet Tolosan, France, LTSER ZA PYRénées GARonne, Auzeville Tolosane, France.
    Jarnemo, Anders
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Wave-like Patterns of Plant Phenology Determine Ungulate Movement Tactics2020In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 30, no 17, p. 3444-3449Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Animals exhibit a diversity of movement tactics [1]. Tracking resources that change across space and time is predicted to be a fundamental driver of animal movement [2]. For example, some migratory ungulates (i.e., hooved mammals) closely track the progression of highly nutritious plant green-up, a phenomenon called "green-wave surfing" [3-5]. Yet general principles describing how the dynamic nature of resources determine movement tactics are lacking [6]. We tested an emerging theory that predicts surfing and the existence of migratory behavior will be favored in environments where green-up is fleeting and moves sequentially across large landscapes (i.e., wave-like green-up) [7]. Landscapes exhibiting wave-like patterns of green-up facilitated surfing and explained the existence of migratory behavior across 61 populations of four ungulate species on two continents (n = 1,696 individuals). At the species level, foraging benefits were equivalent between tactics, suggesting that each movement tactic is fine-tuned to local patterns of plant phenology. For decades, ecologists have sought to understand how animals move to select habitat, commonly defining habitat as a set of static patches [8, 9]. Our findings indicate that animal movement tactics emerge as a function of the flux of resources across space and time, underscoring the need to redefine habitat to include its dynamic attributes. As global habitats continue to be modified by anthropogenic disturbance and climate change [10], our synthesis provides a generalizable framework to understand how animal movement will be influenced by altered patterns of resource phenology.© 2020 Elsevier Inc.

  • 3.
    Al Jawaheri, Raad
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Sahlén, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Negative impact of lake liming programmes on the species richness of dragonflies (Odonata): a study from southern Sweden2017In: Hydrobiologia, ISSN 0018-8158, E-ISSN 1573-5117, Vol. 788, no 1, p. 99-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Liming programmes aiming to restore fish populations are being implemented in many acidified aquatic systems in northern Europe. We studied Odonata communities in 47 forest lakes in SW Sweden, 13 that are currently being limed, and 8 that have previously been limed. Thirty-one species were recorded, with the highest mean number in untreated lakes, followed by previously treated lakes and currently treated lakes. Species communities differed between untreated and limed lakes, but only few rare species found in the untreated lakes were absent in the treated lakes. Likewise, species known to thrive in acid environments were either rare or showed no preferences. Comparing the number of records of odonate species within a large regional area to the proportion of lakes inhabited in our study, we found that seven of the most commonly observed species occurred less frequently in limed lakes than in the untreated ones, including two of the three most common taxa. Reduced species numbers in limed lakes might be due to conditions on other trophic levels, including fish predation. We argue that Odonata should be considered when developing new biological indices of water quality, although the causes of the observed occurrence patterns need to be studied further. © 2016 Springer International Publishing Switzerland

  • 4.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    et al.
    Qatar University, Doha, Qatar.
    Dai, Junhu
    Institute Of Geographic Sciences And Natural Resources Research, Beijing, China.
    Pandey, Rajiv
    Indian Council Of Forestry Research And Education, Dehradun, India.
    Erfanian, Mohammad Bagher
    Ferdowsi University Of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
    Ahmed, Talaat
    Qatar University, Doha, Qatar.
    Bai, Yang
    Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Mengla, China.
    Molau, Ulf
    University Of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Impact of ambient temperature, precipitation and seven years of experimental warming and nutrient addition on fruit production in an alpine heath and meadow community2022In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 836, article id 155450Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alpine and polar regions are predicted to be among the most vulnerable to changes in temperature, precipitation, and nutrient availability. We carried out a seven-year factorial experiment with warming and nutrient addition in two alpine vegetation communities. We analyzed the relationship between fruit production and monthly mean, maximum, and min temperatures during the fall of the pre-fruiting year, the fruiting summer, and the whole fruit production period, and measured the effects of precipitation and growing and thawing degree days (GDD & TDD) on fruit production. Nutrient addition (heath: 27.88 ± 3.19 fold change at the end of the experiment; meadow: 18.02 ± 4.07) and combined nutrient addition and warming (heath: 20.63 ± 29.34 fold change at the end of the experiment; meadow: 18.21 ± 16.28) increased total fruit production and fruit production of graminoids. Fruit production of evergreen and deciduous shrubs fluctuated among the treatments and years in both the heath and meadow. Pre-maximum temperatures had a negative effect on fruit production in both communities, while current year maximum temperatures had a positive impact on fruit production in the meadow. Pre-minimum, pre-mean, current mean, total minimum, and total mean temperatures were all positively correlated with fruit production in the meadow. The current year and total precipitation had a negative effect on the fruit production of deciduous shrubs in the heath. GDD had a positive effect on fruit production in both communities, while TDD only impacted fruit production in the meadow. Increased nutrient availability increased fruit production over time in the high alpine plant communities, while experimental warming had either no effect or a negative effect. Deciduous shrubs were the most sensitive to climate parameters in both communities, and the meadow was more sensitive than the heath. The difference in importance of TDD for fruit production may be due to differences in snow cover in the two communities. © 2022 The Authors

  • 5.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    et al.
    Qatar University, Doha, Qatar.
    Erfanian, Mohammad Bagher
    Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
    Molau, Ulf
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Chen, Shengbin
    Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu, China.
    Bai, Yang
    Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden Chinese Academy of Sciences, Mengla, China.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Changes in plant composition and diversity in an alpine heath and meadow after 18 years of experimental warming2022In: Alpine Botany, ISSN 1664-2201, E-ISSN 1664-221X, Vol. 132, no 2, p. 181-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global warming is expected to have large impacts on high alpine and Arctic ecosystems in the future. Here we report effects of 18 years of experimental warming on two contrasting high alpine plant communities in subarctic Sweden. Using open-top chambers, we analysed effects of long-term passive experimental warming on a heath and a meadow. We determined the impact on species composition, species diversity (at the level of rare, common and dominant species), and phylogenetic and functional diversity. Long-term warming drove differentiation in species composition in both communities; warmed plots, but not control plots, had distinctly different species composition in 2013 compared with 1995. Beta diversity increased in the meadow, while it decreased in the heath. Long-term warming had significant negative effects on the three orders of phylogenetic Hill diversity in the meadow. There was a similar tendency in the heath, but only phylogenetic diversity of dominant species was significantly affected. Long-term warming caused reductions in forbs in the heath, while evergreen shrubs increased. In the meadow, deciduous and evergreen shrubs showed increased abundance from 2001 to 2013 in warmed plots. Responses in species and phylogenetic diversity to experimental warming varied over both time (medium (7 years) vs long-term (18 years)) and space (between two neighbouring plant communities). The meadow community was more negatively affected in terms of species and phylogenetic diversity than the heath community. A potential driver for the changes in the meadow may be decreased soil moisture caused by long-term warming. © 2021

  • 6.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    et al.
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar; Environmental Science Center, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Calluna AB, Nacka, Sweden.
    Dai, Junhu
    Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; CAS-HEC, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Mollazehi, Mohammad D.
    Qatar University, Doha, Qatar.
    Abdel-Salam, Abdel-Salam G.
    Qatar University, Doha, Qatar.
    Pandey, Rajiv
    Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education, Dehradun, India.
    Molau, Ulf
    Göteborgs Universitet, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Effects of ambient climate and three warming treatments on fruit production in an alpine, subarctic meadow community2021In: American Journal of Botany, ISSN 0002-9122, E-ISSN 1537-2197, Vol. 108, no 3, p. 411-422Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Premise: Climate change is having major impacts on alpine and arctic regions, and inter-annual variations in temperature are likely to increase. How increased climate variability will impact plant reproduction is unclear. Methods: In a 4-year study on fruit production by an alpine plant community in northern Sweden, we applied three warming regimes: (1) a static level of warming with open-top chambers (OTC), (2) press warming, a yearly stepwise increase in warming, and (3) pulse warming, a single-year pulse event of higher warming. We analyzed the relationship between fruit production and monthly temperatures during the budding period, fruiting period, and whole fruit production period and the effect of winter and summer precipitation on fruit production. Results: Year and treatment had a significant effect on total fruit production by evergreen shrubs, Cassiope tetragona, and Dryas octopetala, with large variations between treatments and years. Year, but not treatment, had a significant effect on deciduous shrubs and graminoids, both of which increased fruit production over the 4 years, while forbs were negatively affected by the press warming, but not by year. Fruit production was influenced by ambient temperature during the previous-year budding period, current-year fruiting period, and whole fruit production period. Minimum and average temperatures were more important than maximum temperature. In general, fruit production was negatively correlated with increased precipitation. Conclusions: These results indicate that predicted increased climate variability and increased precipitation due to climate change may affect plant reproductive output and long-term community dynamics in alpine meadow communities. © 2021 The Authors. American Journal of Botany published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of Botanical Society of America

  • 7.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    et al.
    Qatar University, Doha, Qatar.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Erfanian, Mohammad Bagher
    Ferdowsi University Of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
    Chen, Shengbin
    Chengdu University Of Technology, Chengdu, China.
    Sun, Shou Qin
    Institute Of Mountain Hazards And Environment, Chengdu, China.
    Molau, Ulf
    University Of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bryophyte cover and richness decline after 18 years of experimental warming in alpine Sweden2020In: AoB Plants, E-ISSN 2041-2851, Vol. 12, no 6, article id plaa061Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is expected to affect alpine and Arctic tundra communities. Most previous long-term studies have focused on impacts on vascular plants, this study examined impacts of long-term warming on bryophyte communities. Experimental warming with open-top chambers (OTCs) was applied for 18 years to a mesic meadow and a dry heath alpine plant community. Species abundance was measured in 1995, 1999, 2001 and 2013. Species composition changed significantly from original communities in the heath, but remained similar in mesic meadow. Experimental warming increased beta diversity in the heath. Bryophyte cover and species richness both declined with long-term warming, while Simpson diversity showed no significant responses. Over the 18-year period, bryophyte cover in warmed plots decreased from 43 % to 11 % in heath and from 68 % to 35 % in meadow (75 % and 48 % decline, respectively, in original cover), while richness declined by 39 % and 26 %, respectively. Importantly, the decline in cover and richness first emerged after 7 years. Warming caused significant increase in litter in both plant communities. Deciduous shrub and litter cover had negative impact on bryophyte cover. We show that bryophyte species do not respond similarly to climate change. Total bryophyte cover declined in both heath and mesic meadow under experimental long-term warming (by 1.5-3 °C), driven by general declines in many species. Principal response curve, cover and richness results suggested that bryophytes in alpine heath are more susceptible to warming than in meadow, supporting the suggestion that bryophytes may be less resistant in drier environments than in wetter habitats. Species loss was slower than the decline in bryophyte abundance, and diversity remained similar in both communities. Increased deciduous shrub and litter cover led to decline in bryophyte cover. The non-linear response to warming over time underlines the importance of long-term experiments and monitoring. © 2020 The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  • 8.
    Alegria Zufia, Javier
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Farnelid, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability. Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Seasonality of Coastal Picophytoplankton Growth, Nutrient Limitation, and Biomass Contribution2021In: Frontiers in Microbiology, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 12, article id 786590Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Picophytoplankton in the Baltic Sea includes the simplest unicellular cyanoprokaryotes (Synechococcus/Cyanobium) and photosynthetic picoeukaryotes (PPE). Picophytoplankton are thought to be a key component of the phytoplankton community, but their seasonal dynamics and relationships with nutrients and temperature are largely unknown. We monitored pico- and larger phytoplankton at a coastal site in Kalmar Sound (K-Station) weekly during 2018. Among the cyanoprokaryotes, phycoerythrin-rich picocyanobacteria (PE-rich) dominated in spring and summer while phycocyanin-rich picocyanobacteria (PC-rich) dominated during autumn. PE-rich and PC-rich abundances peaked during summer (1.1 × 105 and 2.0 × 105 cells mL–1) while PPE reached highest abundances in spring (1.1 × 105 cells mL–1). PPE was the main contributor to the total phytoplankton biomass (up to 73%). To assess nutrient limitation, bioassays with combinations of nitrogen (NO3 or NH4) and phosphorus additions were performed. PE-rich and PC-rich growth was mainly limited by nitrogen, with a preference for NH4 at >15°C. The three groups had distinct seasonal dynamics and different temperature ranges: 10°C and 17–19°C for PE-rich, 13–16°C for PC-rich and 11–15°C for PPE. We conclude that picophytoplankton contribute significantly to the carbon cycle in the coastal Baltic Sea and underscore the importance of investigating populations to assess the consequences of the combination of high temperature and NH4 in a future climate. Copyright © 2021 Alegria Zufia, Farnelid and Legrand.

  • 9.
    Almström, Jennie
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Gustavsson, Simon
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Styrketräning en gång per vecka förbättrade anaerob kapacitet hos cyklister och triathleter: En 12 veckor lång interventionsstudie2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Triathletes and cyclists are endurance athletes with extreme training volume and high demands on aerobic capacity but the sport also requires anaerobic power and muscular strength for example hills or changes in tempo. Many endurance athletes do hesitate to implement strength training with the belief that the effect will negatively affect their performance, the high training volume also makes it difficult to combine. Strength training as a complement to endurance exercise has been shown to have a positive effect and may improve performance. The aim was to investigate whether strength training once a week can improve anaerobic capacity among cyclists and triathletes, and if any potential increase in strength capacity may affect swim performance in triathletes. The method was an interventional study with pre and post-test in which participants had to conduct a workout consisting of the three exercises, once a week for 12 weeks, in addition to regular exercise. The results from the test of maximum strength in the leg press showed a significantly increased strength in the intervention group, p = 0.001, a strength improvement of 16.5%. The Wingate test showed a significant improvement in maximum power, p = 0.003, an improvement of 11.1%, and the maximum power per kilogram bodyweight, p = 0.001, an improvement of 11.9 %. For the control group, there were no noticeable changes and no association was seen between increased strength and swim performance. Our strength training in combination with the regular workout can probably work synergistically and optimize their performance.

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  • 10.
    Alonso-Fernandez, Fernando
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Bigun, Josef
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Iris Pupil Detection by Structure Tensor Analysis2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper present a pupil detection/segmentation algorithm for iris images based on Structure Tensor analysis. Eigenvalues of the structure tensor matrix have been observed to be high in pupil boundaries and specular reflections of iris images. We exploit this fact to detect the specular reflections region and the boundary of the pupil in a sequential manner. Experimental results are given using the CASIA-IrisV3-Interval database (249 contributors, 396 different eyes, 2,639 iris images). Results show that our algorithm works specially well in detecting the specular reflections (98.98% success rate) and pupil boundary detection is correctly done in 84.24% of the images.

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  • 11.
    Andersen, Emelie
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Nilsson, Bertil
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), MPE-lab.
    Sahlén, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Survival possibilities of the dragonfly Aeshna viridis (Insecta, Odonata) in southern Sweden predicted from dispersal possibilities2016In: Journal of Insect Conservation, ISSN 1366-638X, E-ISSN 1572-9753, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 179-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use public records from 1980 to 2014 to analyse survival of the EU Annex IV species Aeshna viridis in Sweden, a dragonfly strongly associated with the plant Stratiotes aloides. We clustered localities with S. aloides based on assumed dispersal abilities of A. viridis, using a dispersing radius of 2–100 km, calculating the proportion of sites with S. aloides that A. viridis is able to reach. If mean dispersal capability is high (40 km or above) 92.6 % or more of the localities are connected. For a good disperser, the probability of long-time survival is good. We further analysed the species richness of other Odonata and aquatic plants at 98 localities from the dataset. A. viridis co-occurred with more Odonata in the presence of S. aloides and running water but not in lakes. S. aloides sites had a higher number of other aquatic plants. Area had no impact on the occurrence of the species. For the present situation we surveyed 32 localities with known occurrence of the species. Only half of the sites for S. aloides contained any specimens while A. viridis occurred in the same number of sites. The species co-occurred in only 8 of 32 sites. In four sites A. viridis larvae appeared among Menyanthes trifoliata, Phragmites australis, Potamogeton natans and Sphagnum spp., indicating that at high latitudes A. viridis breeds among other species. Indirect monitoring based only on S. aloides would underestimate the number of populations of the dragonfly. © 2016 Springer International Publishing Switzerland

  • 12.
    Andersen, Naja Steen
    et al.
    Risø DTU, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Poulsen, Gert
    Danish Institute of Agricultural Services, Aarslev, Denmark.
    Andersen, Bente Anni
    Risø DTU, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Pödenphant Kiaer, Lars
    Risø DTU, Roskilde, Denmark.
    D'Hertefeldt, Tina
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Wilkinson, Mike J
    University of Wales, Aberystwyth, United Kingdom.
    Bagger Jörgensen, Rikke
    Risø DTU, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Processes affecting genetic structure and conservation: A case study of wild and cultivated Brassica rapa2009In: Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, ISSN 0925-9864, E-ISSN 1573-5109, Vol. 56, no 2, p. 189-200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When planning optimal conservation strategies for wild and cultivated types of a plant species, a number of influencing biological and environmental factors should be considered from the outset. In the present study Brassica rapa was used to illustrate this: to develop Scandinavian conservation strategies for wild and cultivated B. rapa, DNA-marker analysis was performed on 15 cultivated and 17 wild accessions of B. rapa plus 8 accessions of the cross compatible B. napus. The B. rapa cultivars were bred in Sweden and Finland in 1944-1997 and the wild B. rapa material was collected from Denmark, Sweden and United Kingdom. The B. napus accessions were bred within the last 20 years in the Scandinavian countries. Results were based on scoring of 131 polymorphic ISSR markers in the total plant material. A Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach implemented in NewHybrids demonstrated a clear distinction of B. rapa and B. napus individuals except for three individuals that seemed to be backcrosses. The backcrossed hybrids descended from two Swedish populations, one wild and one escaped. The overall pattern of genetic variation and structure in B. rapa showed that cultivated and wild B. rapa accessions formed two almost separated clusters. Geographical origin and breeding history of cultivars were reflected in these genetic relationships. In addition, wild populations from Denmark and Sweden seemed to be closely related, except for a Swedish population, which seemingly was an escaped cultivar. The study point to that many processes, e.g. spontaneous introgression, naturalisation, breeding and agricultural practise affected the genetic structure of wild and cultivated B. rapa populations. © 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  • 13.
    Andersson, Emelie
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Trulsson, Alexander
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Vilka invasiva främmande växter utgör ett hot mot ekskogar i Västra Götalands län?2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Invasive alien species pose one of the greatest threats against biodiversity, in Sweden and globally. The northern location of Sweden has limited the distribution of invasive alien species, however, issues concerning invasives are predicted to increase with future climate change. The Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences has compiled a report containing a list of more than 1000 invasive alien species which have been classified based on their ecological effect and invasion potential. The report will be the basis of the future national list of legislated species.

    In our report, we examine which invasive alien land-based plant species pose the greatest threats against oak tree forests in the county of Västra Götaland. Our results can be used to prioritize which invasive alien plant species the County Administrative Board, in an early stage, could direct measures against to protect oak tree forests in conservation management. The protection of oak is crucial since it is one of the most important genera in Europe, both economically and ecologically, entailing a national responsibility. Shading and competition are major threats, affecting oak trees negatively and prohibiting rejuvenation.  

    The species selected for analysis in our report was based on the list of invasive alien species compiled by the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences in combination with the EU’s list of species of union concern. This report contains a GIS analysis and a field study. The GIS analysis was based on observational data in SLU Artportalen and in the field study, 4 protected oak tree forests were surveyed. The difference in results may indicate inadequate data in SLU Artportalen. Our GIS analysis showed that Japanese knotweed (Reynoutria japonica) posed the largest present and future threat against analyzed oak tree forests, while red-berried elder (Sambucus racemosa) posed the largest present threat against examined oak tree forest according to the survey in our field study. The number of observations of selected invasive alien plant species in oak tree forests, with associated surrounding buffer zones of 2 km, close to urban areas was higher than in oak tree forest, with associated buffer zones, not close to urban areas. The difference in number of observations was significant. Our result can confirm that invasive alien plant species are more numerous in urban areas than in non-urban areas, meaning the threat against oak tree forest close to urban areas may be greater. This corresponds with previous research showing that the dispersal of invasive alien plant species is promoted by human activities, such as gardening and the disposal and transportation of waste from excavations. 

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  • 14.
    Andersson, Emma
    Halmstad University.
    A study of how fragmentation affects distribution and diversity among Nymphalidae, Papilionidae and Pieridae (Lepidoptera): in native and exotic forest fragments in southern Brazil2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 15.
    Andersson, Julia
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Does clearcutting as a method for forestry impact the aquatic life in lakes nearby?2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Clearcutting is the most common method for forestry in Sweden. However research shows that this type of intense management can have a negative impact on biological biodiversity as it interferes with an area’s natural characteristics. Previous studies have mainly focused on biological effects on land. In this study dragonflies were used as biological indicators to investigate the impact of clearcutting in aquatic environments. The result from this study indicate that the use of clearcutting as a method for forestry can, with a certain postponement in time, negatively affect the species diversity of Odonata, and thus also the aquatic biodiversity in lakes in the immediate surroundings of a clearcut area, although it is still unclear exactly how and by which mechanisms. It is also uncertain if the effects are only temporarily, or long-term. If Sweden is to reach the environmental goal of Flourishing Lakes and Streams, it is essential to adopt further safety measures when conducting clearcutting near waters to avoid negative impact on the aquatic biological diversity.

  • 16.
    Andersson, Nelly
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Lindeberg, Richard
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Nattbelysningens påverkan på förekomsten av nattfjärilar i Halmstads urbana grönområden.2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Moths are a vulnerable group when exposed to night lighting, it affects their basic drives such as foraging and reproduction and increases their mortality through stress and increased risk of predation. Dark and illuminated localities in Halmstads’ urban green areas were inventoried to study the impact of night illumination on the number of individuals and species diversity of moths. In the study, significant differences were found in the individual number of moths and species diversity between the dark and illuminated localities, which could not be significantly correlated to illuminance present in the localities. However, there were indications that illuminance may still have negatively affected the number of individuals and species diversity of moths in this study. There was one illuminated locality that stood out from the rest where species diversity was the third highest measurement from the entire study, which can possibly be attributed to the presence of flowering shrubs. Therefore we suggest that flowering shrubbery can be implemented as a measure to prevent the impact of night illumination on moth populations and becomes the basis for supplementary and follow-up studies of the subject.

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  • 17.
    Anstrén, Ludwig
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    The Reliability of Cooper ́s Test in Subjects Between 28-60 Years of Age2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) is a determinant of an individual’s ability to handle oxygen during maximal exercise. To measure VO2max expensive equipment and expertise personnel are required. To make the process of measuring VO2max easier, several submaximal and maximal tests have been created in which an estimation of VO2max could be made. Cooper’s 12-minute run (12MR) was created in 1968 and was tested on 115 military men with a mean age of 22 years. Since then the 12MR test has been re- tested and validated towards maximal treadmill tests on several occasions. When an age of 30 years is reached, VO2max starts to decline with 9-10 percent per decade but can be halted by different forms of exercise. With exercise of moderate to high intensity the decline can be halted by almost 50 percent. Objective: To investigate the reliability of estimated VO2max in a test retest scenario of Cooper ́s 12MR on a mixed healthy population between the ages of 28-60. Method: Nine women and five men, healthy subjects with a mean age of 43 ± 8 participated in the present study. A test retest of Cooper ́s 12MR took place with a minimum of seven days between tests. The subjects had to run as many laps as possible on the track during a 12-minute period. Finished laps were then counted and the fraction of the last lap was measured with a measuring wheel and then added to the total distance. To estimate the subjects’ VO2max Cooper ́s table was used. Results: The single measure Intraclass correlation (ICC) that was found, between the estimated VO2max made from the initial test to the retest on Cooper ́s 12MR, was 0.979. ICC showed a small error variance correlation between the tests and was close to the optimal correlation of 1.0. Conclusion: A standardized protocol for performing Cooper ́s 12MR showed good repeatability for estimating VO2max in two separate tests for a mixed population between 28 to 60 years of age. 

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  • 18.
    Ardenstedt, Jonathan
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Fridefors, Patricia
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Effekter av en toxisk cocktail av Roundup och livsmedelsklassad polypropylenplast på vattenloppan Daphnia Magna2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Toxins and pollutants rarely come alone and studies about various toxic substances are often performed with only one substance at a time. There are studies that have examined different cocktails of substances, but sometimes it can be difficult to identify all sources that affect an organism. We have investigated how a combination of the herbicide Roundup and Food Safe polypropylene plastic affect the freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna. We found that Roundup causes 100% mortality before reaching fertility in higher doses, but that in small doses does not result in lower fitness compared to the control group, but even increases the initial survival rate when Roundup is added to plastic jars. A cocktail of Roundup and plastic resulted in a doubled development time for the eggs. Eggs from individuals in plastic jars also had a longer development time but there was also a much higher number of eggs from these individuals. Futiure studies ought to investigate the fitness of the offspring. Early in the study we discovered that there was most likely a third factor influencing the daphnia negatively, that could not be explained by plastic jars or Roundup, but one that we could not identify. Therefore, we also wish to urge that experiments can easily be influenced by unknown factors.   

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  • 19. Aronsson, H.
    et al.
    Almqvist, J.
    Sundqvist, C.
    Timko, M.P.
    Dahlin, Clas
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Plant Cell Biology: Energy transduction in plant cells.
    Characterization of the plastid import reaction of the pea NADPH-protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR)1998In: The Chloroplast: From Molecular Biology to Biotechnology / [ed] Joan H. Argyroudi-Akoyunoglou, Horst Senger, New York: Springer-Verlag , 1998, p. 167-170Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    NADPH: protochlorophyllide (POR) is a vital enzyme in the biosynthesis of chlorophyl where it catalyzes the reduction of Pchlide into Chlide in a light-dependent manner. POR is nucleus-encoded and imported into the plastids where it is found at the inner membranes. Together with its substrate and the co-factor NADPH it forms a ternary complex which is needed for catalytical activity. The anomaly of a decreasing POR level during active chlorophyll synthesis was cleared with the discovery of two different POR proteins, POR-A and POR-B, in barley and Arabidopsis thaliana. During greening, POR-A is negatively regulated by light both at transcriptional and proteolytical levels. In addition, the import of POR-A, but not POR-B, has been suggestedto require Pchlide in order to be translocated into the plastid. In this respect, POR-A differs from other known nucleus-encoded plastid proteins, and as it appears, this requirements represents a novel and exclusive import characteristic. In pea, only one POR gene has been found indicating that the situation for the regulation of POR import and accumulation is far from clear. We here present a characterization of the import conditions of the pea POR, including the potentional role of Pchlide inthe translocation step.

  • 20.
    Aronsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Department of Biology, Leicester University, Leicester, United Kingdom.
    Sundqvist, Christer
    Department of Plant Physiology, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Dahlin, Clas
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Plant Cell Biology: Energy transduction in plant cells.
    POR – import and membrane association of a key element in chloroplast development2003In: Physiologia Plantarum, ISSN 0031-9317, E-ISSN 1399-3054, Vol. 118, no 1, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of proplastids or etioplasts to chloroplast is visualized by the accumulation of chlorophyll in leaves of higher plants. The biosynthesis of chlorophyll includes a light-dependent reduction of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) to chlorophyllide (Chlide). This light-dependent step is catalysed by the nucleus-encoded NADPH:Pchlide oxidoreductase (POR, EC 1.6.99.1). POR is active within plastids and therefore has to be translocated over the plastid envelope membranes. The import of chloroplast proteins seems to follow a general import pathway using translocons at the outer and inner envelope membrane. POR cross-linking to Toc75, one of the major translocon components at the outer envelope membrane, indicates its use of the general import pathway. However, since variations exist within the so-called general import pathway one has to consider previous data suggesting a novel totally Pchlide-dependent import pathway of one POR isoform, PORA. The suggested Pchlide dependency of POR import is discussed since recent observations contradict this idea. In the stroma the POR transit peptide is cleaved off and the mature POR protein is targeted to the plastid inner membranes. The correct and stable association of POR to the membrane requires the cofactor NADPH. Functional activity of POR calls for formation of an NADPH–Pchlide–POR complex, a formation that probably takes place after the membrane association and is dependent on a phosphorylation reaction.

  • 21.
    Aronsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Department of Biology, Leicester University, United Kingdom.
    Sundqvist, Christer
    Department of Plant Physiology, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Dahlin, Clas
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Plant Cell Biology: Energy transduction in plant cells.
    POR hits the road: import and assembly of a plastid protein2003In: Plant Molecular Biology, ISSN 0167-4412, E-ISSN 1573-5028, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The biosynthesis of chlorophyll is a strictly light-dependent multistep process in higher plants. The light-dependent step is catalysed by NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR, EC.1.6.99.1), which reduces protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) to chlorophyllide (Chlide). POR is nucleus-encoded and post-translationally imported into plastids. It has been proposed that the import of a POR protein isozyme (PORA) is totally dependent on Pchlide and uses a novel import pathway. This proposal is based on findings that PORA import only occurs in the presence of Pchlide and that the presence of overexpressed precursor of Rubisco small subunit (pSS), a protein which is known to use the general import pathway, does not outcompete PORA import. Another study demonstrated that POR precursor protein (pPOR) can be cross-linked to one of the components in the translocation machinery, Toc75, in the absence of Pchlide, and that its import can be outcompeted by the addition of the pSS. This indicates that pSS and pPOR may use the same translocation mechanism. Thus, POR does not necessarily need Pchlide for import – which is in contrast to earlier observations – and the exact POR import mechanism remains unresolved. Once in the stroma, the POR transit peptide is cleaved off and the mature POR protein is associated to the plastid inner membranes. Formation of the correct membrane–associated, thermolysin-protected assembly is strictly dependent of NADPH. As a final step, the formation of the NADPH-Pchlide-POR complex occurs. When POR accumulates in the membranes of proplastids, an attraction of monogalactosyl diacylglycerol (MGDG) can occur, leading to the formation of prolamellar bodies (PLBs) and the development of etioplasts in darkness.

  • 22.
    Aronsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Department of Plant Physiology, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Sundqvist, Christer
    Department of Plant Physiology, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Timko, Michael P.
    Department of Biology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, United States.
    Dahlin, Clas
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Characterisation of the assembly pathway of the pea NADPH:protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) oxidoreductase (POR), with emphasis on the role of its substrate, Pchlide2001In: Physiologia Plantarum, ISSN 0031-9317, E-ISSN 1399-3054, Vol. 111, no 2, p. 239-244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The homologous import and membrane association of a key enzyme for chlorophyll biosynthesis, the NADPH:protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) oxidoreductase (PAR, EC 1.6.99.1) into pea chloroplasts was investigated in vitro. The co-factor, NADPH, decreased binding of the precursor protein (pPOR) to the envelope membranes in the presence of ATP. The decrease of the binding reaction with NADPH was not observed with the precursor of the small subunit of Rubisco (pSS). To investigate possible substrate-dependency for the import reaction, internal Pchlide concentrations in the plastids were raised by either an addition of ÎŽ-aminolevulinic acid to isolated plastids or etiolation of the seedlings prior to plastid isolation. Increased amounts of plastid-bound Pchlide gave no observable differences in POR import. The capacity of POR and 11 different POR mutants, carrying charged-to-alanine scanning substitutions, to form a catalytically active POR-Pchlide-NADPH complex and to associate with the thylakoid membranes in a protease-resistant way were tested. Wild-type POR, as well as the mutants with charge substitutions in the N-terminal region of the protein, exhibited higher catalytic activity than the POR mutants carrying substitutions in the C-terminal region. Formation of a catalytically active complex did not, however, increase the association efficiency onto the thylakoids. We can, therefore, postulate that the import of pea POR into pea chloroplasts was not substrate-dependent, nor did formation of catalytically active complexes stimulate or inhibit the membrane association reaction of POR.

  • 23.
    Arvidsson, Susann
    et al.
    Research and Development Centre, Spenshult hospital for rheumatic diseases, Oskarström, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Research and Development Centre, Spenshult hospital for rheumatic diseases, Oskarström, Sweden.
    Arvidsson, Barbro
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Fridlund, Bengt
    School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Bengtsson-Tops, Anita
    School of Health Sciences & Social Work, Växjö University, Växjö, Sweden.
    People with Rheumatic Diseases Experiences of Health-Promoting Self-Care2010In: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 69, no Suppl. 3, p. 743-743Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: People with rheumatic diseases estimate their health status low. The health status and health belief are influencing the choice of self-care behaviours. Self-care behaviours are common and could prevent loss of valued life activities and health. Little is known of how people with rheumatic diseases experience self-care.

    Objectives: To describe people with rheumatic diseases experiences of health-promoting self-care.

    Methods: The study had a phenomenological approach based on a reflective life-world perspective. Data were gathered by unstructured and open-ended interviews with 12 individuals with various diagnoses of rheumatic diseases.

    Results: For people with rheumatic diseases, self-care was a way of life and implied being ready at all times to understand and respond to signals from the lived body. Self-care was experienced as an internal dialogue within the lived body but also as an external dialogue with the immediate environment. Self-care could also be described as a power struggle where the individuals strived and forced themselves to fight the diseases and its concrete consequences. The self-care also required that choices were made. Crucial for the choices were trust in oneself and belief in one's own ability to chosen health-promoting self-care. The individual prioritised self-care that was experienced as a beneficial and/or a reward for the lived body.

    Conclusion: People with rheumatic diseases experienced self-care as a way of life and that it meant to be ready at all times to understand and respond to signals that the lived body sends out. Self-care required dialogue, power struggle and choice. This knowledge ads to a fuller understanding of factors that from a patient perspective are important for health when living with a chronic rheumatic disease.

    Disclosure of Interest: None declared

  • 24.
    Bartholdsson, David
    Halmstad University.
    Den invasiva vresrosens (Rosa rugosa) etablering samt återetablering i de sanddominerade miljöerna i Gullbranna/Tönnersa naturreservat2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vresrosen, Rosa rugosa, är en kraftigt invasiv art med en oerhörd konkurrenskraft i sanddominerademiljöer såsom sanddyner och sandblottor. Ofta leder etableringen av R. rugosa i dessasanddominerade miljöer till total igenväxning av området med en starkt negativ påverkan på deninhemska floran och faunan. Då merparten av arterna i dessa habitat är beroende av den unika miljönsom den skiftande sanden skapar så innebär igenväxningen ett mycket stort hot. När området bindsupp till en mer stabil miljö utan det permanent tidiga successionsstadium som den vanligtvis befinnersig i så påverkar det även näringsmängden i sanden med ökade näringshalter samt att de varma, öppnamicrositesen försvinner tillsammans med sandens förmåga att röra sig. Eftersom många av deovanliga och hotade arterna kräver en väldigt specifik miljö så försvinner de ofta också närigenväxningen nått så här långt. Denna studie fokuserar på vresrosens etablering och påverkan isanddominerade miljöer. Studien går även in forskning kring samt hur man praktiskt bekämparväxten, då den hotar många ekologiskt viktiga områden. Dessutom hanterar rapporten mina egnaresultat efter inventeringar i Gullbranna/Tönnersa, ett område som historiskt sett varit mycket hårtpåverkat av vresrosen.

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  • 25.
    Begg, Graham
    et al.
    James hutton Institute, UK.
    Hawes, Cathy
    James Hutton Institute, UK.
    Marshall, B
    James Hutton Institute UK.
    D'Hertefeldt, Tina
    Young, Mark W
    James Hutton Institute, UK.
    Squire, Geoff
    James Hutton Institute.
    Wright, GM
    Dispersal and persistence of feral oilseed rape – mechanisms and consequences2002Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 26. Berg, Elena C.
    et al.
    Lind, Martin I.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Monahan, Shannon
    Bricout, Sophie
    Maklakov, Alexei A.
    Kin but less than kind: within-group male relatedness does not increase female fitness in seed beetles2019In: Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Vol. 286, no 1910Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Theory maintains within-group male relatedness can mediate sexual conflict by reducing male–male competition and collateral harm to females. We tested whether male relatedness can lessen female harm in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. Male relatedness did not influence female lifetime reproductive success or individual fitness across two different ecologically relevant scenarios of mating competition. However, male relatedness marginally improved female survival. Because male relatedness improved female survival in late life when C. maculatus females are no longer producing offspring, our results do not provide support for the role of within-group male relatedness in mediating sexual conflict. The fact that male relatedness improves the post-reproductive part of the female life cycle strongly suggests that the effect is non-adaptive. We discuss adaptive and non-adaptive mechanisms that could result in reduced female harm in this and previous studies, and suggest that cognitive error is a likely explanation.

  • 27. Berger, David
    et al.
    Grieshop, Karl
    Lind, Martin I.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Goenaga, Julieta
    Maklakov, Alexei A
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Intralocus sexual conflict and environmental stress2014In: Evolution, Vol. 68, p. 2184-2196Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28. Berger, David
    et al.
    Martinossi-Allibert, Ivain
    Grieshop, Karl
    Lind, Martin I.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Maklakov, Alexei A.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Intralocus sexual conflict and the tragedy of the commons in seed beetles2016In: American Naturalist, ISSN 0003-0147, E-ISSN 1537-5323, Vol. 188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The evolution of male traits that inflict direct harm on females during mating interactions can result in a so-called tragedy of the commons, where selfish male strategies depress population viability. This tragedy of the commons can be magnified by intralocus sexual conflict (IaSC) whenever alleles that reduce fecundity when expressed in females spread in the population because of their benefits in males. We evaluated this prediction by detailed phenotyping of 73 isofemale lines of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. We quantified genetic variation in life history and morphology, as well as associated covariance in male and female adult reproductive success. In parallel, we created replicated artificial populations of each line and measured their productivity. Genetic constraints limited independent trait expression in the sexes, and we identified several instances of sexually antagonistic covariance between traits and fitness, signifying IaSC. Population productivity was strongly positively correlated to female adult reproductive success but uncorrelated with male reproductive success. Moreover, male (female) phenotypic optima for several traits under sexually antagonistic selection were exhibited by the genotypes with the lowest (highest) population productivity. Our study forms a direct link between individual-level sex-specific selection and population demography and places life-history traits at the epicenter of these dynamics.

  • 29. Berger, David
    et al.
    You, Tao
    Minano, Maravillas R.
    Grieshop, Karl
    Lind, Martin I.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Maklakov, Alexei A.
    Sexually antagonistic selection on genetic variation underlying both male and female same-sex sexual behavior2016In: BMC Evolutionary Biology, E-ISSN 1471-2148, Vol. 16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intralocus sexual conflict, arising from selection for different alleles at the same locus in males and females, imposes a constraint on sex-specific adaptation. Intralocus sexual conflict can be alleviated by the evolution of sex-limited genetic architectures and phenotypic expression, but pleiotropic constraints may hinder this process. Here, we explored putative intralocus sexual conflict and genetic (co)variance in a poorly understood behavior with near male-limited expression. Same-sex sexual behaviors (SSBs) generally do not conform to classic evolutionary models of adaptation but are common in male animals and have been hypothesized to result from perception errors and selection for high male mating rates. However, perspectives incorporating sex-specific selection on genes shared by males and females to explain the expression and evolution of SSBs have largely been neglected.

  • 30.
    Berggren, Thomas
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Bioscience.
    Does type of habitat affect tick-burden in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) neonates?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study was investigating the relationships between: 1) habitat type and tick abundance, 2) habitat type and tick load on fawns, and 3) tick load and fawn survival. During two years and in two study areas, 105 fawns (57 fawns in Bogesund and 48 fawns in Grimsö) have been captured by hand and equipped with a radio-transmitter. The fawns’ positions have then been triangulated almost every day until they died or had at least 30 positions. The surviving fawns were recaptured when they were estimated to have a weight of 3.6 kg. Ticks were collected from the fawns during both the capture and the recapture. By using the flagging-method, in which a white sheet is dragged along the ground, ticks were also collected from the vegetation. A vegetation map was used to determine the habitat on transects and the home range of the fawns. The study areas showed different results regarding in which habitat the ticks were found. At Grimsö ticks seems to favor deciduous forest and mixed forest not on mires. At Bogesund the favored tick habitat was instead coniferous forest with trees between five to fifteen meters. In Bogesund there was a positive correlation between tick-burden and percent of coniferous forest on lichen-dominated areas that covered fawn home ranges. No relationship could be found between ticks and the survival of the fawns. A positive correlation between surviving days and tick load during first capture could instead be found on fawns that died within 30 days.

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  • 31.
    Bergström, Jakob
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Vedlevande Coleoptera och Hemiptera förekomst på öar i Kolsnaren i sydvästra Södermanland2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

    Seven islands in the lake Kolsnaren have been investigated. I have inventoried saproxylic insects and investigated what characters on dead wood and characters at the islands that have affected species number of beetles (Coleoptera) and true bugs (Hemiptera). This study shows a relatively low number of species of beetles and true bugs but the study was too small to estimate a proper result. Probably there is many more species, especially more rare/threatened species. The characters vary between islands, but even the individual islands had different tree species, thickness, degradation stage and sun exposure of dead wood. Therefore there were favourable conditions for many different saproxylic species that have different demands of the habitat to find suitable substrate. The islands are partly isolated by water but no longer distances. With that in mind it was important that there is plenty of dead wood with varying characters around Kolsnaren so they get the opportunity to disperse and recolonise the islands when even the habitats are changing in time. The dead woods thickness and degradation stage was the characters with most impact of the number of species.

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  • 32.
    Bilstrup, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Bilstrup, Katrin
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Svensson, Bertil
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Wiberg, Per-Arne
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Using Dual-Radio Nodes to Enable Quality of Service in a Clustered Wireless Mesh Network2006In: IEEE Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, 2006. ETFA '06, Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE Press, 2006, p. 54-61Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper some well established wireless technologies are merged into a new concept solution for a future industrial wireless mesh network. The suggested clustered wireless mesh network can handle probabilistic quality of service guarantees and is based on a dual-radio node architecture using synchronized frequency hopping spread spectrum Bluetooth radios. The proposed architecture gives a heuristic solution to the inter-cluster scheduling problem of gateway nodes in clustered architectures and breaks up the dependence between the local medium access schedules of adjacent clusters. The dual-radio feature also enables higher network connectivity, implying, for example, that a higher link redundancy can be achieved.

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  • 33.
    Biurrun, Idoia
    et al.
    Universidad del Pais Vasco, Leioa, Spain.
    Pielech, Remigiusz
    Uniwersytet Rolniczy im. Hugona Kollataja w Krakowie, Krakow, Poland; Foundation for Biodiversity Research, Wroclaw, Poland.
    Dembicz, Iwona
    Uniwersytet Warszawski, Warsaw, Poland; Zürcher Hochschule Winterthur, Winterthur, Switzerland.
    Gillet, François
    Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, Besancon, France.
    Kozub, Łukasz
    Uniwersytet Warszawski, Warsaw, Poland.
    Marcenò, Corrado
    Universidad del Pais Vasco, Leioa, Spain; Masarykova Univerzita, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Reitalu, Triin
    Tallinna Tehnikaülikool, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Van Meerbeek, Koenraad
    KU Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium.
    Guarino, Riccardo
    Università degli Studi di Palermo, Palermo, Italy.
    Chytrý, Milan
    Masarykova Univerzita, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Pakeman, Robin J.
    The James Hutton Institute, Aberdeen, United Kingdom.
    Preislerová, Zdenka
    Masarykova Univerzita, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Axmanová, Irena
    Masarykova Univerzita, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Burrascano, Sabina
    Sapienza Università di Roma, Rome, Italy.
    Bartha, Sándor
    Institute of Ecology and Botany, Vacratot, Hungary.
    Boch, Steffen
    Eidgenössische Forschungsanstalt für Wald, Schnee und Landschaft WSL, Birmensdorf, Switzerland.
    Bruun, Hans Henrik
    Københavns Universitet, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Conradi, Timo
    Universität Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.
    De Frenne, Pieter
    Universiteit Gent, Ghent, Belgium.
    Essl, Franz
    Universität Wien, Vienna, Austria.
    Filibeck, Goffredo
    Università degli Studi della Tuscia Viterbo, Viterbo, Italy.
    Hájek, Michal
    Masarykova Univerzita, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja
    Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo, Spain.
    Kuzemko, Anna
    M.G. Kholodny Institute of Botany, Kiev, Ukraine.
    Molnár, Zsolt
    Institute of Ecology and Botany, Vacratot, Hungary.
    Pärtel, Meelis
    Ökoloogia ja Maateaduste Instituut, Tartu, Estonia.
    Pätsch, Ricarda
    University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.
    Prentice, Honor C.
    Lunds Universitet, Lund, Sweden.
    Roleček, Jan
    Institute of Botany of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Pruhonice, Czech Republic.
    Sutcliffe, Laura M. E.
    Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Gottingen, Germany.
    Terzi, Massimo
    CNR Istituto di Bioscienze e Biorisorse, Bari, Bari, Italy.
    Winkler, Manuela
    Osterreichische Akademie Der Wissenschaften, Vienna, Austria; Universitat fur Bodenkultur Wien, Vienna, Austria.
    Wu, Jianshuang
    Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Aćić, Svetlana
    University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.
    Acosta, Alicia T. R.
    Università degli Studi Roma Tre, Rome, Italy.
    Afif, Elias
    Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo, Spain.
    Akasaka, Munemitsu
    Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchu, Japan.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    Qatar University, Doha, Qatar.
    Aleffi, Michele
    Università degli Studi di Camerino, Camerino, Italy.
    Aleksanyan, Alla
    National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia, Yerevan, Armenia.
    Ali, Arshad
    Hebei University, Baoding, China.
    Apostolova, Iva
    Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Ashouri, Parvaneh
    Agricultural Research, Education & Extension Organization, Iran, Tehran, Iran.
    Bátori, Zoltán
    Szegedi Tudományegyetem (SZTE), Szeged, Hungary.
    Baumann, Esther
    Universität Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Becker, Thomas
    Universitat Trier, Trier, Germany.
    Belonovskaya, Elena
    Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russian Federation.
    Benito Alonso, José Luis
    JOLUBE Consultor Botánico, Jaca, Spain.
    Berastegi, Asun
    Environmental Management of Navarre, Pamplona, Spain.
    Bergamini, Ariel
    Eidgenössische Forschungsanstalt für Wald, Schnee und Landschaft WSL, Birmensdorf, Switzerland.
    Bhatta, Kuber Prasad
    Universitetet i Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Bonini, Ilaria
    Università degli Studi di Siena, Siena, Italy.
    Büchler, Marc-Olivier
    Zürcher Hochschule Winterthur, Winterthur, Switzerland.
    Budzhak, Vasyl
    Yuriy Fedkovych Chernivtsi National University, Chernivtsi, Ukraine.
    Bueno, Álvaro
    Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo, Spain.
    Buldrini, Fabrizio
    Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Campos, Juan Antonio
    Universidad del Pais Vasco, Leioa, Spain.
    Cancellieri, Laura
    Università degli Studi della Tuscia Viterbo, Viterbo, Italy.
    Carboni, Marta
    Università degli Studi Roma Tre, Rome, Italy.
    Ceulemans, Tobias
    KU Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium.
    Chiarucci, Alessandro
    Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Chocarro, Cristina
    Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Conti, Luisa
    Università degli Studi Roma Tre, Rome, Italy; Institute of Botany of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Pruhonice, Czech Republic; Universitat de Lleida, Lleida, Spain.
    Csergő, Anna Mária
    Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Godollo, Hungary.
    Cykowska-Marzencka, Beata
    Zürcher Hochschule Winterthur, Winterthur, Switzerland; Wladyslaw Szafer Institute of Botany of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow, Poland.
    Czarniecka-Wiera, Marta
    Instytut Technologiczno-Przyrodniczy, Warsaw, Poland; University of Wroclaw, Wroclaw, Poland.
    Czarnocka-Cieciura, Marta
    National Information Processing Institute, Warsaw, Poland.
    Czortek, Patryk
    Uniwersytet Warszawski, Warsaw, Poland.
    Danihelka, Jiří
    Masarykova Univerzita, Brno, Czech Republic; Institute of Botany of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Pruhonice, Czech Republic.
    de Bello, Francesco
    Universitat de València, Valencia, Spain.
    Deák, Balázs
    Institute of Ecology and Botany, Vacratot, Hungary.
    Demeter, László
    National Agency for Protected Areas, Miercurea-Ciuc, Romania.
    Deng, Lei
    Northwest A&F University, Yangling, China.
    Diekmann, Martin
    Universität Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Dolezal, Jiri
    Institute of Botany of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Pruhonice, Czech Republic; Jihočeská Univerzita v Českých Budějovicích, Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic.
    Dolnik, Christian
    Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Kiel, Germany.
    Dřevojan, Pavel
    Masarykova Univerzita, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Dupré, Cecilia
    Universität Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Ecker, Klaus
    Eidgenössische Forschungsanstalt für Wald, Schnee und Landschaft WSL, Birmensdorf, Switzerland.
    Ejtehadi, Hamid
    Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
    Erschbamer, Brigitta
    Universität Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Etayo, Javier
    I.E.S. Zizur Institute, Pamplona, Spain.
    Etzold, Jonathan
    ESTOK UG, Bernau (bei Berlin), Germany.
    Farkas, Tünde
    Nemzeti Park Igazgatóságok, Hungary, Kecskemet, Hungary.
    Farzam, Mohammad
    Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
    Fayvush, George
    National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia, Yerevan, Armenia.
    Fernández Calzado, María Rosa
    Universidad de Granada, Facultad de Farmacia, Granada, Spain.
    Finckh, Manfred
    Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.
    Fjellstad, Wendy
    The Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, As, Norway.
    Fotiadis, Georgios
    Geoponiko Panepistimion Athinon, Athens, Greece.
    García-Magro, Daniel
    Universidad del Pais Vasco, Leioa, Spain.
    García-Mijangos, Itziar
    Universidad del Pais Vasco, Leioa, Spain.
    Gavilán, Rosario G.
    Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    Germany, Markus
    Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Kiel, Germany.
    Ghafari, Sahar
    University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran.
    Giusso del Galdo, Gian Pietro
    Università degli Studi di Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Grytnes, John-Arvid
    Universitetet i Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Güler, Behlül
    Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi, Izmir, Turkey.
    Gutiérrez-Girón, Alba
    Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    Helm, Aveliina
    Ökoloogia ja Maateaduste Instituut, Tartu, Estonia.
    Herrera, Mercedes
    Universidad del Pais Vasco, Leioa, Spain.
    Hüllbusch, Elisabeth M.
    Universität Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Ingerpuu, Nele
    Ökoloogia ja Maateaduste Instituut, Tartu, Estonia.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Jandt, Ute
    Martin-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, Halle, Germany; German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.
    Janišová, Monika
    Institute of Botany Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia.
    Jeanneret, Philippe
    Forschungsanstalt Agroscope Reckenholz-Tanikon, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Jeltsch, Florian
    Universität Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany.
    Jensen, Kai
    Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.
    Jentsch, Anke
    Universität Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Kącki, Zygmunt
    University of Wroclaw, Wroclaw, Poland.
    Kakinuma, Kaoru
    Shanghai University, Shanghai, China.
    Kapfer, Jutta
    The Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, As, Norway.
    Kargar, Mansoureh
    Natural Resources and Watershed Management Administration of Alborz Province, Karaj, Iran.
    Kelemen, András
    Institute of Ecology and Botany, Vacratot, Hungary.
    Kiehl, Kathrin
    Fachhochschule Osnabrück, Osnabruck, Germany.
    Kirschner, Philipp
    Universität Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Koyama, Asuka
    Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Tsukuba, Japan.
    Langer, Nancy
    Stiftung Naturschutzfonds Brandenburg, Potsdam, Germany.
    Lazzaro, Lorenzo
    Università degli Studi di Firenze, Florence, Italy.
    Lepš, Jan
    Jihočeská Univerzita v Českých Budějovicích, Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic.
    Li, Ching-Feng
    National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Li, Frank Yonghong
    Inner Mongolia University China, Hohhot, China.
    Liendo, Diego
    Universidad del Pais Vasco, Leioa, Spain.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Löbel, Swantje
    Technische Universität Braunschweig, Braunschweig, Germany.
    Lomba, Angela
    Universidade do Porto, Centro de Investigação em Biodiversidade e Recursos Genéticos, Fornelo e Vairao, Portugal.
    Lososová, Zdeňka
    Masarykova Univerzita, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Lustyk, Pavel
    Masarykova Univerzita, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Luzuriaga, Arantzazu L.
    Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Madrid, Spain.
    Ma, Wenhong
    Inner Mongolia University China, Hohhot, China.
    Maccherini, Simona
    Università degli Studi di Siena, Siena, Italy.
    Magnes, Martin
    Universitat Graz, Graz, Austria.
    Malicki, Marek
    University of Wroclaw, Wroclaw, Poland; Wroclaw Medical University, 50-367 Wrocław, Poland.
    Manthey, Michael
    Universität Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany.
    Mardari, Constantin
    Universitatea Alexandru Ioan Cuza, Iasi, Romania.
    May, Felix
    Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Mayrhofer, Helmut
    Universitat Graz, Graz, Austria.
    Meier, Eliane Seraina
    Forschungsanstalt Agroscope Reckenholz-Tanikon, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Memariani, Farshid
    Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
    Merunková, Kristina
    Masarykova Univerzita, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Michelsen, Ottar
    Norges Teknisk-Naturvitenskapelige Universitet, Trondheim, Norway.
    Molero Mesa, Joaquín
    Universidad de Granada, Facultad de Farmacia, Granada, Spain.
    Moradi, Halime
    University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
    Moysiyenko, Ivan
    Kherson State University, Kherson, Ukraine.
    Mugnai, Michele
    Università degli Studi di Firenze, Florence, Italy.
    Naqinezhad, Alireza
    University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran.
    Natcheva, Rayna
    Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Ninot, Josep M.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Nobis, Marcin
    Uniwersytet Jagielloński, Krakow, Poland.
    Noroozi, Jalil
    Universität Wien, Vienna, Austria.
    Nowak, Arkadiusz
    Polish Academy of Sciences, Warszawa, Poland; Uniwersytet Opolski, Opole, Poland.
    Onipchenko, Vladimir
    Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russian Federation.
    Palpurina, Salza
    Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria; National Museum of Natural History Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Pauli, Harald
    Osterreichische Akademie Der Wissenschaften, Vienna, Austria; Universitat fur Bodenkultur Wien, Vienna, Austria.
    Pedashenko, Hristo
    Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Pedersen, Christian
    The Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, As, Norway.
    Peet, Robert K.
    The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, United States.
    Pérez-Haase, Aaron
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Universitat de Vic - Universitat Central de Catalunya (UVic-UCC), Vic, Spain.
    Peters, Jan
    Michael Succow Foundation, Greifswald, Germany.
    Pipenbaher, Nataša
    Univerza v Mariboru, Maribor, Slovenia.
    Pirini, Chrisoula
    School of Biology, Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Pladevall-Izard, Eulàlia
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Plesková, Zuzana
    Masarykova Univerzita, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Potenza, Giovanna
    Università degli Studi della Basilicata, Potenza, Italy.
    Rahmanian, Soroor
    Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
    Rodríguez-Rojo, Maria Pilar
    Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Ciudad Real, Spain.
    Ronkin, Vladimir
    V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Kharkiv, Ukraine.
    Rosati, Leonardo
    Università degli Studi della Basilicata, Potenza, Italy.
    Ruprecht, Eszter
    Universitatea Babeș-Bolyai, Cluj Napoca, Romania.
    Rusina, Solvita
    Latvijas Universitāte, Riga, Latvia.
    Sabovljević, Marko
    University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.
    Sanaei, Anvar
    Shenyang Institute of Applied Ecology Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China.
    Sánchez, Ana M.
    Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Madrid, Spain.
    Santi, Francesco
    Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Savchenko, Galina
    V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Kharkiv, Ukraine.
    Sebastià, Maria Teresa
    Universitat de Lleida, Lleida, Spain.
    Shyriaieva, Dariia
    M.G. Kholodny Institute of Botany, Kiev, Ukraine.
    Silva, Vasco
    Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Škornik, Sonja
    Univerza v Mariboru, Maribor, Slovenia.
    Šmerdová, Eva
    Masarykova Univerzita, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Sonkoly, Judit
    Debreceni Egyetem, Debrecen, Hungary; MTA-DE Lendület Functional and Restoration Ecology Research Group, Debrecen, Hungary.
    Sperandii, Marta Gaia
    Università degli Studi Roma Tre, Rome, Italy; CSIC-GV-UV - Centro de Investigaciones sobre Desertificación, Moncada, Spain.
    Staniaszek-Kik, Monika
    University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland.
    Stevens, Carly
    Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster, United Kingdom.
    Stifter, Simon
    EURAC Research, Bolzano, Italy.
    Suchrow, Sigrid
    Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.
    Swacha, Grzegorz
    University of Wroclaw, Wroclaw, Poland.
    Świerszcz, Sebastian
    Polish Academy of Sciences, Warszawa, Poland; Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow, Poland.
    Talebi, Amir
    University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
    Teleki, Balázs
    Debreceni Egyetem, Debrecen, Hungary.
    Tichý, Lubomír
    Masarykova Univerzita, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Tölgyesi, Csaba
    Szegedi Tudományegyetem (SZTE), Szeged, Hungary.
    Torca, Marta
    Universidad del Pais Vasco, Leioa, Spain.
    Török, Péter
    Debreceni Egyetem, Debrecen, Hungary; MTA-DE Lendület Functional and Restoration Ecology Research Group, Debrecen, Hungary.
    Tsarevskaya, Nadezda
    Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russian Federation.
    Tsiripidis, Ioannis
    School of Biology, Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Turisová, Ingrid
    Matej Bel University, Banska Bystrica, Slovakia.
    Ushimaru, Atushi
    Kobe University, Kobe, Japan.
    Valkó, Orsolya
    Institute of Ecology and Botany, Vacratot, Hungary.
    Van Mechelen, Carmen
    PXL University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Diepenbeek, Belgium.
    Vanneste, Thomas
    Universiteit Gent, Ghent, Belgium.
    Vasheniak, Iuliia
    Vasyl' Stus Donetsk National University, Vinnytsia, Ukraine.
    Vassilev, Kiril
    Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Viciani, Daniele
    Università degli Studi di Firenze, Florence, Italy.
    Villar, Luis
    Instituto Pirenaico de Ecología, Zaragoza, Spain.
    Virtanen, Risto
    University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Vitasović-Kosić, Ivana
    University of Zagreb, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Vojtkó, András
    Eszterhazy Karoly University, Heves County, Hungary.
    Vynokurov, Denys
    M.G. Kholodny Institute of Botany, Kiev, Ukraine.
    Waldén, Emelie
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wang, Yun
    Senckenberg Museum of Natural History Görlitz, Görlitz, Germany.
    Weiser, Frank
    Universität Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Wen, Lu
    Inner Mongolia University China, Hohhot, China.
    Wesche, Karsten
    German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany; Senckenberg Museum of Natural History Görlitz, Görlitz, Germany; Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany.
    White, Hannah
    Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
    Widmer, Stefan
    Zürcher Hochschule Winterthur, Winterthur, Switzerland.
    Wolfrum, Sebastian
    Wissenschaftszentrum Weihenstephan für Ernährung, Landnutzung und Umwelt, Freising, Germany; Institute for Organic Farming, Freising, Germany.
    Wróbel, Anna
    Uniwersytet Jagielloński, Krakow, Poland.
    Yuan, Zuoqiang
    Shenyang Institute of Applied Ecology Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China.
    Zelený, David
    National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Zhao, Liqing
    Inner Mongolia University China, Hohhot, China.
    Dengler, Jürgen
    Zürcher Hochschule Winterthur, Winterthur, Switzerland; Universität Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany; German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.
    Benchmarking plant diversity of Palaearctic grasslands and other open habitats2021In: Journal of Vegetation Science, ISSN 1100-9233, E-ISSN 1654-1103, Vol. 32, no 4, article id e13050Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Journal of Vegetation Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Association for Vegetation Science.Aims: Understanding fine-grain diversity patterns across large spatial extents is fundamental for macroecological research and biodiversity conservation. Using the GrassPlot database, we provide benchmarks of fine-grain richness values of Palaearctic open habitats for vascular plants, bryophytes, lichens and complete vegetation (i.e., the sum of the former three groups). Location: Palaearctic biogeographic realm. Methods: We used 126,524 plots of eight standard grain sizes from the GrassPlot database: 0.0001, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, 100 and 1,000 m2 and calculated the mean richness and standard deviations, as well as maximum, minimum, median, and first and third quartiles for each combination of grain size, taxonomic group, biome, region, vegetation type and phytosociological class. Results: Patterns of plant diversity in vegetation types and biomes differ across grain sizes and taxonomic groups. Overall, secondary (mostly semi-natural) grasslands and natural grasslands are the richest vegetation type. The open-access file ”GrassPlot Diversity Benchmarks” and the web tool “GrassPlot Diversity Explorer” are now available online (https://edgg.org/databases/GrasslandDiversityExplorer) and provide more insights into species richness patterns in the Palaearctic open habitats. Conclusions: The GrassPlot Diversity Benchmarks provide high-quality data on species richness in open habitat types across the Palaearctic. These benchmark data can be used in vegetation ecology, macroecology, biodiversity conservation and data quality checking. While the amount of data in the underlying GrassPlot database and their spatial coverage are smaller than in other extensive vegetation-plot databases, species recordings in GrassPlot are on average more complete, making it a valuable complementary data source in macroecology. © 2021 The Authors.

  • 34.
    Boberg, Pelle
    et al.
    Lund university, Lund, Sweden.
    Rafaele, Estella
    Centro Regional Univ. Bariloche, Univ. Nacional del Comahue, S.C. Bariloche, Argentina.
    Chaia, Eugenia E
    Centro Regional Univ. Bariloche, Univ. Nacional del Comahue, S.C. Bariloche, Argentina.
    Eneström, Johanna M
    Lund university, Lund, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Lars B
    Lund university, Lund, Sweden.
    D'Hertefeldt, Tina
    Lund university, Lund, Sweden.
    The effect of high temperatures on seed germination of one native and two introduced conifers in Patagonia2010In: Nordic Journal of Botany, ISSN 0107-055X, E-ISSN 1756-1051, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 231-239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined the effect of thermal shock on the germination of seeds of three conifers, two introduced (Pseudotsuga menziesii and Pinus ponderosa), and one native to Patagonia (Araucaria araucana). Previous research has suggested increased susceptibility to invasions in burnt areas, and therefore, the effect of simulated fire (heat) on seed germination in these native and introduced species was compared. Seeds were heated to two different heat intensities (50°C and 100°C) for 1 or 5 min, which is within the temperature range reached in the upper soil layers during forest fires. Germination tests were then carried out in a growth chamber. The heat treatments had a negative effect on the germination of P. menziesii at temperatures of 100°C, and a negative effect on the germination of P. ponderosa at the temperature of 100°C and the exposure of 5 min. The heat treatments had no affect at all on A. araucana. The species with larger seeds (A. araucana) had higher survival rates after the thermal shocks. Also intraspecific differences in seed sizes possibly point at larger seeds surviving thermal shocks better than smaller seeds. In addition, thermal shock caused a delay in the onset of germination in the two introduced species, while it did not change the time for germination in A. araucana. © The Authors. Journal compilation © Nordic Journal of Botany 2010.

  • 35.
    Bodén, Mikael
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Wiles, Janet
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    On learning context-free and context-sensitive languages2002In: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks, ISSN 1045-9227, E-ISSN 1941-0093, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 491-493Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The long short-term memory (LSTM) is not the only neural network which learns a context sensitive language. Second-order sequential cascaded networks (SCNs) are able to induce means from a finite fragment of a context-sensitive language for processing strings outside the training set. The dynamical behavior of the SCN is qualitatively distinct from that observed in LSTM networks. Differences in performance and dynamics are discussed.

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  • 36.
    Bolin, Viktor
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Emanuelsson, Hanna
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Dykinventering av vandrarmussla (Dreissena polymorpha) i Saxtorpssjöarna, Kävlinge kommun2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to do a baseline survey of the water chemistry and of the extent of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) in the two lakes Saxtorpssjöarna, Skåne, before a planned addition of potassium chloride in order to exterminate the mussels.

    Three transects of 20m in each lake were surveyed by a diver with a camera to quantify the vegetation and substrates. Samples of the submerged macrophytes were collected to differentiate the amount of attached mussel biomass on the occurring plant species. The nutrient and pH levels in the surface water were similar in both lakes. Phosphate and total nitrogen concentrations in the sediment of Badsjön was lower than that of Fågelsjön. There were more mussels growing on vegetation in Badsjön compared to Fågelsjön. This may depend on the observed difference in plant species composition and coverage, with Chara sp. dominating in Fågelsjön and Potamogeton lucens and Myriophyllum spicatum being more commonly distributed in Badsjön. The difference was significant between the plant species’ ratio of mussel dry mass divided by plant length (Kruskal-Wallis p=0,025, H=9,315). Of the commonly sampled plant species, Potamogeton lucens had the highest mass/mass ratio (0,242) and Chara sp. the lowest (0,005). There were no significant correlations between mussel dry mass and plant dry mass, plant height or depth (Spearman rank correlation). Photos were good enough to determine the distribution of plant species and substrates. However it was harder to quantify the number of mussels because of suspended sediment and blurry images.

  • 37.
    Bonnot, N. C.
    et al.
    Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Riddarhyttan, 730 91, Sweden.
    Bergvall, U. A.
    Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Riddarhyttan, 730 91, Sweden.
    Jarnemo, Anders
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Kjellander, P.
    Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Riddarhyttan, 730 91, Sweden.
    Who’s afraid of the big bad wolf?: Variation in the stress response among personalities and populations in a large wild herbivore2018In: Oecologia, ISSN 0029-8549, E-ISSN 1432-1939, Vol. 188, no 1, p. 85-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Faced with rapid environmental changes, individuals may express different magnitude and plasticity in their response to a given stressor. However, little is known about the causes of variation in phenotypic plasticity of the stress response in wild populations. In the present study, we repeatedly captured individual roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) from two wild populations in Sweden exposed to differing levels of predation pressure and measured plasma concentrations of stress-induced cortisol and behavioral docility. While controlling for the marked effects of habituation, we found clear between-population differences in the stress-induced cortisol response. Roe deer living in the area that was recently recolonized by lynx (Lynx lynx) and wolves (Canis lupus) expressed cortisol levels that were around 30% higher than roe deer in the human-dominated landscape free of large carnivores. In addition, for the first time to our knowledge, we investigated the stress-induced cortisol response in free-ranging newborn fawns and found no evidence for hypo-responsiveness during early life in this species. Indeed, stress-induced cortisol levels were of similar magnitude and differed between populations to a similar extent in both neonates and adults. Finally, at an individual level, we found that both cortisol and docility levels were strongly repeatable, and weakly negatively inter-correlated, suggesting that individuals differed consistently in how they respond to a stressor, and supporting the existence of a stress-management syndrome in roe deer. © 2018, The Author(s).

  • 38.
    Bried, Jason
    et al.
    Illinois Natural History Survey, University of Illinois, Urbana–Champaign, USA.
    Ries, Leslie
    Department of Biology at Georgetown University, Washington, DC, USA.
    Sahlén, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Towards Global Volunteer Monitoring of Odonate Abundance2020In: BioScience, ISSN 0006-3568, E-ISSN 1525-3244, Vol. 70, no 10, p. 914-923Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Insects are reportedly experiencing widespread declines, but we generally have sparse data on their abundance. Correcting this shortfall will take more effort than professional entomologists alone can manage. Volunteer nature enthusiasts can greatly help to monitor the abundance of dragonflies and damselflies (Odonata), iconic freshwater sentinels and one of the few nonpollinator insect groups appreciated by the public and amenable to citizen science. Although counting individual odonates is common in some locations, current data will not enable a global perspective on odonate abundance patterns and trends. Borrowing insight from butterfly monitoring efforts, we outline basic plans for a global volunteer network to count odonates, including organizational structure, advertising and recruiting, and data collection, submission, and synthesis. We hope our proposal serves as a catalyst for richer coordinated efforts to understand population trends of odonates and other insects in the Anthropocene. © The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Institute of Biological Sciences.

  • 39. Brodin, Tomas
    et al.
    Lind, Martin I.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Kaltiala Wiberg, M
    Johansson, Frank
    Personality trait differences between mainland and island populations in the common frog (Rana temporaria)2013In: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, Vol. 67, no 1, p. 135-143Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), PRODEA: Centrum för produktframtagning inom hälsoteknik. Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Extensor muscle force measurements and muscle architecture in rheumatoid arthritis patientsArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Brown, Peter
    et al.
    Griffith University, Gold Coast, Australia.
    Nandakumar, Kutty Selva
    Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.
    Zhou, Yaoqi
    Griffith University, Gold Coast, Australia.
    Large expert-curated database for benchmarking document similarity detection in biomedical literature search2019In: Database: The Journal of Biological Databases and Curation, E-ISSN 1758-0463, Vol. 2019, article id baz085Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Document recommendation systems for locating relevant literature have mostly relied on methods developed a decade ago. This is largely due to the lack of a large offline gold-standard benchmark of relevant documents that cover a variety of research fields such that newly developed literature search techniques can be compared, improved and translated into practice. To overcome this bottleneck, we have established the RElevant LIterature SearcH consortium consisting of more than 1500 scientists from 84 countries, who have collectively annotated the relevance of over 180 000 PubMed-listed articles with regard to their respective seed (input) article/s. The majority of annotations were contributed by highly experienced, original authors of the seed articles. The collected data cover 76% of all unique PubMed Medical Subject Headings descriptors. No systematic biases were observed across different experience levels, research fields or time spent on annotations. More importantly, annotations of the same document pairs contributed by different scientists were highly concordant. We further show that the three representative baseline methods used to generate recommended articles for evaluation (Okapi Best Matching 25, Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency and PubMed Related Articles) had similar overall performances. Additionally, we found that these methods each tend to produce distinct collections of recommended articles, suggesting that a hybrid method may be required to completely capture all relevant articles. The established database server located at https://relishdb.ict.griffith.edu.au is freely available for the downloading of annotation data and the blind testing of new methods. We expect that this benchmark will be useful for stimulating the development of new powerful techniques for title and title/abstract-based search engines for relevant articles in biomedical research.

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  • 42.
    Brönmark, Christer
    et al.
    Limnology, Department of Ecology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Weisner, Stefan E. B.
    Limnology, Department of Ecology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Indirect effects of fish community structure on submerged vegetation in shallow, eutrophic lakes: an alternative mechanism1992In: Hydrobiologia, ISSN 0018-8158, E-ISSN 1573-5117, Vol. 243/244, no 1, p. 293-301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The loss of submerged macrophytes during eutrophication of shallow takes is a commonly observed phenomenon. The proximate reason for this decline is a reduction of available light due to increasing phytoplankton and/or epiphyton biomass. Here we argue that the ultimate cause for the transition from a macrophyte-dominated state to a phytoplankton-dominated state is a change in fish community structure. A catastrophic disturbance event (e.g. winterkill) acting selectively on piscivores, cascades down food chains, eventually reducing macrophyte growth through shading by epiphyton, an effect that is reinforced by increasing phytoplankton biomass. The transition back from the phytoplankton to the macrophyte state depends on an increase in piscivore standing stock and a reduction of planktivores. A conceptual model of these mechanisms is presented and supported by literature data and preliminary observations from a field experiment. © 1992 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  • 43.
    Brönmark, Christer
    et al.
    Limnology, Department of Ecology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Weisner, Stefan E.B.
    Limnology, Department of Ecology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Decoupling of cascading trophic interactions in a freshwater, benthic food chain1996In: Oecologia, ISSN 0029-8549, E-ISSN 1432-1939, Vol. 108, no 3, p. 534-541Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food chain theory provides explicit predictions for equilibrium biomasses among trophic levels in food chains of different lengths. Empirical studies on freshwater benthic food chains have typically been performed on chains with up to three levels and in field experiments with limited spatial and temporal scale. Here we use a ‘’natural snapshot experiment” approach to study equilibrium biomass and abundance among trophic levels in natural ponds differing only with respect to fish assemblage structure. Forty-four ponds were surveyed for their density and biomass of fish, snails and periphyton. Ponds were divided into three categories based on fish assemblage: ponds with no fish (two trophic levels), ponds with molluscivorous fish (three trophic levels), ponds with molluscivorous fish (three trophic levels) and ponds that also had piscivorous fish (four trophic levels). Ponds without fish had a high density and biomass of snails and a low biomass of periphyton, whereas snails with molluscivorous fish. In the presence of piscivores, molluscivore populations consisted of low numbers of large individuals. Snail assemblages in piscivore ponds were characterised by relatively high densities of small-bodied detritivorous species and periphyton biomass was not significantly different from ponds with three trophic levels. Thus, predictions from classic food chain theory were upheld in ponds with up to three trophic levels. In ponds with four trophic levels, however, there was a decoupling of the trophic cascade at the piscivore-molluscivore level. Gape-limited piscivory, predation on snails by molluscivores that have reached an absolute size refuge from predation, and changes in food preferences of the dominant snails are suggested to explain the observed patterns.

  • 44.
    Böhm, Annette
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Position-based forwarding techniques for vehicular ad-hoc networks2008In: Proceedings of Swedish National Computer Networking Workshop (SNCNW 2008), 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Cameron, J.
    et al.
    DiLab i Lund AB.
    Jacobson, C.
    AstraZeneca R and D.
    Nilsson, Kenneth
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Rögnvaldsson, Thorsteinn
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    A biometric approach to laboratory rodent identification2007In: Lab animal, ISSN 0093-7355, E-ISSN 1548-4475, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 36-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Individual identification of laboratory rodents typically involves invasive methods, such as tattoos, ear clips, and implanted transponders. Beyond the ethical dilemmas they may present, these methods may cause pain or distress that confounds research results. The authors describe a prototype device for biometric identification of laboratory rodents that would allow researchers to identify rodents without the complications of other methods. The device, which uses the rodent's ear blood vessel pattern as the identifier, is fast, automatic, noninvasive, and painless.

  • 46.
    Cardol, Pierre
    et al.
    Genetics of Microorganisms, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium.
    Figueroa, Francisco
    Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Córdoba. Campus de Rabanalles, Edif. Severo Ochoa, Córdoba, Spain.
    Remacle, Claire
    Genetics of Microorganisms, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium.
    Franzén, Lars-Gunnar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Plant Cell Biology: Energy transduction in plant cells.
    González-Halphen, Diego
    Departamento de Genética Molecular, Instituto de Fisiología Celular, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior s/n, Colonia Copilco-Universidad, Delegación Coyoacán, México D.F., Mexico.
    Oxidative Phosphorylation: Building blocks and related components2009In: The Chlamydomonas Sourcebook: Organellar and Metabolic Processes, Volume 2, Second Edition / [ed] Elizabeth H. Harris, David B. Stern & George B. Witman, Oxford: Academic Press, 2009, p. 469-502Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter summarizes the knowledge of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) constituents of Chlamydomonas and of the components involved in their biogenesis and addresses alternate dehydrogenases and oxidases which are particular to photosynthetic organisms, and several other mitochondrial components related to OXPHOS. Reference to the components of Polytomella sp., a colorless alga closely related to Chlamydomonas is clearly made. The main complexes involved in electron transport seem to share a similar number of subunits, and many of the algal polypeptides have plant homologues. Some differences are apparent, such as the presence of a fragmented COX2 subunit, which seems to be unique to chlorophyte algae. OXPHOS is defined as an electron transfer chain driven by substrate oxidation that is coupled to the synthesis of ATP through an electrochemical transmembrane gradient. The characterization of Arabidopsis mitochondrial components through proteomic approaches has advanced significantly. As a unicellular organism, Chlamydomonas offers the unique opportunity to study organelle-organelle interactions, particularly between mitochondria and chloroplasts. It has become evident that crosstalk between these organelles takes place, mainly through intracellular metabolite pools. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 47.
    Carlzon, Linnéa
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Karlsson, Amanda
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Falk, Knud
    www.vandrefalk.dk, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Liess, Antonia
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Møller, Søren
    Roskilde University Library, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Extreme weather affects Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus tundrius) breeding success in South Greenland2018In: Ornis Hungarica, ISSN 1215-1610, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 38-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to better understand the potential effects of climate change on the Peregrine Falcon, we investigated the relationship between extreme weather events and Peregrines’ breeding success in South Greenland. We defined three variables – number of days with extremely low temperatures, extreme precipitation, consecutive rainy days – and an additive variable, total days with extreme weather, and tested their relationship with Peregrines’ breeding success (measured as young per site and nest success) over a 33 year study period. Breeding success was negatively influenced by the number of days with extreme weather and extremely low temperature. The strongest relationship found was total days with extreme weather in the entire breeding season, which explained 22% and 27% of the variation in nest success and young per site, respectively. The number of days with extreme weather in our study related to fluctuations in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Thus, with a strengthening of the NAO, linked to climate change, more extreme weather may occur in the Arctic and induce increased variation in Peregrines’ breeding success. Our data did not allow us to pinpoint when in the breeding cycle inclement weather was particularly harmful, and we recommend finer-scale research (e.g. automated nest cameras) to better monitor the species-specific effects of rapidly changing climate.

  • 48. Carter, Mauricio J.
    et al.
    Lind, Martin I.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Dennis, Stuart R.
    Hentley, William
    Beckerman, Andrew P.
    Evolution of a predator-induced, nonlinear reaction norm2017In: Proc. R. Soc. B, ISSN 0962-8452, 1471-2954, Vol. 284, no 1861Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inducible, anti-predator traits are a classic example of phenotypic plasticity. Their evolutionary dynamics depend on their genetic basis, the historical pattern of predation risk that populations have experienced and current selection gradients. When populations experience predators with contrasting hunting strategies and size preferences, theory suggests contrasting micro-evolutionary responses to selection. Daphnia pulex is an ideal species to explore the micro-evolutionary response of anti-predator traits because they face heterogeneous predation regimes, sometimes experiencing only invertebrate midge predators and other times experiencing vertebrate fish and invertebrate midge predators. We explored plausible patterns of adaptive evolution of a predator-induced morphological reaction norm. We combined estimates of selection gradients that characterize the various habitats that D. pulex experiences with detail on the quantitative genetic architecture of inducible morphological defences. Our data reveal a fine scale description of daphnid defensive reaction norms, and a strong covariance between the sensitivity to cues and the maximum response to cues. By analysing the response of the reaction norm to plausible, predator-specific selection gradients, we show how in the context of this covariance, micro-evolution may be more uniform than predicted from size-selective predation theory. Our results show how covariance between the sensitivity to cues and the maximum response to cues for morphological defence can shape the evolutionary trajectory of predator-induced defences in D. pulex.

  • 49.
    Celander, Patrik
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Strandsandjägaren (Cicindela maritima) i Gullbranna, Tönnersa- och Hökafältets naturreservat– förekomst, hot och förslag till bevarandeåtgärder2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det halländska kustdynlandskapet har utsatts hårt historiskt av framförallt igenväxning, men även andra faktorer som exploatering och friluftsliv har påverkat. Plantering av bergtall och gräs på sanddynerna, för att förhindra sandflykten som drabbade bönderna redan på 1600- talet, gjorde att nästan hela kustdynlandskapet var täckt med vegetation på 1800- talet. Mellan 2012- 2018 restaurerades stora delar av Laholmsbuktens sanddynreservat i samverkan med EU- projektet SandLife, vilkas syfte var att bevara sanddynmiljön, samt gynna dess hotade arter. I sanddynmiljön lever många evertebrater, däribland skalbaggen strandsandjägaren, som i rödlistningsbedömningen 2015 är klassad som Sårbar i Sverige och är föremål för ett nationellt åtgärdsprogram för dess långsiktiga bevarande. Södra Sveriges troligen enda återstående större population återfinns i Gullbranna naturreservat, som tillsammans med Tönnersa- och Hökafältets naturreservat utgör Laholmsbuktens sanddynreservat. Strandsandjägaren lever i Halland längs havsstränder och vid åmynningar, där dess larver gräver tunnlar i lätt fuktig hårt packad fin sand. Tillbakagången av strandsandjägaren i detta habitat tros överensstämma med tillbakagången av det forna dynamiska kustdynlandskapet.

    Detta arbete har gått ut på att inventera larver av strandsandjägare i Laholmsbuktens sanddynreservat, att utvärdera om arten gynnats av de storskaliga sanddynrestaureringarna i samband med SandLifeprojektet 2012-2018, samt urskilja hot och förslag till konkreta bevarandeåtgärder. Jag fann att populationen har ökat betydligt de senaste 15 åren, dock inte till följd av riktade åtgärder utan troligen tack vare den nybildning av habitat som stormen Gudrun åstadkom 2005, samt att en viss spridning av populationen kan ses. Åtgärdsprogrammets långsiktiga mål fram till 2025 är dock inte uppnått än, men en positiv trend syns och möjligheterna finns i Halland att närma sig målet ytterligare. Restaureringarna inom SandLife verkar inte gynnat strandsandjägarpopulationen, då inga nyrestaurerade områden koloniserats, vilket indikerar att riktade bevarandeåtgärder krävs. En stor och förmodligen mycket underskattad störning i området är trampslitage, så åtgärder behöver vidtas genom att t.ex. sätta upp informationsskyltar och göra vissa lämpliga områden där larver hittats svårtillgängliga. Hela 97% av larvpopulationen, som räknades till 3287 larver, återfanns i augusti på näset i Gullbranna naturrservat, på en bara 6 m bred och 435 m lång yta, av habitattypen sandrevlar/åmynningar. I Tönnersa- och Hökafältets naturreservat fann jag bara enstaka larver längs habittypen havsstrand, men dock är det första gången som strandsandjägarlarver hittats i de områdena. Näst största lokalen med strandsandjägare hittades på norra stranden av Gullbrannas naturreservat, med 44 larver räknade i augusti. Resultatet indikerar att havsstränderna är ett sekundärt val för strandsandjägaren i området, och att de inre sanddynerna/sänkorna i nuläget inte verkar erbjuda lämpligt habitat överhuvudtaget, då inga larver återfanns i den habitattypen. Sandrevlar/mynningar är alltså det mest gynnsamma habitatet i området, men då inga larver hittades vid den andra ån Lagan så indikerar det att fler faktorer spelar in, inte minst frånvaro av alltför kraftigt trampslitage. Orsaken till att Genevadsåns mynning hyser nästan hela populationen är troligen att där finns ännu mycket bra habitat, strandsandjägarens troligen små hemområden med låg spridningstendens vid goda förutsättningar och få störningar. Resterande områden har mindre bra habitat, låg spridning till dessa områden, samt mer störningar. Med riktade åtgärder finns det dock potential för flera metapopulationer i de andra områdena, vilket kan leda till en livskraftigare population av strandsandjägaren i Halland.

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  • 50.
    Dahlin, Clas
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Plant Cell Biology: Energy transduction in plant cells.
    Surface charge densities and membrane fluidities in thylakoids with different degrees of thylakoid appression after Norflurazon treatment2003In: Photosynthetica (Praha), ISSN 0300-3604, E-ISSN 1573-9058, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 635-639Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum L.) develop plastids (etioplasts and chloroplasts) which exhibit alterations in inner membrane organisation after treatment with Norflurazon (NF), an inhibitor of carotenoid biosynthesis. In dark-grown plants, results in a decreased amount of partitions (contact zones) between prothylakoids. In weak red light, the results in plants containing chloroplasts devoid of grana.

    Assays have been performed to investigate the membrane surface charge density in these membranes, and relate possible differences to the absence of (pro-)thylakoid overlap after NF teatment. Using the fluorescent probe 9- amino acridine (9-AA), the average surface charge density of isolated PTs was -21.8±3.2 mC m-2 and - 27.4±2.6 mC m-2 in the control and after, respectively. Thylakoid membranes isolated from plants grown in weak red light exhibited slightly more negative values, -23.5±2.9 mC m-2 and -29.0±2.1 mC m-2, in control and after, respectively. The surface charge density of destacked thylakoids from greenhouse-grown untreated plants, containing extensive grana stacking, was -34.3±2.5 mC m-2. Assays using the fluorescent probe of DPH (1,6- diphenyl- 1,3,5- hexatriene) showed that this probe exhibits a higher polarisation value when incorporated into thylakoids from NF- treated plants compared to untreated plants grown in weak red light. The highest polarisation value was found in untreated plants grown in the greenhouse. This indicates a lower rotation transition of the probe in the lipid environment of thylakoids after NF treatment, which can be interpreted as more rigid membranes. These results suggest that the surface charge density and the mobility of membrane components may play a major role for the formation of partitions in dark-grown plants and in the formation of grana in plants grown in weak red light.

    23 Additional key words: chloroplasts; etioplasts; (pro-)thylakoids; Triticum; stacking;

    wheat; 9- amino acridine.

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