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  • 1.
    Aderklint, Denice
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Legal Support for a Resilient Stormwater Management: Review of Swedish Regulations and Objectives2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability entails a system that has the capacity to sustain itself. Stormwater management is one part of the concept sustainable development but traditional practices entail adverse effects on social-ecological systems and there is a need for increasing the resilience of urban stormwater systems.  The growing pressure from climate change and intensified urbanization increase the need for stormwater management. If poorly managed the security and functioning of societies will be negatively affected. Regulations are essential in the achievement of sustainable urban environments. However, national regulations concerning stormwater management are spread through different legal frameworks from different times and it has been recognized that the spread could challenge implementation of the regulations and climate change adaptation. Administrative instruments are important to support the social, economic and ecological value of green and blue structures. The thesis target to analyze relevant regulations and investigate their effectiveness for a sustainable stormwater management through combined interpretation methods based on the intention behind the law and their function in society. The thesis claims that consequences of poorly regulated sustainable stormwater management results in an inefficient use of resources and pose a risk for the environment. Sustainable development is not visible in any article in the Law on General Water Services and it therefore risk to be overlooked in practice. The issues of urban stormwater need to be more integrated in the municipal work and planning processes.

    The analysis reveals that there is support for resilient stormwater management when there is a combination of up-to date research and an objective teleological interpretation. As the shift towards sustainable urban environments entails several aspects, the use of administrative instruments is one important strategy in ensuring urban resilience.

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  • 2.
    Adnan Abdu, Jihad
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Lundström, Philip
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Water Quality Device: Testing Through Electronic Measurements2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Water is the source of all life, but unfortunately, the water quality is getting only worse due to many factors like overuse, contamination, indifference and even by nature itself. By identifying the problem, we are one step closer to solving the problem, and that is why an intelligent water quality device is required to examine water and detect impurities within it. In this project, we are developing a device that uses an entirely new method to measure water quality. Even though the theory behind the device is very advanced, the device is still primitive in its functions and needs development to increase the usefulness and accuracy of the measurements!

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  • 3.
    Aguilera, Anabella
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Alegria Zufia, Javier
    Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Bas Conn, Laura
    Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Gurlit, Leandra
    Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Śliwińska-Wilczewska, Sylwia
    Mount Allison University, Sackville, Canada; University of Gdańsk, Gdańsk, Poland.
    Budzałek, Gracjana
    University of Gdańsk, Gdańsk, Poland.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability. Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Farnelid, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Ecophysiological analysis reveals distinct environmental preferences in closely related Baltic Sea picocyanobacteria2023In: Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 1462-2912, E-ISSN 1462-2920, Vol. 25, no 9, p. 1674-1695Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cluster 5 picocyanobacteria significantly contribute to primary productivity in aquatic ecosystems. Estuarine populations are highly diverse and consist of many co-occurring strains, but their physiology remains largely understudied. In this study, we characterized 17 novel estuarine picocyanobacterial strains. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA and pigment genes (cpcB and cpeBA) uncovered multiple estuarine and freshwater-related clusters and pigment types. Assays with five representative strains (three phycocyanin rich and two phycoerythrin rich) under temperature (10–30°C), light (10–190 μmol photons m−2 s−1), and salinity (2–14 PSU) gradients revealed distinct growth optima and tolerance, indicating that genetic variability was accompanied by physiological diversity. Adaptability to environmental conditions was associated with differential pigment content and photosynthetic performance. Amplicon sequence variants at a coastal and an offshore station linked population dynamics with phylogenetic clusters, supporting that strains isolated in this study represent key ecotypes within the Baltic Sea picocyanobacterial community. The functional diversity found within strains with the same pigment type suggests that understanding estuarine picocyanobacterial ecology requires analysis beyond the phycocyanin and phycoerythrin divide. This new knowledge of the environmental preferences in estuarine picocyanobacteria is important for understanding and evaluating productivity in current and future ecosystems. © 2023 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology published by Applied Microbiology International and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  • 4.
    Akula, Viswa Raj
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Wetland biomass - suitable for biogas production?2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wetlands have long been used as natural waste water treatment systems to remove excess nutrients from agriculture or other waste waters. Common reed (Phragmites australis) is the most prominent feature of wetlands in Sweden. This wetland vegetation needs to be harvested and can be used as substrate for biofuel production. In this study, common reed and submerged vegetation from two wetlands outside Halmstad have been harvested in August and October and have been used as substrate for anaerobic digestion in a laboratory experiment. August harvested common reed produced on average 147 ml CH4/g VS, October harvested common reed produced 150 ml CH4/g VS while August harvested free floating vegetation produced 130 ml CH4/g VS. Similar methane production was seen from reed harvested in August and reed harvested in October, but the dry weight of October harvested reed is much higher indicating that harvesting in October can be beneficial not only because of more biogas production but also because a late harvest reduces the amount of biomass to be harvested and transported. Apart from that harvesting in October will not affect the migratory birds which use wetlands as resting place during autumn migration. 

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    Thesis-Viswa Raj Akula
  • 5.
    Alkan Olsson, Johanna
    et al.
    Lunds universitet, Lund, Sverige.
    Hanson, Helena
    Centrum för miljö- och klimatvetenskap, Lunds universitet, Lund, Sverige.
    D'Hertefeldt, Tina
    Lunds universitet, Lund, Sverige.
    Globalt problem med nationella prioriteringar2021In: Växtvärk: Perspektiv på invasiva främmande växter / [ed] Johanna Alkan Olsson; Helena Hanson; Erik Persson; Carina Sjöholm; Niklas Vareman, Lund: Palaver Press , 2021, p. 11-13Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 6.
    Almgren, Rikard
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Ärtrev som substrat för biogasproduktion: En litteraturstudie och rötning i labbskala2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Until 2020, 49% of Sweden's use of energy must derive from renewable sources. Greenhouse gases must as well decline with 40% compared to 1990 as a part of Sweden's 16 environmental objectives. Biogas is part of the effort to achieve these objectives, but as the demand for biogas increases, more substrates are needed to meet the demand. The purpose is to investigate the conditions for pea residue as substrate by performing lab-scale mesophilic digestion with different fractions and notch lengths and then to summarize pea residue as a substrate for biogas production. During anaerobic digestion, 1000 ml bottles were used as reactors for digestion. Analyses of gas production, gas composition, content of dry matter and organic matter, carbon / nitrogen-ratio and pH have been performed.The results from lab scale digestion show that the pea residue has a methane potential of 300-400 liters of methane per kg VS during 25 days of anaerobic mesophilic digestion. Chopped pea residue had a slightly higher methane production than untreated pea residue.. The substrate was very difficult to mix up in a regular household blender because of long and tough fibers. This suggests that the substrate requires to be chopped in order to avoid difficulties with management in pumps. Profitability may be a problem if you chop pea residue as the machine being used is expensive and the increase in methane yield as a result of chopping is too small for the pretreatment to be worthwhile. The cost for collecting and chopping the pea residue has been estimated to 473 SEK per hectare or 0,1 SEK per kWh.Practical experience of digesting chopped ensiled pea residue in large-scale facility shows that the substrate works well in pumps and does not affect the process negatively in any way, which suggests that chopping and ensiling pea residue is preferable. Theoretically, there is an energy potential of pea residue amounting to 40 GWh in Skåne and Halland, which roughly corresponds to the fuel consumption of 130 biogas buses annually. The biogas needs to be upgraded before this is possible.Environmental benefits of digesting pea residue include reducing nitrous oxide emissions of 500-1200g per hectare. Other environmental benefits include the reduction of ammonia emissions and nitrate leaching. Biogas as a fuel is neutral as regards carbon dioxide emissions and can replace fossil fuels. Crop residues as a substrate for biogas production do not compete with land for food production.

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    ärtrev som substrat för biogasproduktion
  • 7.
    An, Xing
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Recent developments in wetland technology for wastewater treatment2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment have substantially developed in the last decades. As an eco-friendly treatment process, constructed wetlands may enable the effective, economical, and ecological treatment of agricultural, industrial, and municipal wastewater. The present study reviews the recent developments in wetland technology for wastewater treatment from articles published from 2011 to 2012. The papers were searched from Web of Science using the key words constructed wetland and wastewater treatment. Up to 32 articles were selected and a table describes the recent enhancements in wetland treatment technology. Some articles presented notable results, with higher pollutant removal rates or related to some important factors in removal processes. These articles were separated into three main parts, namely, enhancement of nitrogen removal, phosphorus removal and recovery, and wetland contribution to heavy metal removal. The recent trends in the enhancement of wetland treatment were identified. The major enhancement methods for nitrogen, BOD, and COD reduction are hybrid water flow wetland designs and the combination of porous substrates with conventional gravel. Organic substrates, such as wood mulch and rice husk, are a suitable option for the upper porous media. The recent promotion of phosphorus removal involves a solution to internal loading and an inexpensive substrate source. Fragmented Moleanos limestone and alum sludge cake from the water plants present the feasibility of P removal. The main improvement in heavy metal removal depends on the substrate and combination of different treatment methods. Additionally, the free water surface constructed wetland was proven as a stable heavy metal treatment method. Vegetation was confirmed to enhance the removal rate of all wetland types for all kinds of pollutants. However, the species of the vegetation does not significantly influence the removal rates.

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  • 8.
    Andersson, Harald
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Ekologisk dagvattenhantering i städer: Med utgångspunkt i förtätningsprojektet vid Flygaregatan i Halmstad2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As cities grow and become denser the hard surfaces, where water cannot be infiltrated through the ground, increases. Rain fall is also expected to increase, due to climate change, and the combination of both scenarios will most likely lead to greater risks of flooding, as large volumes of stormwater runoff must be handled by limited underground pipes. Urban stormwater is, added to that, often polluted and affects the quality of streams and lakes close to cities. A solution to the problems might be to integrate sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS) that handle stormwater by the same principles as in nature, where green areas, ponds and open ditches both purifies and slows down the urban runoff.

    By mapping the specific conditions within the ongoing development project at Flygaregatan in Halmstad, which has been used as an example site, the possibilities of SUDS have been investigated. The purpose of the study is to see what parts of SUDS that are possible to use in cities and to come up with a suggestion of how such a system could be integrated within Flygaregatan.

    The study is based upon a review of literature, interviews, calculations and study visits. Due to the complex nature of urban stormwater some assumptions and simplifications have although been necessary.

    The results show that SUDS can reduce the pollution in urban stormwater to acceptable levels and, added to that, delay the runoff which decreases the risks of flooding. From the perspectives at Flygaregatan it should be possible to integrate SUDS within the site and considering the many positive effects of SUDS it is then suggested that such systems should also be used in similar construction projects in the future.

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  • 9.
    Andersson, Josefina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Holmén, Wilma
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Inomhusodling av microgreens i urban miljö - ur ett företags- och hållbarhetsperspektiv2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate indoor farming of microgreens from a sustainability perspective, which is relevant as the food supply is facing major challenges. This was done in relation to resource usage, economic sustainability from a business perspective and which opportunities and obstacles there are for the cultivation of microgreens to increase the access to locally grown food. Microgreens are young cotyledons that are harvested at the true leaf stage. In this study both qualitative and quantitative methods have been used. This has included a material flow analysis and an economic analysis for Botildenborgs indoor farming of microgreens. Further on, semi-structured interviews were carried out with two people with good knowledge of microgreens. The results showed that resources in Botildenborgs indoor farming of microgreens were used relatively efficiently according to ecological sustainability. Although, there is some potential for improvements with constant lighting with low intensity LED lamps. All purchased seeds should also be produced at local scale (in Sweden) as far as possible. We also concluded that it is economically sustainable for Botildenborg to operate their indoor farm, even when the electricity prices are considered high. There is potential forimprovements here too, regarding the continuous lighting and the lamps intensity. We also concluded that opportunities to increase the customers access to locally grown food include education, all year-round access, increased demand, and nutritional, health-related, and environmental benefits. The obstacles on the other hand are lack of knowledge among consumers, greenwashing, and high selling prices. Finally, indoor farming of microgreens can be a step towards food security, but not a decisive one. 

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  • 10.
    Andersson, Julia
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Does clearcutting as a method for forestry impact the aquatic life in lakes nearby?2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Clearcutting is the most common method for forestry in Sweden. However research shows that this type of intense management can have a negative impact on biological biodiversity as it interferes with an area’s natural characteristics. Previous studies have mainly focused on biological effects on land. In this study dragonflies were used as biological indicators to investigate the impact of clearcutting in aquatic environments. The result from this study indicate that the use of clearcutting as a method for forestry can, with a certain postponement in time, negatively affect the species diversity of Odonata, and thus also the aquatic biodiversity in lakes in the immediate surroundings of a clearcut area, although it is still unclear exactly how and by which mechanisms. It is also uncertain if the effects are only temporarily, or long-term. If Sweden is to reach the environmental goal of Flourishing Lakes and Streams, it is essential to adopt further safety measures when conducting clearcutting near waters to avoid negative impact on the aquatic biological diversity.

  • 11.
    Andersson, Julia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science.
    Nielsen, Denise
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science.
    En studie av eutrofierande näringsämnen i tre biflöden till Suseån: - Falkenbergs kommun, Halland2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Enligt ett av de 16 miljökvalitetsmålen, Ingen övergödning, ska halterna av eutrofierande ämnen inte ha någon negativ effekt på människors hälsa, den biologiska mångfalden eller vår möjlighet till ett hållbart brukande av mark och vatten. En stor bidragande orsak till den rådande övergödningsproblematiken i svenska vatten är läckage av främst näringsämnena kväve och fosfor från agrara och urbana källor.

    Hallands kustkommuner har sedan länge problem med övergödning och behovet för åtgärd är stort. Länet är särskilt utsatt för näringsläckage, delvis på grund av att en stor del av åkermarken utgörs av genomsläppliga jordar, vilka underlättar för vattnets framkomlighet och transport av näringsämnen, men även för att vattendrag har rätats ut av människan och för att naturliga våtmarker har tagits bort.

    I Halland rinner Suseån som är den femte största ån i länet. Problematiken i den övre regionen av dess avrinningsområde handlar främst om försurning, medan det i det nedre området främst handlar om övergödning och fysisk förändring av vattendragen.

    Vattenprovtagning utfördes i Suseån, samt i tre biflöden i den nedre delen av avrinningsområdet, vilken till stor del domineras av jordbruksmarker. De utvalda vattendragen var Käringasjöbäcken, Boarpsbäcken och Årstadbäcken.

    Resultatet av vattenprovtagningarna uppvisade överlag förhöjda halter av näringsämnen i alla biflöden till Suseån. De högsta halterna av både totalkväve och totalfosfor uppmättes i Boarpsbäcken och Årstadbäcken, vilka således har det största åtgärdsbehovet.

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  • 12.
    Andersson, Linnéa
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Lönn, Vilma
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Ekosystemtjänstanalys av fastigheterna Skummeslöv 5:13 och 4:5 i Laholms kommun: En studie om detaljplanernas inverkan på ekosystemtjänster i området samt möjliga kompensationsåtgärder2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When exploiting an area, important ecosystem services can be lost, and an ecosystem service analysis gives a clear picture of how a plurality of values are affected. The purpose of this study is to investigate how the detailed development plans for two properties in Laholm municipality will affect the ecosystem services, and what compensation measures that may be implemented. A qualitative method was used where literature search, interviews, question answers, observation and ESTER 2.0 were included. The results suggest that that the supporting ecosystem services on both properties and the cultural ecosystem services on one of the properties will be negatively affected by the exploitation. However, the cultural ecosystem services on one of the properties will be positively affected. Laholm municipality does not actively work with the mitigation hierarchy and compensation measures. Possible compensation measures to create could be ponds and meadow patches, planting of flowering trees and placement of benches and picnic tables. A collaboration with Båstad municipality would further be beneficial for protecting the landscape and promoting biological diversity across municipal borders.

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  • 13.
    Andersson, Ramon
    Halmstad University.
    Hållbart jordbruk inom vattenskyddsområde: En studie om Sverige, Danmark, Frankrike och Tyskland2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To guarantee protection of our drinking water, water catchment protections are established. These are divided into three different zones and in the first zone it is most likely that an activity, such as agriculture, will contaminate the water resource. Hence the activities are strongly regulated or banned. The EU communion is working towards a sustained water quality through several directives; Nitrate Directive, Waterframwork directives and Sustainable use of pesticide directive. The main purpose is to regulate the diffuse pollution from agriculture.This thesis is about how Denmark, Germany and France are working towards a sustainable agriculture within water protection areas. Sweden is also discussed but mainly about two different methods applied in Linköpings and Ljungbys municipalties.How the different countries work is mainly the same due to the directives. However, there are some interesting water management methods to observe such as voluntary agreements between water companies and farmers. Moreover, the sustainability perspective is approached in a larger scale where you and I as consumers also contribute via consumer-pays-principle. Therefore, we are, by our demand for water, the problem but also the solution and together we can contribute with good social, economic and ecological conditions for ourselves and the farmer.

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  • 14.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Svensson, GöranHalmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Glocal Marketing: think globally and act locally2009Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Svensson, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Think Globally and Act Locally2009In: Glocal Marketing: think globally and act locally / [ed] Svante Andersson and Göran Svensson, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2009, 1, p. 13-26Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Andersson, Theres
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Classification of uncertainties in Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) of pesticides: A tool for improved risk communication for decision makers within the EU2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is known that there are shortcomings in identifying uncertainties in an Ecological RiskAssessment (ERA) conclusions presented by an authority such as EFSA. In 2018, "Guidanceon Uncertainty Analysis in Scientific Assessments" was adopted by EFSA, which will assistdecision makers to identify uncertainties in the basis for decision making. What is stillmissing is a typology to ease identification of uncertainties. Therefore, finding a method tosystematically analyse EFSA conclusions to identify and topologize uncertainties has beenthe main purpose of this thesis. Key words were selected to identify uncertainties and thefrequency of use of the respective keywords in the texts was thereafter analysed. A twodimensionalALSCAL model was then used to explore the relationship between the keywords. The ALSCAL model showed that the key words uncertainty and gap were notclustered with any other keywords found in the 52 EFSA conclusions that were analysed. Themethod used proved to be valuable for creating a consistent and useful method for classifyinguncertainty however analysing a larger data set of ERA conclusions are necessary forconfirming the accuracy and usefulness of the classification method.

  • 17.
    Andersson, Veronica
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Kretsloppslösning med SBR och våtmark: Utredning av avloppsvattenrening vid Kvibille mejeri2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 18.
    Ansari, Jamshid
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Occurrence and Risk Assessment of Illicit Drugs in Wastewater Treatment Plants’ influent and effluent in Halland County, Sweden: Cocaine, MDMA, Amphetamine, Methamphetamine, and Cannabis.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, the presence of illicit drugs in effluents from Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) and the aquatic environment has raised concern over their possible negative effects on aquatic organisms. In this study, therefore ecotoxicological data was retrieved through a literature survey and by using the software ECOSAR. Predicted No Effect Concentrations (PNEC) of five types of illicit drugs and their metabolites including 1. Cocaine (COC) and its metabolite Benzoylecgonine (BE), 2. Amphetamine (AMPH), 3. Methamphetamine (METH), 4. Cannabis ((delta 9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-Nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-CCOH)) and 5. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) for species of three trophic levels in aquatic ecosystems derived. Predicted Environmental Concentrations (PEC) of above-mentioned drugs in twelve WWTPs’ influent and two effluents in Halland County have been measured by Swedish Toxicology Research Center (SWETOX co). Acute and chronic Risk Quotients (RQ) of the mixture of illicit drugs based upon two novel approaches calculated for the effluents of two WWTPs. Wastewater treatment plant in Ängstorp found with better removal efficiency of above- mentioned illicit drugs and the lower total RQs of (0.01<MRQacute<0.1; MRQchronic = 0.13) in comparison with that of Västra Stranden with the total RQs of (0.1<MRQacute <1; MRQchronic = 1.4). Although the RQ of WWTPs’ effluent was higher than 1 in Västra Stranden, there was no potential of risk on aquatic organisms in surface waters receiving that effluent. AMPH and Cannabis found as the most degradable substances through the WWTPs with (90-100%) of removal efficiency. Moreover, the results revealed that Cannabis (THC-COOH) was the most hazardous illicit drug on aquatic species in case of acute and chronic effects while, in terms of genotoxicology, a mixture of Cocaine metabolites found the most dangerous mixture of illicit drugs on zebrafish embryos.

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  • 19.
    Arakelyan, Arsen
    et al.
    Institute of Molecular Biology, National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia (NAS RA), Yerevan, Armenia.
    Zakharyan, Roksana
    Institute of Molecular Biology, National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia (NAS RA), Yerevan, Armenia.
    Hambardzumyan, Marina
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Petrkova, Jana
    Laboratory of Immunogenomics and Immunoproteomics, Institute of Molecular and Translational Medicine, Medical Faculty of Palacky University, Olomouc, Czech Republic.
    Olsson, M. Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Petrek, Martin
    Laboratory of Immunogenomics and Immunoproteomics, Institute of Molecular and Translational Medicine, Medical Faculty of Palacky University, Olomouc, Czech Republic.
    Boyajyan, Anna
    Institute of Molecular Biology, National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia (NAS RA), Yerevan, Armenia.
    Functional Genetic Polymorphisms of Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1 and C-C Chemokine Receptor Type 2 in Ischemic Stroke2014In: Journal of Interferon and Cytokine Research, ISSN 1079-9907, E-ISSN 1557-7465, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 100-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent findings indicated that monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) and its C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2) play a key role in ischemic stroke (IS) progression. This study was aimed at evaluating the potential association of the MCP1 gene (MCP1) rs1024611 (-2518 A>G) and CCR2 gene (CCR2) rs1799864 (V64I; 190 G>A) functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with IS in the Armenian population. For the purpose of this study, genomic DNA samples of 100 patients with the first-episode IS and 115 healthy subjects (controls) were genotyped for the selected SNPs using a polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers. The results obtained demonstrated that while the CCR2 rs1799864 SNP genotypes were equally distributed among patients and controls, the frequency and carriage rate of the of the MCP1 rs1024611*G minor allele were higher in patients. While a potential association between IS and CCR2 rs1799864 SNP was evaluated for the first time, the latest finding was in agreement with the earlier data reported for some other populations. In summary, this study revealed no association of CCR2 rs1799864 SNP with IS, and a positive association between G minor allele of MCP1 rs1024611 SNP and IS in the Armenian population. Based on the present and earlier reported data, we concluded that the minor G allele of the MCP1 rs1024611 SNP might be considered a risk factor for IS.

  • 20.
    Arvidsson, Emma
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Dyverfors, Malin
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Djurskyddsinspektörer: - Behovet av kunskap om exotiska djur2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Psittacines and reptiles are exotic animals that are difficult to care for and it requires extra knowledge to make a correct assessment of their wellbeing. An animal welfare inspector, with an education in general animal welfare, may not have a deep enough knowledge of exotic animals to do a proper assessment of the animal’s general condition and its environment. In this paper it was therefore examined if animal welfare inspectors have enough knowledge to do a satisfying inspection of establishments working with selling of exotic animals. A literature study was used to examine difficulties with each species. A survey was sent to chosen county administrations to get information of existing educations/knowledge and pet shops were interviewed to see how the inspectors’ knowledge is perceived. This is done to make an estimation of the demand for this knowledge in big and small counties and how the demand is met. This paper came to the conclusion that even though the county administration may not have this specific knowledge, pet shops felt it was enough to do their job. They did in some cases feel it would be desirable to get more guidance and advices from them. The county administrations also have a clear plan for how to handle cases where expert knowledge, that they may not possess, is needed.

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  • 21.
    Arvidsson, Johanna
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Samuelsson, Petra
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Allmänhetens attityder till klimatförändringar och demografiska förklaringsfaktorer2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The UN's climate panel IPCC states that the earth's climate is changing at a rate unparalleled in human history, with effects such as extreme weather, sea level rise, ice melting and ocean acidification to be expected. In climate communication, the media has been singled out as a crucial tool for strengthening awareness, shaping attitudes and increasing understanding of climate change. At the same time, it has been shown that demographic factors such as age can influence people's attitudes to climate change, which in turn can potentially affect sustainable behaviour. The purpose of this study is therefore to investigate how social and traditional media affect the public's attitudes about climate change in different age groups. The survey was conducted using a questionnaire study that was disseminated both digitally and physically, and was then analyzed using statistical tests. A total of 117 respondents from the Swedish public participated in the survey. The results indicate that younger respondents to a greater extent than older respondents think that climate change can jeopardize the needs of future generations, are more concerned about possible consequences and that too little is reported about climate change in the media today. Among respondents who mainly consume social media, it was also more common to agree that climate change has been exacerbated by human activities, than it was among respondents who mainly consume traditional media. However, age affiliation was found to have a stronger influence on attitudes about climate change than the type of media mainly consumed. The results indicate that in the future there is a need for media reporting that reaches all age groups, with a message that is less dystopian and more hopeful.

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  • 22.
    Ashraf, Zeeshan
    et al.
    Riphah International University, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Kanwal, Bushra
    Riphah International University, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Hussain, Ijaz
    Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Dashtipour, Kia
    Edinburgh Napier University, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
    Gogate, Mandar
    Edinburgh Napier University, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
    Kanwal, Summrina
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Statistical Downscaling Modeling for Temperature Prediction2024In: Decision Making and Security Risk Management for IoT Environments / [ed] Wadii Boulila; Jawad Ahmad; Anis Koubaa; Maha Driss; Imed Riadh Farah, Cham: Springer, 2024, 1, Vol. 106, p. 147-169Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The application compares the Statistical Downscaling Model (SDSM) and partial least square (PLS) to bridge the gap between (minimum and maximum) daily temperatures of 11 sites in Punjab between 1961 and 2013 with atmospheric variables. The data set was utilized for the first time using the proposed framework, which uses PLS and SDSM in conjunction with several regression models to predict future conditions up to the year 2099 under various scenarios. HadCM3 (Hadley Centre Coupled Model 3) data for 26 variables are applied for calibration and validation. After calibration, a Q-Q plot of observed and modeled data was used to validate the model. HadCM3 daily data for A2 and B2 stories were used to generate future scenarios for the years 2014 to 2099. We generated the prediction after using explained variance and partial correlation to select predictors. Using partial least squares (PLS), we select predictive factors and construct future scenarios through 2099. Finally, we conduct a comparative analysis of models developed utilizing the SDSM and PLS approaches for selecting features. The root mean square error was used to pick meaningful anticipated results from many models. After the data is downscaled, it is evaluated and a substantial correlation with the observed data is discovered. After applying R-square and root mean square error (RMSE), we conclude that the PLS (partial least square) variable selection method is preferable to the SDSM method. © The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2024.

  • 23.
    Assarsson, Karin
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science.
    Environmental exposure assessment of metals from reclaimed land in Halmstad harbour: Sweden  Part of an environmental risk assessment2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The harbour land fill in Halmstad has been described in the news as one of the most polluted areas in Halland County based on the a survey from the Swedish environmental protection agency. In order to identify the extent and severity of the situation several environmental investigations have been performed in this area. This report is based on available data from investigations and environmental reports from WSP, Höganäs AB, HEM and Halmstad municipality. This investigation focus on an “Area C” within the land fill where the main land fill material is i.a. slag from a steel work, construction waste, dredge spoil, waste from glass production and a casting shop. Of these material the focus have been on the metal rich slag from the steel work and its possible environmental impact. The environmental exposure of Hg, Pb, Cd, Cr, Zn, Ni, Mo and V have been calculated as an annual load from Area C. Unfortunately the data available for this investigation has not been complete, e.g. slag concentration data with corresponding leachate data was only obtained for one year. The groundwater data and land fill metal concentrations have been measured only once. This made it impossible to investigate e.g. annual variations like ageing effects of the material or weather variations, variation in the properties of the deposed slag material and statistical significance in differences could not be calculated. Further characterisation of the land fill would be worthwhile in order to be able to draw some conclusions.

    Calculations of the environmental load has been performed based on concentration in the slag, the land fill, the leachate data of the slag and groundwater concentrations. A model has been developed to calculate the weighted land fill metal concentration. The partitioning coefficient, Kd; between soil and liquid has been calculated and used to estimate the environmental load.

    It was assumed that the groundwater data was the most reliable data, which indicated that the exposure may be higher than from common soil, especially for Pb and Mo. Relating the environmental exposure values with guideline values based on MKM (less sensitive land use)-land using HQ (hazard quotient) indicates a decreasing risk in the order Pb>V>Mo. However, the exposure is well below that from MKM soil which could be assumed, according to Swedish environmental protection agency guideline values, to be an acceptable exposure.

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  • 24.
    Assarsson, Karin
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Karaktärisering, utvärdering och avsättning av Stena Metalls magnetiska fines2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With a growing population on earth the amount of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) and other scrap steel increases. The European Directive 2000/53/CE” requires a minimum of 95 % reuse and recovery and 85 % re-use and recycling no later than 1 January 2015, for end-of life vehicles. This imposes a need for more efficient recycling and recovery. Despite this shredder residue (SR) is commonly land filled.

    This report investigated the magnetic fines residue generated at Stena Metall shredder facility in Halmstad, Sweden. Magnetic fines is a complex material containing e.g. ferrous metals, non-ferrous metals, glass, plastic, rubber, polyurethane, sand, dirt, brominated flame retardants and PCB.

    Characterisation of the material and discussion around area of application resulted in suggestions for possible recycling alternatives.

    Characterisation included e.g. particle size, total organic content, x-ray fluorescence, x-ray powder diffraction and elemental analysis with a focus on the metals.

    The results indicated a higher organic content in larger particles and an increasing content of e.g. lead, cadmium and mercury in smaller particles.

    X-ray fluorescence can be used to measure lead in magnetic fines.

    The conclusion was that the combustible organic content needs to be separated before further metal recycling can be applied. If magnetic fines should be used in construction pollutants probably either needs to be removed or encapsulated to prevent exposure to humans and environment.

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  • 25.
    Averfalk, Helge
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Hansson, Anna
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Karlsson, Niklas
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Mattsson, Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Klimatgaser i Halland – en målinriktad analys med framtidsperspektiv2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten innehåller en analys av utsläppen av de sex klimatgaserna i Halland mellan 1990 och 2011, en skattning vad som kommer att genomföras till 2020 och förslag till åtgärder för att kunna leverera utsläppsreduktioner efter 2020. Resultaten visar att de halländska utsläppen har minskat med 20 procent sedan 1990, målet om 27 procent lägre utsläpp till 2020 kommer troligen att uppnås, transporter och jordbruk måste kunna leverera utsläppsreduktioner efter 2020, regionala plan- och styrdokument måste i större utsträckning kunna kvantifiera framtida utsläppsreduktioner samt att det behövs ett regionalt kompetenscenter i Halland för att länet ska kunna leverera utsläppsreduktioner i framtiden.

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    Klimatgaser i Halland 2014
  • 26.
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Acting in a Globalized World: Marketing Perspective2012In: Globalization: Education and Management Agendas, Croatia: INTECH, 2012, p. 153-164Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Axelsson, Helena
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Spångberg, Annica
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Bioackumulering av tungmetaller i vildsvin (Sus scrofa): -analys av biotillgängligheten av bly och kadmium i vildsvinslever2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As the wild boar population increases, so does the consuming of wild boar meat. Often with the belief that this is much healthier than conventional meat. International studies have shown that wild boar meat is more likely to contain higher concentrations of soil pollutions than other game meat. The aim of this study was therefore to analyze the concentrations of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in the liver of free living wild boars (Sus scrofa), located in the south of Sweden. Samples were taken from 10 wild boars during the hunting season of spring, 2018. The lead and cadmium concentrations in wild boar livers were determined by AAS- atomic absorption spectroscopy. Our result shows a higher uptake for cadmium than lead. Cadmium also seem to increase with age in wild boars due to bioaccumulation. However, 7 out of 10 livers exceeded the maximum limit for food safety standards regarding lead (0,10 mg/kg) and 2 out of 10 for cadmium (0,50 mg/kg). Therefore, the consumer should practice vigilance, especially for wild boar meat originating from areas known to be contaminated.

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  • 28.
    Baan, Matyas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Liess, Antonia
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Green, David
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Ardenstedt, Jonathan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Liess, Stig
    Microplastic Quantification in Nissan and Lagan River Systems in Shore and Bottom Sediments2022In: Abstract Book: The Next Years: Sensing and Safeguarding Inland Waters, 2022, p. 11-11Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Jakobs sjö, an electricity dam of the Nissan River system (Southwest Sweden) is contaminated with large microplastics sedimented out at its shores. In 2021 a field survey of microplastics was carried out in the Nissan River with the Lagan River asreference. We sampled three locations in each river (upstream, lake/dam and downstream). Four replicate bottom and shore sediment samples were taken at each location. Dried samples were fractionated into three size categories (> 2 mm; 2 – 0.9mm; 0.9 – 0.55 mm) and microplastics per area and weight were estimated. We found a higher concentration of large shore microplastics in Jacobs sjö and downstream from it than upstream in the Nissan River. We found no large shore microplastics in the Lagan River system. Smaller size fractions of microplastics were omnipresent in shore and bottom sediments of both rivers. However, the smallest size category tended to be proportionately more dominant at upstream than at downstream locations. This could be explained by biofilm-microplastic floc formation and sedimentation as particles travel downstream. Concentrations of toxicants such as heavy metals can increase thousandfold on the surface of microplastics and since the five heavy metals most likely to sorb to microplastics in a freshwater environment (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) were all present in Jacobs sjö, we conclude that the high concentrations of microplastics in Jacobs sjö may pose a threat to aquatic life.

  • 29.
    Bandaruk, Tatsiana
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Metal and metalloid sequestration in a constructed wetland system for treatment of landfill leachate during 2003-20122013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Landfill leachate treatment can be expensive and energy consuming when carried out in wastewater treatment plants. However, there can be several possible solutions for reducing cost and energy requirements and one of them is on-site biological treatment of polluted landfill leachate in constructed wetland systems. This paper evaluates the sequestration of 15 metals and 2 metalloids in a free water surface flow constructed wetland consisting of 10 ponds at Atleverket near Örebro during a period of ten years. The operation and maintenance of treatment wetland is minimal and the retention time is highly variable but generally between 6-12 months. The water flows by gravity from one pond to another. The system which was designed for removal of nitrogen and organic material shows a good retention efficiency of these elements. The analyte concentrations in the effluent and influent were compared by using statistical software. The variations in inlet concentration were significantly higher than in the ones in the outlet. The removal efficiency for all elements but three (magnesium, sulfur and boron) was above 50%. Some elements were retained to a certain level during all years; these elements are Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, Pb, Fe, V, Zn and Mn. Long-term analysis of the operation has shown that the constructed wetland continues to perform well and it retains its ability to remove the metals studied.

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  • 30.
    Bark, Johanna
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Framgångsrik hållbarhetskommunikation: Kommunikationens betydelse för miljöarbete inom små och medelstora företag2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie syftar att svara på frågeställningen om hur en klimatsatsning inom små och

    medelstora företag (SME) kommuniceras på bästa sätt och var i svårigheter kan ligga. Jämförelser

    görs också med liknande projekt som genomförts och de framgångsfaktorer de haft för att se om

    de går att överföras till de små och medelstora företagen i Halland, som ingår i denna studie.

    Genom jämförelser med andra rapporter, djupintervjuer med representanter ur de medverkande

    företagen, workshops i samarbete med EMC och Alexandersoninstitutet samt analys av dessa har

    utmaningar och möjligheter i arbetet med att implicera klimatarbetet i företagens verksamhet

    identifierats. Resultaten har analyserats i enlighet med miljöpsykologisk ansats. Genom att

    utvärdera attityder, upplevd kontroll och upplevda hinder, har förslag för implementering och

    kommunikation tagits fram.

    Resultatet av djupintervjuer och workshops visar att företagen behöver vägledning när det gäller

    kommunikationen av sitt klimatarbete internt såväl som externt. Företagen vet inte vilka kanaler

    som ska väljas eller vad som ska kommuniceras. De flesta är överens om att ledningen behöver

    föregå med gott exempel. Därför bör ledningen utbildas i första hand. Företagen har bland annat

    problem med att anställda tillhör olika grupper som arbetar på skilda sätt, vilket gör att

    kommunikationen behöver anpassas för att passa respektive grupp. Svårigheter att omvandla

    klimatåtgärder till mätbara värden så att de tydligt kan redovisas för medarbetare och därmed öka

    motivationen till ett förändrat beteende är andra faktorer företagen har problem med.

    Små och medelstora företag kan arbeta med ett antal framgångsfaktorer grundade på analyser av

    ovanstående. Det är viktigt att arbeta strukturerat och med tydliga mål, det är också viktigt att

    använda sig av mindre målgrupper, även under den interna hållbarhetskommunikationen. Tesen att

    den interna kommunikationen är avgörande för ett framgångsrikt hållbarhetsarbete kan styrkas

    med hjälp av denna studie.

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  • 31.
    Bauhn, Lovisa
    et al.
    Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nuclear Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ekberg, Christian
    Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nuclear Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fleischer, Siegfried
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Mattsson, Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    On the spot study reveals the missing carbon sink2017In: / [ed] Martin Novak, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing amount of CO2 emitted from human activities globally does not add to the increase in the atmosphere. Taking the ocean sink into acount, the fate of about 3 Gt C annually remains to be explained. This huge amount is calculated as the residual from known fluxes1 We present an `on the spot´ study that is based on systematic soil sampling in different regions and over the years since 2004. The difference between gross heterotrophic respiration (GHR) in the soil, and net heterotrophic respiration (NHR) that is the part of the carbon dioxide leaving the ground surface, was analyzed. The accumulated data indicate a within-soil CO2 sink of the same magnitude as the sink derived from different fluxes1 . Both approaches describe the same sink but our results show that the sink is CO2 uptake from the soil atmosphere, not emitted CO2 that is returned to some unknown area on land. The energy yield needed from nitrification to explain the observed reduction of CO2 to organic material is large, and NH4 + is recycled several times. It was unexpectedly observed that O2 was released in this gross nitrification cycle and this was confirmed with H2 18O incubations in soils2 . The large CO2 sink changes between seasons, between sites and even from a sink to an additional source, which may explain why it has so long been ”missing”.

    1 Le Quéré et al. 2015. Global Carbon Budgets 2015. Earth Syst. Sci. Data 7, 349–396

    2 Fleischer S. et al. 2013. Dark oxidation of water in soils. Tellus B 65, 20490

  • 32.
    Benes, Zsofia
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Textilindustrins avloppsvatten och avloppsslam ur ett miljöperspektiv: Underlag för internationella riktlinjer inom projektet Sweden Textile Water Initiative2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of my thesis is to obtain knowledge of textile wastewater and textile sludge from an environmental perspective, which can be used as a basis for the  ”Sweden Textile Water Initiative” guidelines for a sustainable sludge management. In my study I have mainly focused on textile dyes, salts and metals and their routes during wastewater treatment.This paper is partly a literature review, which I began by identifying the pollutants discharged from each textile process. Then I studied wastewater and sludge quality, environmental aspects, possible treatment and recycling methods. I have also tried to find existing type of guidelines in order to make comparisons. My thesis has a broad perspective and includes in addition to "end-of-pipe" solutions also alternative methods such as treatment of partial flow or substitution of harmful chemicals. Another important part of this study is a qualitative survey of more than 20 textile mills. The results show the extent of awareness and control on effluent and sludge issues. The survey has revealed that major improvements are needed in sludge management. Finally, I have proposed sludge guidelines at three levels, which will hopefully be helpful for STWI in evaluating their suppliers and showing a way towards a more sustainable sludge management. 

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  • 33.
    Bernhardsson, Jennifer
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Ericson Weibahr, Cecilia
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Nudging som åtgärd för minskad nedskräpning i Laholms kommun2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien grundar sig i den problematik som finns med nedskräpning. Nedskräpning skapar negativa konsekvenser för miljön och kan skapa en känsla av otrygghet hos invånarna i samhället. Syftet är att undersöka Laholms kommuns möjligheter att implementera nudgingåtgärder. Åtgärderna ska redovisas i deras kommande avfallsplan tillsammans med målen för minskad nedskräpning. Kontakt med tjänstemän på Laholms kommun har skapat en förståelse för kommunens nuläge och framtida insatser. Fyra kategorier har formulerats som baserar sig på insamlade svar från gruppintervjuer med gymnasielever i Laholm. De identifierade kategorierna är: orsaker till nedskräpning, soptunnors tillgänglighet, intryck av soptunnor samt kunskap om nedskräpning. Genom elevintervjuerna skapades en förståelse över vilket skräp som slängs offentligt samt vilka åtgärder som uppskattas. Ytterligare åtgärdsförslag fanns från tidigare nudgingarbete som andra länder och kommuner använt sig av. Den yngre generationen har i både intervjuer och vetenskapligt material visat sig bidra till nedskräpning på offentliga platser. En analys av ungas beteende är därmed relevant att inkludera i studien. Åtgärder som utgår från nudging är ett användbart verktyg för kommuner och det finns möjligheter för implementering i Laholm. Denna studie kan vara ett underlag för fortsatt arbete i Laholms kommun som bidrar till en hållbar samhällsutveckling. Rapporten kan även vara till hjälp för alla som vill minska nedskräpning genom nudging.  

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  • 34.
    Berntsson, Adrian
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Frantzich Johnsson, Daniel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Klimatbokslut 2016 - Laholmsbuktens VA: En beräknings- och kartläggningsstudie av förvaltningens totala växthusgasemissioner på uppdrag av Halmstads kommun2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Earth’s average surface temperature is rising as a result of increased greenhouse gasemissions. This means that we face extensive challenges in reducing the anthropogenic climateimpact. With the ambition to map and reduce its climate impact, LBVA (Laholmsbuktens vattenoch avlopp, the administration of sewage treatment in municipalities of Halmstad and Laholm)has undertaken extensive work to compile a climate report for the year of 2016. This shows theoverall climate impact of their operation. The Climate Report covers all sources of emissionsthat occur directly from LBVA's activities, but also the indirect climate impact from purchasedproducts and services. The report apply the CEMAsys accounting tool that categorizes andconverts data into carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e). Emissions from logistics, energy supplyand the environmental impact of the wastewater treatment process are emissions that LBVAgenerates. This report shows the extent of process emissions in form of methane gas (CH4) andnitrous oxide (N2O) from treatment of wastewater, especially nitrous oxide, which have a veryhigh heating potential and therefore account for a major part of LBVA's climate impact.

  • 35. Bertling, Emelie
    et al.
    Marklund, Moa
    Klimatanpassning av Södra infarten i Halmstad kommun: Ett utformningsalternativ till befintlig Miljökonsekvensbeskrivning (MKB)2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 36.
    Binnås, Caroline
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Lindgren, Fredrik
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Utvärdering av ett modelleringsverktygs förmåga att prediktera koncentrationen av TCE i inomhusluft2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Polluted areas are places where the level of contamination can be harmful for human health and the environment. There are about 80 000 possibly polluted areas in Sweden, 25 000 of which have been classified according to the risk of specific site. To evaluate the risk and distribution of a contamination on polluted areas, the most common way is to do a risk assessment. In addition to environmental engineering studies and surveys of the site, modelling tools can be used as a complement to try and predict the risk of polluted areas. The purpose of this study is to evaluate such a modelling tool called JAGG 2.1 (Jord, Afdampning, Gas and Grundvand) and its applicability to predict concentrations of the chlorinated solvent trichloroethylene (TCE) in indoor air of buildings located on contaminated sites. The questions that are to be answered in this study is whether the modelling tool can be used to predict concentration of TCE in indoor air and what parameters that affect the calculated value the most? The work with risk assessment could be facilitated by validating this modelling tool.

    The modelling tool was tested on three different contaminated sites in Sweden. When testing the modelling tool, relevant data was used to calculate the concentration of TCE in indoor air and thereafter the results were analyzed.

    This study showed that the modelling tool underestimated the concentrations of TCE for three out of four tested rooms in the buildings on the contaminated areas for all the tested parameters taken into account. The one room where JAGG 2.1 predicted correct TCE concentrations, compared to the measured result, is considered to have all the right parameters. The parameters are ceiling height, ventilation, the slab-on-grade thickness and the depth where the sample was taken and other geological conditions suitable for a successful calculation. This led to the conclusion that this modelling tool only can be used as an assisting tool and cannot replace environmental engineering studies. The obtained results must also be critically reviewed, before using it for risk assessments.

    Keywords: JAGG 2.1, modelling tools, vapor intrusion, chlorinated solvents, trichloroethylene. 

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  • 37.
    Blomster, Cecilia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Cespedes, Victoria
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Livsmedels påverkan på kadmium i biogödsel - kan konflikten mellan miljömålen Giftfri miljö och God bebyggd miljö lösas?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2013 the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency established new suggested limits for

    cadmium in biofertilizer. Some biogas producers have already stated that they will have

    difficulty to cope with the new suggested limits. This has started a conflict between the

    environmental goals “Giftfri miljö” and “God bebyggd miljö”. In this study six biogas plants

    has been studied to see how their biofertilizer relate to the suggested limits. They were

    selected according to their location and the size of their foodstuff substrate. The results

    demonstrate that the problem is associated with high cadmium concentrations in imported

    foodstuffs. By influencing the Public Procurement Act, Swedish foodstuff could be favored

    and the cadmium content decreases in the biofertilizer. The result demonstrates that

    Linköping is the facility that is least able to cope with the suggested limits and Helsingborg is

    the facility that has the best potential. The main conclusion of this study is that EU must work

    together to achieve the goals that the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency wants to

    achieve. If EU is working together to improve the Public Procurement Act, stricter limits for

    cadmium concentration in foodstuffs may be established and thus the cadmium concentration

    in foodstuff would be reduced.

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    examensarbete-cecilia-victoria
  • 38.
    Bodin, Hristina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Mietto, Anna
    University of Padova, Legnaro, Italy.
    Ehde, Per Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science, Wetland Research Centre.
    Persson, Jesper
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science, Wetland Research Centre.
    Tracer behaviour and analysis of hydraulics in experimental free water surface wetlands2012In: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, ISSN 0925-8574, E-ISSN 1872-6992, Vol. 49, p. 201-211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effects of inlet design and vegetation type on tracer dynamics and hydraulic performance were investigated using lithium chloride in 18 experimental free water surface wetlands. The wetlands received similar water flow but had different vegetation types: 6 emergent vegetation wetlands (EVWs), 6 submerged vegetation wetlands (SVWs) and 6 free development wetlands (FDWs). Two types of inlet designs were applied: half of each wetland vegetation type had a barrier near the inlet to help distribute incoming tracer solution, while the rest had no barrier. Residence time distribution (RTD) functions were calculated from tracer data using two techniques: method of moments and a novel Gauss modelling approach. RTD functions were used to quantify hydraulic parameters: active wetland volume (e-value), water dispersion (N-value) and hydraulic efficiency (lambda-value). For wetlands without barrier, significantly lower tracer mass recoveries were found from EVWs compared to FDWs and SVWs, signifying a risk of tracer methodological problems in small densely vegetated wetlands. These problems were minimized in wetlands with an inflow construction promoting distribution of incoming tracer solution. Compared to the method of moments, Gauss modelling seemed to produce more reliable lambda-values but less reliable N-values. Data for precise hydraulic quantification were lost by Gauss modelling, as indicated by overall lower variance in these data sets and lower mass recoveries. However, Gauss modelling may minimize uncertainties associated with lithium immobilization/mobilization. Parameters were significantly affected by the RTD data analysis method, showing that the choice of method could affect evaluation of wetland hydraulics. The experimental wetlands in this study exhibited relatively high e-values and low N-values. This was probably caused by the small size of the wetlands and low water flow velocities, emphasizing that hydraulic parameter values obtained in small experimental wetlands may not be applicable to hydraulics in larger wetlands. The method of moments revealed lower e-values from EVWs compared to SVWs and FDWs. It was indicated that lower e-values were mainly caused by vegetation volumes. This highlighted a need for regular maintenance to secure efficient treatment volume in wetlands with dense vegetation. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  • 39.
    Bohman, Mattias
    et al.
    Grontmij AB.
    Berglund Odhner, Peter
    Grontmij AB.
    Schabbauer, Anna
    Grontmij AB.
    Karlsson, Niklas
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Mattsson, Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Rundstedt, Johan
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Biogas i Halland: Förbehandling av substrat och simulering av biogasflöden2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bioenergicentrum i Halland (BEH) är ett projekt som ligger inom ramen för EU:s strukturfondsprogram. Projektet genomförs i Region Hallands regi som är regionens välfärds- och utvecklingsorganisation. Arbetet som bedrivs inom BEH syftar speciellt till att driva utvecklingen mot en ökad produktion och användning av bioenergi till biogas och i förlängningen fordonsgas. Genom att satsa på att skapa förutsättningar för innovation, kunskapsutveckling och samverkan främjas tillväxt och hållbar utveckling.

    Vid naturbruksgymnasiet i Plönninge utanför Halmstad finns idag en biogasanläggning som beskickas med bl.a. nötgödsel och matavfall. Dessutom finns en mindre pilotanläggning som är tänkt att fungera som en del av test- och verifieringsanläggning som BEH vill bygga upp i Plönninge. Som ett led i att utveckla dessa anläggningar och kunna erbjuda möjligheten till kunskapsinsamling genomfördes projektet som beskrivs i denna rapport. Uppdraget var att genomföra försöksrötningar på labb, använda resultaten för att skapa en modell som sedan kan nyttjas som ett verktyg i det inledande arbetet med att investera i en biogasanläggning som beskickas med lantbruksbaserade substrat. Högskolan i Halmstad (HH) genomförde försöksrötningarna och Grontmij (GM) använde sedan resultaten för att skapa en modell där bl.a. substrat, förbehandlingsteknik och driftkostnader finns med.

    Sammanfattningsvis kan sägas att majs som substrat fungerar bäst med de valda förbehandlingsmetoderna; kemisk behandling, termisk behandling och ultraljudsbehandling. Alla förbehandlingsmetoder med majs som substrat visade på ett positivt resultat, d.v.s. det ökade gasutbytet och dess värde (kr/kWh) översteg kostnaderna för de olika förbehandlingarna. Vad som måste beaktas är att produktionskostnaderna överlag är höga, med och utan förbehandling.

    Modellen har konstruerats på ett sådant sätt att den ska vara användarvänlig och med möjlighet att enkelt lägga till ytterligare substrat och förbehandlingsmetoder. Upprepningar av de försöksrötningar som genomförts kommer att öka tillförlitligheten hos modellen. Den fungerar som ett verktyg i att beräkna investeringsmarginalen för förbehandlingsutrustningen baserat på det valda substratet. På detta vis kan intressenter få en första indikation på om det är ekonomiskt rimligt att gå vidare med det tänkta substratet, den valda förbehandlingsmetoden, de planerade mängderna substrat etc.

    En investeringskalkyl har tagits fram för en gårdsanläggning som hanterar 5 000 ton substrat eller gödsel årligen. Det motsvarar 2-3 stycken medelstora mjölkgårdar. Kalkylen är översiktlig och syftar till att ge en första indikation på kostnader för de stora komponenterna såsom substratlager, rötkammare och rötrestlager. Kringarbeten såsom utredningar, markarbeten och geoundersökningar är inte med i kalkylen då dessa omkostnader till stor del avgörs av lokalisering och de förutsättningar som finns på platsen redan från start. Generellt kan dock sägas att den absolut billigaste och enklaste gårdsbaserade biogasanläggningen innebär en investering på 2,7-4 MSEK för flytgödsel från 100-300 mjölkkor.

    För BEH är det viktigt att skapa en plattform där intressenter kan komma för att genomföra försöksrötningar, byta erfarenheter och samla kunskap. För att uppnå detta är det nödvändigt att kunna erbjuda kunden kompletta och kompetenta lösningar på en och samma plats. Detta innebär ett erbjudande som innefattar försöksrötningar på labb-, pilot och fullskala. Ett förslag på konstruktion av pilotanläggning med övergripande principskiss ingår i denna rapport och fungerar som ett inledande arbete i projekteringen av en större pilotanläggning. Nödvändiga driftanalyser av rötrest ska kunna göras på plats i Plönninge på laboratoriet; analyser såsom enskilda organiska syror ska kunna skickas till lämpligt laboratorium. Personal ska kunna tillhandahållas för att driva och optimera rötningen enligt kundens syften och önskemål. På detta vis fungerar Region Halland som en länk mellan teori ochpraktik, mellan liten och stor skala och mellan aktörer från olika discipliner och geografiska områden.

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    Rapport Biogas i Halland -förbehandling av substrat och simulering av biogasflöden
  • 40.
    Borgert, Jasmin
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Spruce Forests and Peat Wetlands in Lake Bolmen’s Catchment Both Leak and Degrade Coloured Dissolved Organic Carbon2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Lake browning in the northern hemisphere is endangering crucial ecosystem services. Darker water decreases fish and primary production as well as touristic and recreational values. It furthermore requires intensive treatment to receive safe drinking water. Brownification is connected to iron and coloured dissolved organic carbon (DOC). In Sweden, spruce plantations leak DOC, possibly depending in their DOC rate on tree age. Whereas wetlands are known to purify water and might contribute to the degradation of DOC. This thesis aims to investigate how different land use types and other parameters affect water colour. Ditches flowing through old spruce forests, young spruce forests, and peat wetlands in the Lake Bolmen catchment, southwestern Sweden, were sampled at in- and outlet. Highly significantly positive relationships between DOC, iron and absorbance were found. The relationship was strongest between DOC and absorbance (R² = 0.88; p < 0.001) and weakest between DOC and iron (R² = 0.54; p < 0.001). High variability led to no significant differences in the release of DOC and iron between the three land use types. However, older forests tended to increase DOC and iron loading compared to younger forests. This study suggests that not only spruce forests in general are affecting the brownification, but that several different factors like age and underlying soil type might play a critical role. 

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  • 41. Borgström, A
    et al.
    Hansson, L A
    Sjöstedt, Johanna
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Wetlands as a Local Scale Management Tool to Reduce Algal Growth Potential2022In: Wetlands (Australia), ISSN 0725-0312, Vol. 42, no 8Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Borkowski, Kazimierz M.
    et al.
    Toruń Radio Astronomy Observatory, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Toruń, Poland.
    Bååth, L.B.
    Onsala Space Observatory, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Determination of the Toruń Antenna Position from VLBI Observations1992In: Acta Astronomica, ISSN 0001-5237, Vol. 42, p. 371-375Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Four strong radio sources were observed over a 12-hr session in March, 1990 between radio telescopes at Onsala and Torun at wavelength of 6 cm in the standard VLBI Mark II setup for the purpose of improving the coordinates of the Torun 15-meter antenna. The Cartesian coordinates of the antenna derived from the presented measurements are (in meters): 3638609.62 +/- 0.19, 1221773.23 +/- 0.54 and 5077024.50 +/- 1.66 in the x, y, and z directions, respectively.

  • 43.
    Borssén, Theres
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Hur miljöinriktad är avfallshanteringen?: En studie om hur sex kommuner avser att uppnå miljömålen med sina avfallsplaner2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents a comparative study of municipal waste management plans. Six waste management plans from different municipalities in Sweden have been studied and compared. The comparison of waste management plans have been made according to how the municipal waste treatment works from an environmental perspective. The comparison of the waste management plans has been compiled in a table to make it easier to discern differences and similarities. The points that have been studied in the municipal waste management plans are;

    • Waste plan's objectives
    • Description of current situation - waste management and collection system (for houses and apartment buildings
    • How the waste management plan complies with the European Union’s approach to waste management.

    The factors listed above have been studied regarding to EU's waste hierarchy, rules and regulations regarding waste management and the current environmental goals. This is the basis for assessing how waste management works in a environmental perspective. How the municipalities achieve environmental goals and regulations regarding waste management have also been studied.

    The results shows that there are differences regarding collection systems and treatment methods within the different municipalities. Treatment methods of wastes is a contributing factor to achieve the environmental goal "A good urban environment".

    Biological treatment of food wastes is necessary to achieve the environmental goal "A good urban environment". Of the six municipalities who are studied, it shows that only three municipalities have collections of food wastes for their households. This means that only three of the municipalities achieve the environmental objectives regarding increased recycling of food wastes.

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  • 44.
    Boti, Ismael
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Noise spectra comparison among wind turbinesand its implications to human perception.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The noise coming from wind power development can be an environmental impact forthe surrounding communities. It is well known that the main wind turbine noise iscaused by the movement of the turbine wings through the air. However, there areuncertainties about the importance of machinery sounds and possible variations amongwind turbines. A high resolution acquisition system was used to perform a fieldexperiment comparison of the noise spectra from some wind turbines at Laholm(Sweden). The results have shown different band spectra peaks associated to machinerysounds among wind turbines from the same model and also from those of differentmanufactures. Maintenance conditions of these wind turbines could explain thedifferences in intensity and frequency locations of the band spectra peaks found. Inorder to know the importance for human audition of these peaks, listening test or doseresponsestudies would be needed to provide relevant information in this regard. Themethodology developed in this study is suggested to be useful for identifying certainmachinery failures which could corrupt the noise sounds emitted at certain wind turbinelocations.

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    Noise spectra comparison among wind turbines and its implications to human perception.
  • 45.
    Bouroussis, Constantinos A.
    et al.
    National Technical University Of Athens, Athens, Greece.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Simulations and Analysis of the Optimum Uniformity for Pedestrian Road Lighting Focusing on Energy Performance and Spill Light in the Roadside Environment2022In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 15, no 9, article id 2983Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Road lighting uniformity is an essential lighting quality parameter for motorists and pedestrians and varies with lighting design parameters. Increased road lighting uniformity may result in benefits, such as increased reassurance and perceived safety for pedestrians or an increased overall visual perception. However, no previous study has investigated how road lighting uniformity varies with lighting design scenarios or how the uniformity of various lighting design scenarios affects other essential parameters, such as energy performance and obtrusive light. This study aimed to investigate: (I) how uniformity varies with different road lighting design scenarios, and (II) how uniformity correlates with energy performance and risk for increasing spill light. The study is limited to pedestrian roads. We performed photometric calculations in ReluxDesktop for more than 1.5 million cases with single-sided pole arrangements and for various geometries of road width, pole distance, pole height, overhang, and luminaire tilt. The results were analyzed with a set of five relevant metrics that were calculated and analyzed together with uniformity. For the evaluation, we used the minimum luminaire power needed to achieve an average illuminance of 10 lx, the power density indicator (DP), edge illuminance ratio (REI), and we introduced two new indicators for spill light on the ground in the border areas: the extended edge illuminance ratio (extended REI) and the spill flux ratio (RSF). The results show that increased uniformity levels may significantly increase energy consumption and spill light, but that both these impacts can be relatively controlled if uniformity is kept under certain limits. The investigated cases also demonstrated that improper lighting planning significantly increases adverse effects, such as spill light. © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  • 46.
    Bredstenslien, Julia
    Miljö-och hälsoskydd.
    VINDKRAFTSETABLERINGAR: EN JÄMFÖRANDE STUDIE OM NÄRBOENDES INSTÄLLNING TILL VINDKRAFT OCH VINDKRAFTSETABLERINGAR I SVERIGE OCH BRASILIEN2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To achieve a sustainable development, three aspects have to take equal place in the society; environmental, economical and social. To reduce the impact on the environment and the amount of greenhouse gases supplied to the atmosphere, industrialized countries and less developed countries must start cooperating. Also the use of renewable energy sources, like solar, hydro and wind power, have to increase.

    Wind power has great potential as a future energy supply. It is cost efficient, quickly developed and the resource is abundant and available worldwide.

    Examinations made in Sweden, indicates that there are difficulties establishing wind power at the same pace as the environmental goals, set by the Swedish government, requires. Mainly because people living nearby potential areas for wind power farms, appeal against the decision.

    This study aims to investigate differences between how people in Sweden and Brazil look at wind power as a future energy source and at the establishing process. It is divided in two parts, a Swedish literature study and a Brazilian study based on interviews with both local and governmental authorities and with people living nearby the wind power farm Osório.

    The Swedish study shows that the majority of people living nearby wind power farms are positive to wind power as a future energy source. The challenges lies in the establishing process because of fear of the consequences to the surrounding areas. The main concerns are:

     Changes in landscape

     Noise

     Visual effects

    Results from the Brazilian study indicate that 96 percent of the people living close to Osório were positive to wind power as a future energy source. 52 percent thought that the possibilities to be involved in the establishing process had been insufficient and that they were given to little opportunity to express their opinion. They did not experience any interference from the wind power farm and they thought that the landscape gave a clean impression.

    This study can be used to gain a more efficient expansion of wind power by an improvement of

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  • 47.
    Bristav, Anton
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Svantesson, Max
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Viktiga kommunikationsfaktorer för ökad utsortering av matavfall2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental goal “God bebyggd miljö” states that 50 percent of the food waste should be collected, and 40 percent of it should go through biological treatment. This goal together with the prohibition on organic waste to landfill is a mean of control to get municipalities toimplement waste treatment systems for food waste. This study focused on what the localwaste treatment company in Halmstad municipality is doing to tackle the environmentalgoals and the system they’ve implemented, which is an optical sorting system. By talking to the local waste treatment company HEM (Halmstad Energi och Miljö AB) to get an idea of the current situation regarding what can be improved, the idea of communication aspects were brought up by the company as an area which could be developed and improved upon to increase the collection of food waste in the municipality.

    The study was conducted in mainly two ways. First a literature study and secondly interviews were conducted. The following questions were asked: Which communication factors areimportant and affect the result for a successful degree of sorting for the optical sorting system? What’s important to communicate to get customers to sort their waste correctly? How can the communication between the municipal waste treatment company and theinhabitants change over time to ensure a successful collection of food waste?

    The study resulted in an identification of different central components which are importantand affect the result for a successful waste collection - these are (1) audience targeting, (2) simplicity, (3) incentive, (4) continued communication (after the implementation of thesystem) and lastly (5) positive morale. To get customers to sort their waste correctly thestudy suggests that several of the central factors are included in the communication betweenthe municipality and the inhabitants. To also ensure a successful waste collection over timethe study also concluded that a continued communication is also needed.

    The conclusions drawn from the study is that the central factors gave good results for the interviewed municipalities and therefore would probably work for other municipalities.

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  • 48. Bruhn, A D
    et al.
    Stedmon, C A
    Comte, J M
    Matsuoka, A
    Speetjens, N J
    Tanski, G
    Vonk, J E
    Sjöstedt, Johanna
    Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark; Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Terrestrial Dissolved Organic Matter Mobilized From Eroding Permafrost Controls Microbial Community Composition and Growth in Arctic Coastal Zones2021In: Frontiers in Earth Science, E-ISSN 2296-6463, Vol. 9Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Byttner, Stefan
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Intelligent systems (IS-lab).
    Rögnvaldsson, Thorsteinn
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Intelligent systems (IS-lab).
    Svensson, Magnus
    Volvo Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Modeling for Vehicle Fleet Remote Diagnostics2007In: Proceedings of SAE 2007 Commercial Vehicle Engineering Congress, Warrendale, PA: SAE Inc. , 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quality and up-time management of vehicles is today receiving much attention from vehicle manufacturers. One of the reasons is that there is a desire to avoiding on-road failures to addressing potential issues during routine maintenance intervals or at times more convenient to the operator. Forthcoming telematic platforms and advanced diagnostic algorithms can enable the possibility to proactively handle problems and minimize stops. The platforms bring the possibility of increasing knowledge of fault characteristics and making diagnostic decisions by using a population of vehicles. However, this requires real-time diagnostic algorithms that process data both onboard and offboard at a central server. The paper presents a self organizing approach for failure and deviation detection on a fleet of vehicles. The approach builds on using parametric models for encoding the characteristical relations between different sensor readings for a vehicle sub-system or component. The models are low-dimensional representations of the operating characteristics of a sub-system or component and are possible to transfer over a limited wireless communication channel. The approach is demonstrated on simulated data of an electronically controlled suspension system for detecting a slow valve and a leaking bellow.

  • 50.
    Bäckström, Karl-Johan
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Eklund, Richard
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Inventering av nuläge och möjligheter för en hållbar och resurseffektiv återvinning av PET-flaskor i Sverige2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study identifies which collection methods for the PET bottle are available for the waste and recycling phase on the Swedish market and which businesses are responsible for these methods. What adjustment is being made by the operations to achieve fossil-free, current collection methods, energy, and fuel use. Previous research, in-depth interviews and questionnaires form the basis for the results presented. The study also looks at environmental impact factors but also the complexity of municipal and nationwide activities, how they work with handling PET in the Swedish market and their use of fossil resources and what is done to reduce their environmental impact. The collection methods that the PET bottle can reach are residual waste, collection close to the property, recycling stations and pawn shops. The area of ​​responsibility of the operations takes place both nationwide and at the municipal level. The current situation analysis indicates that businesses need to take additional measures to become completely fossil-free, but that there is a change with measures for energy and transport to achieve this. There are collection methods that enable recycling, but the sorting methods can be crucial for PET to be able to return to the correct material flow. You can see that the companies use renewable energy and fuel and that they are actively working towards becoming completely fossil fuel.

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