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  • 1.
    Aderklint, Denice
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Legal Support for a Resilient Stormwater Management: Review of Swedish Regulations and Objectives2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability entails a system that has the capacity to sustain itself. Stormwater management is one part of the concept sustainable development but traditional practices entail adverse effects on social-ecological systems and there is a need for increasing the resilience of urban stormwater systems.  The growing pressure from climate change and intensified urbanization increase the need for stormwater management. If poorly managed the security and functioning of societies will be negatively affected. Regulations are essential in the achievement of sustainable urban environments. However, national regulations concerning stormwater management are spread through different legal frameworks from different times and it has been recognized that the spread could challenge implementation of the regulations and climate change adaptation. Administrative instruments are important to support the social, economic and ecological value of green and blue structures. The thesis target to analyze relevant regulations and investigate their effectiveness for a sustainable stormwater management through combined interpretation methods based on the intention behind the law and their function in society. The thesis claims that consequences of poorly regulated sustainable stormwater management results in an inefficient use of resources and pose a risk for the environment. Sustainable development is not visible in any article in the Law on General Water Services and it therefore risk to be overlooked in practice. The issues of urban stormwater need to be more integrated in the municipal work and planning processes.

    The analysis reveals that there is support for resilient stormwater management when there is a combination of up-to date research and an objective teleological interpretation. As the shift towards sustainable urban environments entails several aspects, the use of administrative instruments is one important strategy in ensuring urban resilience.

  • 2.
    Akula, Viswa Raj
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Wetland biomass - suitable for biogas production?2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wetlands have long been used as natural waste water treatment systems to remove excess nutrients from agriculture or other waste waters. Common reed (Phragmites australis) is the most prominent feature of wetlands in Sweden. This wetland vegetation needs to be harvested and can be used as substrate for biofuel production. In this study, common reed and submerged vegetation from two wetlands outside Halmstad have been harvested in August and October and have been used as substrate for anaerobic digestion in a laboratory experiment. August harvested common reed produced on average 147 ml CH4/g VS, October harvested common reed produced 150 ml CH4/g VS while August harvested free floating vegetation produced 130 ml CH4/g VS. Similar methane production was seen from reed harvested in August and reed harvested in October, but the dry weight of October harvested reed is much higher indicating that harvesting in October can be beneficial not only because of more biogas production but also because a late harvest reduces the amount of biomass to be harvested and transported. Apart from that harvesting in October will not affect the migratory birds which use wetlands as resting place during autumn migration. 

  • 3.
    Almgren, Rikard
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Ärtrev som substrat för biogasproduktion: En litteraturstudie och rötning i labbskala2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Until 2020, 49% of Sweden's use of energy must derive from renewable sources. Greenhouse gases must as well decline with 40% compared to 1990 as a part of Sweden's 16 environmental objectives. Biogas is part of the effort to achieve these objectives, but as the demand for biogas increases, more substrates are needed to meet the demand. The purpose is to investigate the conditions for pea residue as substrate by performing lab-scale mesophilic digestion with different fractions and notch lengths and then to summarize pea residue as a substrate for biogas production. During anaerobic digestion, 1000 ml bottles were used as reactors for digestion. Analyses of gas production, gas composition, content of dry matter and organic matter, carbon / nitrogen-ratio and pH have been performed.The results from lab scale digestion show that the pea residue has a methane potential of 300-400 liters of methane per kg VS during 25 days of anaerobic mesophilic digestion. Chopped pea residue had a slightly higher methane production than untreated pea residue.. The substrate was very difficult to mix up in a regular household blender because of long and tough fibers. This suggests that the substrate requires to be chopped in order to avoid difficulties with management in pumps. Profitability may be a problem if you chop pea residue as the machine being used is expensive and the increase in methane yield as a result of chopping is too small for the pretreatment to be worthwhile. The cost for collecting and chopping the pea residue has been estimated to 473 SEK per hectare or 0,1 SEK per kWh.Practical experience of digesting chopped ensiled pea residue in large-scale facility shows that the substrate works well in pumps and does not affect the process negatively in any way, which suggests that chopping and ensiling pea residue is preferable. Theoretically, there is an energy potential of pea residue amounting to 40 GWh in Skåne and Halland, which roughly corresponds to the fuel consumption of 130 biogas buses annually. The biogas needs to be upgraded before this is possible.Environmental benefits of digesting pea residue include reducing nitrous oxide emissions of 500-1200g per hectare. Other environmental benefits include the reduction of ammonia emissions and nitrate leaching. Biogas as a fuel is neutral as regards carbon dioxide emissions and can replace fossil fuels. Crop residues as a substrate for biogas production do not compete with land for food production.

  • 4.
    An, Xing
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Recent developments in wetland technology for wastewater treatment2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment have substantially developed in the last decades. As an eco-friendly treatment process, constructed wetlands may enable the effective, economical, and ecological treatment of agricultural, industrial, and municipal wastewater. The present study reviews the recent developments in wetland technology for wastewater treatment from articles published from 2011 to 2012. The papers were searched from Web of Science using the key words constructed wetland and wastewater treatment. Up to 32 articles were selected and a table describes the recent enhancements in wetland treatment technology. Some articles presented notable results, with higher pollutant removal rates or related to some important factors in removal processes. These articles were separated into three main parts, namely, enhancement of nitrogen removal, phosphorus removal and recovery, and wetland contribution to heavy metal removal. The recent trends in the enhancement of wetland treatment were identified. The major enhancement methods for nitrogen, BOD, and COD reduction are hybrid water flow wetland designs and the combination of porous substrates with conventional gravel. Organic substrates, such as wood mulch and rice husk, are a suitable option for the upper porous media. The recent promotion of phosphorus removal involves a solution to internal loading and an inexpensive substrate source. Fragmented Moleanos limestone and alum sludge cake from the water plants present the feasibility of P removal. The main improvement in heavy metal removal depends on the substrate and combination of different treatment methods. Additionally, the free water surface constructed wetland was proven as a stable heavy metal treatment method. Vegetation was confirmed to enhance the removal rate of all wetland types for all kinds of pollutants. However, the species of the vegetation does not significantly influence the removal rates.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Harald
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Ekologisk dagvattenhantering i städer: Med utgångspunkt i förtätningsprojektet vid Flygaregatan i Halmstad2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As cities grow and become denser the hard surfaces, where water cannot be infiltrated through the ground, increases. Rain fall is also expected to increase, due to climate change, and the combination of both scenarios will most likely lead to greater risks of flooding, as large volumes of stormwater runoff must be handled by limited underground pipes. Urban stormwater is, added to that, often polluted and affects the quality of streams and lakes close to cities. A solution to the problems might be to integrate sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS) that handle stormwater by the same principles as in nature, where green areas, ponds and open ditches both purifies and slows down the urban runoff.

    By mapping the specific conditions within the ongoing development project at Flygaregatan in Halmstad, which has been used as an example site, the possibilities of SUDS have been investigated. The purpose of the study is to see what parts of SUDS that are possible to use in cities and to come up with a suggestion of how such a system could be integrated within Flygaregatan.

    The study is based upon a review of literature, interviews, calculations and study visits. Due to the complex nature of urban stormwater some assumptions and simplifications have although been necessary.

    The results show that SUDS can reduce the pollution in urban stormwater to acceptable levels and, added to that, delay the runoff which decreases the risks of flooding. From the perspectives at Flygaregatan it should be possible to integrate SUDS within the site and considering the many positive effects of SUDS it is then suggested that such systems should also be used in similar construction projects in the future.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Julia
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Does clearcutting as a method for forestry impact the aquatic life in lakes nearby?2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Clearcutting is the most common method for forestry in Sweden. However research shows that this type of intense management can have a negative impact on biological biodiversity as it interferes with an area’s natural characteristics. Previous studies have mainly focused on biological effects on land. In this study dragonflies were used as biological indicators to investigate the impact of clearcutting in aquatic environments. The result from this study indicate that the use of clearcutting as a method for forestry can, with a certain postponement in time, negatively affect the species diversity of Odonata, and thus also the aquatic biodiversity in lakes in the immediate surroundings of a clearcut area, although it is still unclear exactly how and by which mechanisms. It is also uncertain if the effects are only temporarily, or long-term. If Sweden is to reach the environmental goal of Flourishing Lakes and Streams, it is essential to adopt further safety measures when conducting clearcutting near waters to avoid negative impact on the aquatic biological diversity.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Julia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science.
    Nielsen, Denise
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science.
    En studie av eutrofierande näringsämnen i tre biflöden till Suseån: - Falkenbergs kommun, Halland2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Enligt ett av de 16 miljökvalitetsmålen, Ingen övergödning, ska halterna av eutrofierande ämnen inte ha någon negativ effekt på människors hälsa, den biologiska mångfalden eller vår möjlighet till ett hållbart brukande av mark och vatten. En stor bidragande orsak till den rådande övergödningsproblematiken i svenska vatten är läckage av främst näringsämnena kväve och fosfor från agrara och urbana källor.

    Hallands kustkommuner har sedan länge problem med övergödning och behovet för åtgärd är stort. Länet är särskilt utsatt för näringsläckage, delvis på grund av att en stor del av åkermarken utgörs av genomsläppliga jordar, vilka underlättar för vattnets framkomlighet och transport av näringsämnen, men även för att vattendrag har rätats ut av människan och för att naturliga våtmarker har tagits bort.

    I Halland rinner Suseån som är den femte största ån i länet. Problematiken i den övre regionen av dess avrinningsområde handlar främst om försurning, medan det i det nedre området främst handlar om övergödning och fysisk förändring av vattendragen.

    Vattenprovtagning utfördes i Suseån, samt i tre biflöden i den nedre delen av avrinningsområdet, vilken till stor del domineras av jordbruksmarker. De utvalda vattendragen var Käringasjöbäcken, Boarpsbäcken och Årstadbäcken.

    Resultatet av vattenprovtagningarna uppvisade överlag förhöjda halter av näringsämnen i alla biflöden till Suseån. De högsta halterna av både totalkväve och totalfosfor uppmättes i Boarpsbäcken och Årstadbäcken, vilka således har det största åtgärdsbehovet.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Ramon
    Halmstad University.
    Hållbart jordbruk inom vattenskyddsområde: En studie om Sverige, Danmark, Frankrike och Tyskland2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To guarantee protection of our drinking water, water catchment protections are established. These are divided into three different zones and in the first zone it is most likely that an activity, such as agriculture, will contaminate the water resource. Hence the activities are strongly regulated or banned. The EU communion is working towards a sustained water quality through several directives; Nitrate Directive, Waterframwork directives and Sustainable use of pesticide directive. The main purpose is to regulate the diffuse pollution from agriculture.This thesis is about how Denmark, Germany and France are working towards a sustainable agriculture within water protection areas. Sweden is also discussed but mainly about two different methods applied in Linköpings and Ljungbys municipalties.How the different countries work is mainly the same due to the directives. However, there are some interesting water management methods to observe such as voluntary agreements between water companies and farmers. Moreover, the sustainability perspective is approached in a larger scale where you and I as consumers also contribute via consumer-pays-principle. Therefore, we are, by our demand for water, the problem but also the solution and together we can contribute with good social, economic and ecological conditions for ourselves and the farmer.

  • 9.
    Andersson, Theres
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Classification of uncertainties in Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) of pesticides: A tool for improved risk communication for decision makers within the EU2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is known that there are shortcomings in identifying uncertainties in an Ecological RiskAssessment (ERA) conclusions presented by an authority such as EFSA. In 2018, "Guidanceon Uncertainty Analysis in Scientific Assessments" was adopted by EFSA, which will assistdecision makers to identify uncertainties in the basis for decision making. What is stillmissing is a typology to ease identification of uncertainties. Therefore, finding a method tosystematically analyse EFSA conclusions to identify and topologize uncertainties has beenthe main purpose of this thesis. Key words were selected to identify uncertainties and thefrequency of use of the respective keywords in the texts was thereafter analysed. A twodimensionalALSCAL model was then used to explore the relationship between the keywords. The ALSCAL model showed that the key words uncertainty and gap were notclustered with any other keywords found in the 52 EFSA conclusions that were analysed. Themethod used proved to be valuable for creating a consistent and useful method for classifyinguncertainty however analysing a larger data set of ERA conclusions are necessary forconfirming the accuracy and usefulness of the classification method.

  • 10.
    Andersson, Veronica
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Kretsloppslösning med SBR och våtmark: Utredning av avloppsvattenrening vid Kvibille mejeri2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 11.
    Ansari, Jamshid
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Occurrence and Risk Assessment of Illicit Drugs in Wastewater Treatment Plants’ influent and effluent in Halland County, Sweden: Cocaine, MDMA, Amphetamine, Methamphetamine, and Cannabis.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, the presence of illicit drugs in effluents from Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) and the aquatic environment has raised concern over their possible negative effects on aquatic organisms. In this study, therefore ecotoxicological data was retrieved through a literature survey and by using the software ECOSAR. Predicted No Effect Concentrations (PNEC) of five types of illicit drugs and their metabolites including 1. Cocaine (COC) and its metabolite Benzoylecgonine (BE), 2. Amphetamine (AMPH), 3. Methamphetamine (METH), 4. Cannabis ((delta 9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-Nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-CCOH)) and 5. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) for species of three trophic levels in aquatic ecosystems derived. Predicted Environmental Concentrations (PEC) of above-mentioned drugs in twelve WWTPs’ influent and two effluents in Halland County have been measured by Swedish Toxicology Research Center (SWETOX co). Acute and chronic Risk Quotients (RQ) of the mixture of illicit drugs based upon two novel approaches calculated for the effluents of two WWTPs. Wastewater treatment plant in Ängstorp found with better removal efficiency of above- mentioned illicit drugs and the lower total RQs of (0.01<MRQacute<0.1; MRQchronic = 0.13) in comparison with that of Västra Stranden with the total RQs of (0.1<MRQacute <1; MRQchronic = 1.4). Although the RQ of WWTPs’ effluent was higher than 1 in Västra Stranden, there was no potential of risk on aquatic organisms in surface waters receiving that effluent. AMPH and Cannabis found as the most degradable substances through the WWTPs with (90-100%) of removal efficiency. Moreover, the results revealed that Cannabis (THC-COOH) was the most hazardous illicit drug on aquatic species in case of acute and chronic effects while, in terms of genotoxicology, a mixture of Cocaine metabolites found the most dangerous mixture of illicit drugs on zebrafish embryos.

  • 12.
    Arvidsson, Emma
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Dyverfors, Malin
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Djurskyddsinspektörer: - Behovet av kunskap om exotiska djur2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Psittacines and reptiles are exotic animals that are difficult to care for and it requires extra knowledge to make a correct assessment of their wellbeing. An animal welfare inspector, with an education in general animal welfare, may not have a deep enough knowledge of exotic animals to do a proper assessment of the animal’s general condition and its environment. In this paper it was therefore examined if animal welfare inspectors have enough knowledge to do a satisfying inspection of establishments working with selling of exotic animals. A literature study was used to examine difficulties with each species. A survey was sent to chosen county administrations to get information of existing educations/knowledge and pet shops were interviewed to see how the inspectors’ knowledge is perceived. This is done to make an estimation of the demand for this knowledge in big and small counties and how the demand is met. This paper came to the conclusion that even though the county administration may not have this specific knowledge, pet shops felt it was enough to do their job. They did in some cases feel it would be desirable to get more guidance and advices from them. The county administrations also have a clear plan for how to handle cases where expert knowledge, that they may not possess, is needed.

  • 13.
    Assarsson, Karin
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science.
    Environmental exposure assessment of metals from reclaimed land in Halmstad harbour: Sweden  Part of an environmental risk assessment2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The harbour land fill in Halmstad has been described in the news as one of the most polluted areas in Halland County based on the a survey from the Swedish environmental protection agency. In order to identify the extent and severity of the situation several environmental investigations have been performed in this area. This report is based on available data from investigations and environmental reports from WSP, Höganäs AB, HEM and Halmstad municipality. This investigation focus on an “Area C” within the land fill where the main land fill material is i.a. slag from a steel work, construction waste, dredge spoil, waste from glass production and a casting shop. Of these material the focus have been on the metal rich slag from the steel work and its possible environmental impact. The environmental exposure of Hg, Pb, Cd, Cr, Zn, Ni, Mo and V have been calculated as an annual load from Area C. Unfortunately the data available for this investigation has not been complete, e.g. slag concentration data with corresponding leachate data was only obtained for one year. The groundwater data and land fill metal concentrations have been measured only once. This made it impossible to investigate e.g. annual variations like ageing effects of the material or weather variations, variation in the properties of the deposed slag material and statistical significance in differences could not be calculated. Further characterisation of the land fill would be worthwhile in order to be able to draw some conclusions.

    Calculations of the environmental load has been performed based on concentration in the slag, the land fill, the leachate data of the slag and groundwater concentrations. A model has been developed to calculate the weighted land fill metal concentration. The partitioning coefficient, Kd; between soil and liquid has been calculated and used to estimate the environmental load.

    It was assumed that the groundwater data was the most reliable data, which indicated that the exposure may be higher than from common soil, especially for Pb and Mo. Relating the environmental exposure values with guideline values based on MKM (less sensitive land use)-land using HQ (hazard quotient) indicates a decreasing risk in the order Pb>V>Mo. However, the exposure is well below that from MKM soil which could be assumed, according to Swedish environmental protection agency guideline values, to be an acceptable exposure.

  • 14.
    Assarsson, Karin
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Karaktärisering, utvärdering och avsättning av Stena Metalls magnetiska fines2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With a growing population on earth the amount of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) and other scrap steel increases. The European Directive 2000/53/CE” requires a minimum of 95 % reuse and recovery and 85 % re-use and recycling no later than 1 January 2015, for end-of life vehicles. This imposes a need for more efficient recycling and recovery. Despite this shredder residue (SR) is commonly land filled.

    This report investigated the magnetic fines residue generated at Stena Metall shredder facility in Halmstad, Sweden. Magnetic fines is a complex material containing e.g. ferrous metals, non-ferrous metals, glass, plastic, rubber, polyurethane, sand, dirt, brominated flame retardants and PCB.

    Characterisation of the material and discussion around area of application resulted in suggestions for possible recycling alternatives.

    Characterisation included e.g. particle size, total organic content, x-ray fluorescence, x-ray powder diffraction and elemental analysis with a focus on the metals.

    The results indicated a higher organic content in larger particles and an increasing content of e.g. lead, cadmium and mercury in smaller particles.

    X-ray fluorescence can be used to measure lead in magnetic fines.

    The conclusion was that the combustible organic content needs to be separated before further metal recycling can be applied. If magnetic fines should be used in construction pollutants probably either needs to be removed or encapsulated to prevent exposure to humans and environment.

  • 15.
    Averfalk, Helge
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Hansson, Anna
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Karlsson, Niklas
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Mattsson, Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Klimatgaser i Halland – en målinriktad analys med framtidsperspektiv2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten innehåller en analys av utsläppen av de sex klimatgaserna i Halland mellan 1990 och 2011, en skattning vad som kommer att genomföras till 2020 och förslag till åtgärder för att kunna leverera utsläppsreduktioner efter 2020. Resultaten visar att de halländska utsläppen har minskat med 20 procent sedan 1990, målet om 27 procent lägre utsläpp till 2020 kommer troligen att uppnås, transporter och jordbruk måste kunna leverera utsläppsreduktioner efter 2020, regionala plan- och styrdokument måste i större utsträckning kunna kvantifiera framtida utsläppsreduktioner samt att det behövs ett regionalt kompetenscenter i Halland för att länet ska kunna leverera utsläppsreduktioner i framtiden.

  • 16.
    Axelsson, Helena
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Spångberg, Annica
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Bioackumulering av tungmetaller i vildsvin (Sus scrofa): -analys av biotillgängligheten av bly och kadmium i vildsvinslever2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As the wild boar population increases, so does the consuming of wild boar meat. Often with the belief that this is much healthier than conventional meat. International studies have shown that wild boar meat is more likely to contain higher concentrations of soil pollutions than other game meat. The aim of this study was therefore to analyze the concentrations of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in the liver of free living wild boars (Sus scrofa), located in the south of Sweden. Samples were taken from 10 wild boars during the hunting season of spring, 2018. The lead and cadmium concentrations in wild boar livers were determined by AAS- atomic absorption spectroscopy. Our result shows a higher uptake for cadmium than lead. Cadmium also seem to increase with age in wild boars due to bioaccumulation. However, 7 out of 10 livers exceeded the maximum limit for food safety standards regarding lead (0,10 mg/kg) and 2 out of 10 for cadmium (0,50 mg/kg). Therefore, the consumer should practice vigilance, especially for wild boar meat originating from areas known to be contaminated.

  • 17.
    Bandaruk, Tatsiana
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Metal and metalloid sequestration in a constructed wetland system for treatment of landfill leachate during 2003-20122013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Landfill leachate treatment can be expensive and energy consuming when carried out in wastewater treatment plants. However, there can be several possible solutions for reducing cost and energy requirements and one of them is on-site biological treatment of polluted landfill leachate in constructed wetland systems. This paper evaluates the sequestration of 15 metals and 2 metalloids in a free water surface flow constructed wetland consisting of 10 ponds at Atleverket near Örebro during a period of ten years. The operation and maintenance of treatment wetland is minimal and the retention time is highly variable but generally between 6-12 months. The water flows by gravity from one pond to another. The system which was designed for removal of nitrogen and organic material shows a good retention efficiency of these elements. The analyte concentrations in the effluent and influent were compared by using statistical software. The variations in inlet concentration were significantly higher than in the ones in the outlet. The removal efficiency for all elements but three (magnesium, sulfur and boron) was above 50%. Some elements were retained to a certain level during all years; these elements are Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, Pb, Fe, V, Zn and Mn. Long-term analysis of the operation has shown that the constructed wetland continues to perform well and it retains its ability to remove the metals studied.

  • 18.
    Bark, Johanna
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Framgångsrik hållbarhetskommunikation: Kommunikationens betydelse för miljöarbete inom små och medelstora företag2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie syftar att svara på frågeställningen om hur en klimatsatsning inom små och

    medelstora företag (SME) kommuniceras på bästa sätt och var i svårigheter kan ligga. Jämförelser

    görs också med liknande projekt som genomförts och de framgångsfaktorer de haft för att se om

    de går att överföras till de små och medelstora företagen i Halland, som ingår i denna studie.

    Genom jämförelser med andra rapporter, djupintervjuer med representanter ur de medverkande

    företagen, workshops i samarbete med EMC och Alexandersoninstitutet samt analys av dessa har

    utmaningar och möjligheter i arbetet med att implicera klimatarbetet i företagens verksamhet

    identifierats. Resultaten har analyserats i enlighet med miljöpsykologisk ansats. Genom att

    utvärdera attityder, upplevd kontroll och upplevda hinder, har förslag för implementering och

    kommunikation tagits fram.

    Resultatet av djupintervjuer och workshops visar att företagen behöver vägledning när det gäller

    kommunikationen av sitt klimatarbete internt såväl som externt. Företagen vet inte vilka kanaler

    som ska väljas eller vad som ska kommuniceras. De flesta är överens om att ledningen behöver

    föregå med gott exempel. Därför bör ledningen utbildas i första hand. Företagen har bland annat

    problem med att anställda tillhör olika grupper som arbetar på skilda sätt, vilket gör att

    kommunikationen behöver anpassas för att passa respektive grupp. Svårigheter att omvandla

    klimatåtgärder till mätbara värden så att de tydligt kan redovisas för medarbetare och därmed öka

    motivationen till ett förändrat beteende är andra faktorer företagen har problem med.

    Små och medelstora företag kan arbeta med ett antal framgångsfaktorer grundade på analyser av

    ovanstående. Det är viktigt att arbeta strukturerat och med tydliga mål, det är också viktigt att

    använda sig av mindre målgrupper, även under den interna hållbarhetskommunikationen. Tesen att

    den interna kommunikationen är avgörande för ett framgångsrikt hållbarhetsarbete kan styrkas

    med hjälp av denna studie.

  • 19.
    Bauhn, Lovisa
    et al.
    Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nuclear Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ekberg, Christian
    Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nuclear Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fleischer, Siegfried
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Mattsson, Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    On the spot study reveals the missing carbon sink2017In: / [ed] Martin Novak, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing amount of CO2 emitted from human activities globally does not add to the increase in the atmosphere. Taking the ocean sink into acount, the fate of about 3 Gt C annually remains to be explained. This huge amount is calculated as the residual from known fluxes1 We present an `on the spot´ study that is based on systematic soil sampling in different regions and over the years since 2004. The difference between gross heterotrophic respiration (GHR) in the soil, and net heterotrophic respiration (NHR) that is the part of the carbon dioxide leaving the ground surface, was analyzed. The accumulated data indicate a within-soil CO2 sink of the same magnitude as the sink derived from different fluxes1 . Both approaches describe the same sink but our results show that the sink is CO2 uptake from the soil atmosphere, not emitted CO2 that is returned to some unknown area on land. The energy yield needed from nitrification to explain the observed reduction of CO2 to organic material is large, and NH4 + is recycled several times. It was unexpectedly observed that O2 was released in this gross nitrification cycle and this was confirmed with H2 18O incubations in soils2 . The large CO2 sink changes between seasons, between sites and even from a sink to an additional source, which may explain why it has so long been ”missing”.

    1 Le Quéré et al. 2015. Global Carbon Budgets 2015. Earth Syst. Sci. Data 7, 349–396

    2 Fleischer S. et al. 2013. Dark oxidation of water in soils. Tellus B 65, 20490

  • 20.
    Benes, Zsofia
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Textilindustrins avloppsvatten och avloppsslam ur ett miljöperspektiv: Underlag för internationella riktlinjer inom projektet Sweden Textile Water Initiative2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of my thesis is to obtain knowledge of textile wastewater and textile sludge from an environmental perspective, which can be used as a basis for the  ”Sweden Textile Water Initiative” guidelines for a sustainable sludge management. In my study I have mainly focused on textile dyes, salts and metals and their routes during wastewater treatment.This paper is partly a literature review, which I began by identifying the pollutants discharged from each textile process. Then I studied wastewater and sludge quality, environmental aspects, possible treatment and recycling methods. I have also tried to find existing type of guidelines in order to make comparisons. My thesis has a broad perspective and includes in addition to "end-of-pipe" solutions also alternative methods such as treatment of partial flow or substitution of harmful chemicals. Another important part of this study is a qualitative survey of more than 20 textile mills. The results show the extent of awareness and control on effluent and sludge issues. The survey has revealed that major improvements are needed in sludge management. Finally, I have proposed sludge guidelines at three levels, which will hopefully be helpful for STWI in evaluating their suppliers and showing a way towards a more sustainable sludge management. 

  • 21.
    Berntsson, Adrian
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Frantzich Johnsson, Daniel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Klimatbokslut 2016 - Laholmsbuktens VA: En beräknings- och kartläggningsstudie av förvaltningens totala växthusgasemissioner på uppdrag av Halmstads kommun2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Earth’s average surface temperature is rising as a result of increased greenhouse gasemissions. This means that we face extensive challenges in reducing the anthropogenic climateimpact. With the ambition to map and reduce its climate impact, LBVA (Laholmsbuktens vattenoch avlopp, the administration of sewage treatment in municipalities of Halmstad and Laholm)has undertaken extensive work to compile a climate report for the year of 2016. This shows theoverall climate impact of their operation. The Climate Report covers all sources of emissionsthat occur directly from LBVA's activities, but also the indirect climate impact from purchasedproducts and services. The report apply the CEMAsys accounting tool that categorizes andconverts data into carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e). Emissions from logistics, energy supplyand the environmental impact of the wastewater treatment process are emissions that LBVAgenerates. This report shows the extent of process emissions in form of methane gas (CH4) andnitrous oxide (N2O) from treatment of wastewater, especially nitrous oxide, which have a veryhigh heating potential and therefore account for a major part of LBVA's climate impact.

  • 22. Bertling, Emelie
    et al.
    Marklund, Moa
    Klimatanpassning av Södra infarten i Halmstad kommun: Ett utformningsalternativ till befintlig Miljökonsekvensbeskrivning (MKB)2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 23.
    Binnås, Caroline
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Lindgren, Fredrik
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Utvärdering av ett modelleringsverktygs förmåga att prediktera koncentrationen av TCE i inomhusluft2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Polluted areas are places where the level of contamination can be harmful for human health and the environment. There are about 80 000 possibly polluted areas in Sweden, 25 000 of which have been classified according to the risk of specific site. To evaluate the risk and distribution of a contamination on polluted areas, the most common way is to do a risk assessment. In addition to environmental engineering studies and surveys of the site, modelling tools can be used as a complement to try and predict the risk of polluted areas. The purpose of this study is to evaluate such a modelling tool called JAGG 2.1 (Jord, Afdampning, Gas and Grundvand) and its applicability to predict concentrations of the chlorinated solvent trichloroethylene (TCE) in indoor air of buildings located on contaminated sites. The questions that are to be answered in this study is whether the modelling tool can be used to predict concentration of TCE in indoor air and what parameters that affect the calculated value the most? The work with risk assessment could be facilitated by validating this modelling tool.

    The modelling tool was tested on three different contaminated sites in Sweden. When testing the modelling tool, relevant data was used to calculate the concentration of TCE in indoor air and thereafter the results were analyzed.

    This study showed that the modelling tool underestimated the concentrations of TCE for three out of four tested rooms in the buildings on the contaminated areas for all the tested parameters taken into account. The one room where JAGG 2.1 predicted correct TCE concentrations, compared to the measured result, is considered to have all the right parameters. The parameters are ceiling height, ventilation, the slab-on-grade thickness and the depth where the sample was taken and other geological conditions suitable for a successful calculation. This led to the conclusion that this modelling tool only can be used as an assisting tool and cannot replace environmental engineering studies. The obtained results must also be critically reviewed, before using it for risk assessments.

    Keywords: JAGG 2.1, modelling tools, vapor intrusion, chlorinated solvents, trichloroethylene. 

  • 24.
    Blomster, Cecilia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Cespedes, Victoria
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Livsmedels påverkan på kadmium i biogödsel - kan konflikten mellan miljömålen Giftfri miljö och God bebyggd miljö lösas?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2013 the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency established new suggested limits for

    cadmium in biofertilizer. Some biogas producers have already stated that they will have

    difficulty to cope with the new suggested limits. This has started a conflict between the

    environmental goals “Giftfri miljö” and “God bebyggd miljö”. In this study six biogas plants

    has been studied to see how their biofertilizer relate to the suggested limits. They were

    selected according to their location and the size of their foodstuff substrate. The results

    demonstrate that the problem is associated with high cadmium concentrations in imported

    foodstuffs. By influencing the Public Procurement Act, Swedish foodstuff could be favored

    and the cadmium content decreases in the biofertilizer. The result demonstrates that

    Linköping is the facility that is least able to cope with the suggested limits and Helsingborg is

    the facility that has the best potential. The main conclusion of this study is that EU must work

    together to achieve the goals that the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency wants to

    achieve. If EU is working together to improve the Public Procurement Act, stricter limits for

    cadmium concentration in foodstuffs may be established and thus the cadmium concentration

    in foodstuff would be reduced.

  • 25.
    Bodin, Hristina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Mietto, Anna
    University of Padova, Legnaro, Italy.
    Ehde, Per Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science, Wetland Research Centre.
    Persson, Jesper
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science, Wetland Research Centre.
    Tracer behaviour and analysis of hydraulics in experimental free water surface wetlands2012In: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, ISSN 0925-8574, E-ISSN 1872-6992, Vol. 49, p. 201-211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effects of inlet design and vegetation type on tracer dynamics and hydraulic performance were investigated using lithium chloride in 18 experimental free water surface wetlands. The wetlands received similar water flow but had different vegetation types: 6 emergent vegetation wetlands (EVWs), 6 submerged vegetation wetlands (SVWs) and 6 free development wetlands (FDWs). Two types of inlet designs were applied: half of each wetland vegetation type had a barrier near the inlet to help distribute incoming tracer solution, while the rest had no barrier. Residence time distribution (RTD) functions were calculated from tracer data using two techniques: method of moments and a novel Gauss modelling approach. RTD functions were used to quantify hydraulic parameters: active wetland volume (e-value), water dispersion (N-value) and hydraulic efficiency (lambda-value). For wetlands without barrier, significantly lower tracer mass recoveries were found from EVWs compared to FDWs and SVWs, signifying a risk of tracer methodological problems in small densely vegetated wetlands. These problems were minimized in wetlands with an inflow construction promoting distribution of incoming tracer solution. Compared to the method of moments, Gauss modelling seemed to produce more reliable lambda-values but less reliable N-values. Data for precise hydraulic quantification were lost by Gauss modelling, as indicated by overall lower variance in these data sets and lower mass recoveries. However, Gauss modelling may minimize uncertainties associated with lithium immobilization/mobilization. Parameters were significantly affected by the RTD data analysis method, showing that the choice of method could affect evaluation of wetland hydraulics. The experimental wetlands in this study exhibited relatively high e-values and low N-values. This was probably caused by the small size of the wetlands and low water flow velocities, emphasizing that hydraulic parameter values obtained in small experimental wetlands may not be applicable to hydraulics in larger wetlands. The method of moments revealed lower e-values from EVWs compared to SVWs and FDWs. It was indicated that lower e-values were mainly caused by vegetation volumes. This highlighted a need for regular maintenance to secure efficient treatment volume in wetlands with dense vegetation. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  • 26.
    Bohman, Mattias
    et al.
    Grontmij AB.
    Berglund Odhner, Peter
    Grontmij AB.
    Schabbauer, Anna
    Grontmij AB.
    Karlsson, Niklas
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Mattsson, Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Rundstedt, Johan
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Biogas i Halland: Förbehandling av substrat och simulering av biogasflöden2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bioenergicentrum i Halland (BEH) är ett projekt som ligger inom ramen för EU:s strukturfondsprogram. Projektet genomförs i Region Hallands regi som är regionens välfärds- och utvecklingsorganisation. Arbetet som bedrivs inom BEH syftar speciellt till att driva utvecklingen mot en ökad produktion och användning av bioenergi till biogas och i förlängningen fordonsgas. Genom att satsa på att skapa förutsättningar för innovation, kunskapsutveckling och samverkan främjas tillväxt och hållbar utveckling.

    Vid naturbruksgymnasiet i Plönninge utanför Halmstad finns idag en biogasanläggning som beskickas med bl.a. nötgödsel och matavfall. Dessutom finns en mindre pilotanläggning som är tänkt att fungera som en del av test- och verifieringsanläggning som BEH vill bygga upp i Plönninge. Som ett led i att utveckla dessa anläggningar och kunna erbjuda möjligheten till kunskapsinsamling genomfördes projektet som beskrivs i denna rapport. Uppdraget var att genomföra försöksrötningar på labb, använda resultaten för att skapa en modell som sedan kan nyttjas som ett verktyg i det inledande arbetet med att investera i en biogasanläggning som beskickas med lantbruksbaserade substrat. Högskolan i Halmstad (HH) genomförde försöksrötningarna och Grontmij (GM) använde sedan resultaten för att skapa en modell där bl.a. substrat, förbehandlingsteknik och driftkostnader finns med.

    Sammanfattningsvis kan sägas att majs som substrat fungerar bäst med de valda förbehandlingsmetoderna; kemisk behandling, termisk behandling och ultraljudsbehandling. Alla förbehandlingsmetoder med majs som substrat visade på ett positivt resultat, d.v.s. det ökade gasutbytet och dess värde (kr/kWh) översteg kostnaderna för de olika förbehandlingarna. Vad som måste beaktas är att produktionskostnaderna överlag är höga, med och utan förbehandling.

    Modellen har konstruerats på ett sådant sätt att den ska vara användarvänlig och med möjlighet att enkelt lägga till ytterligare substrat och förbehandlingsmetoder. Upprepningar av de försöksrötningar som genomförts kommer att öka tillförlitligheten hos modellen. Den fungerar som ett verktyg i att beräkna investeringsmarginalen för förbehandlingsutrustningen baserat på det valda substratet. På detta vis kan intressenter få en första indikation på om det är ekonomiskt rimligt att gå vidare med det tänkta substratet, den valda förbehandlingsmetoden, de planerade mängderna substrat etc.

    En investeringskalkyl har tagits fram för en gårdsanläggning som hanterar 5 000 ton substrat eller gödsel årligen. Det motsvarar 2-3 stycken medelstora mjölkgårdar. Kalkylen är översiktlig och syftar till att ge en första indikation på kostnader för de stora komponenterna såsom substratlager, rötkammare och rötrestlager. Kringarbeten såsom utredningar, markarbeten och geoundersökningar är inte med i kalkylen då dessa omkostnader till stor del avgörs av lokalisering och de förutsättningar som finns på platsen redan från start. Generellt kan dock sägas att den absolut billigaste och enklaste gårdsbaserade biogasanläggningen innebär en investering på 2,7-4 MSEK för flytgödsel från 100-300 mjölkkor.

    För BEH är det viktigt att skapa en plattform där intressenter kan komma för att genomföra försöksrötningar, byta erfarenheter och samla kunskap. För att uppnå detta är det nödvändigt att kunna erbjuda kunden kompletta och kompetenta lösningar på en och samma plats. Detta innebär ett erbjudande som innefattar försöksrötningar på labb-, pilot och fullskala. Ett förslag på konstruktion av pilotanläggning med övergripande principskiss ingår i denna rapport och fungerar som ett inledande arbete i projekteringen av en större pilotanläggning. Nödvändiga driftanalyser av rötrest ska kunna göras på plats i Plönninge på laboratoriet; analyser såsom enskilda organiska syror ska kunna skickas till lämpligt laboratorium. Personal ska kunna tillhandahållas för att driva och optimera rötningen enligt kundens syften och önskemål. På detta vis fungerar Region Halland som en länk mellan teori ochpraktik, mellan liten och stor skala och mellan aktörer från olika discipliner och geografiska områden.

  • 27.
    Borkowski, Kazimierz M.
    et al.
    Toruń Radio Astronomy Observatory, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Toruń, Poland.
    Bååth, L.B.
    Onsala Space Observatory, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Determination of the Toruń Antenna Position from VLBI Observations1992In: Acta Astronomica, ISSN 0001-5237, Vol. 42, p. 371-375Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Four strong radio sources were observed over a 12-hr session in March, 1990 between radio telescopes at Onsala and Torun at wavelength of 6 cm in the standard VLBI Mark II setup for the purpose of improving the coordinates of the Torun 15-meter antenna. The Cartesian coordinates of the antenna derived from the presented measurements are (in meters): 3638609.62 +/- 0.19, 1221773.23 +/- 0.54 and 5077024.50 +/- 1.66 in the x, y, and z directions, respectively.

  • 28.
    Borssén, Theres
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Hur miljöinriktad är avfallshanteringen?: En studie om hur sex kommuner avser att uppnå miljömålen med sina avfallsplaner2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents a comparative study of municipal waste management plans. Six waste management plans from different municipalities in Sweden have been studied and compared. The comparison of waste management plans have been made according to how the municipal waste treatment works from an environmental perspective. The comparison of the waste management plans has been compiled in a table to make it easier to discern differences and similarities. The points that have been studied in the municipal waste management plans are;

    • Waste plan's objectives
    • Description of current situation - waste management and collection system (for houses and apartment buildings
    • How the waste management plan complies with the European Union’s approach to waste management.

    The factors listed above have been studied regarding to EU's waste hierarchy, rules and regulations regarding waste management and the current environmental goals. This is the basis for assessing how waste management works in a environmental perspective. How the municipalities achieve environmental goals and regulations regarding waste management have also been studied.

    The results shows that there are differences regarding collection systems and treatment methods within the different municipalities. Treatment methods of wastes is a contributing factor to achieve the environmental goal "A good urban environment".

    Biological treatment of food wastes is necessary to achieve the environmental goal "A good urban environment". Of the six municipalities who are studied, it shows that only three municipalities have collections of food wastes for their households. This means that only three of the municipalities achieve the environmental objectives regarding increased recycling of food wastes.

  • 29.
    Boti, Ismael
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Noise spectra comparison among wind turbinesand its implications to human perception.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The noise coming from wind power development can be an environmental impact forthe surrounding communities. It is well known that the main wind turbine noise iscaused by the movement of the turbine wings through the air. However, there areuncertainties about the importance of machinery sounds and possible variations amongwind turbines. A high resolution acquisition system was used to perform a fieldexperiment comparison of the noise spectra from some wind turbines at Laholm(Sweden). The results have shown different band spectra peaks associated to machinerysounds among wind turbines from the same model and also from those of differentmanufactures. Maintenance conditions of these wind turbines could explain thedifferences in intensity and frequency locations of the band spectra peaks found. Inorder to know the importance for human audition of these peaks, listening test or doseresponsestudies would be needed to provide relevant information in this regard. Themethodology developed in this study is suggested to be useful for identifying certainmachinery failures which could corrupt the noise sounds emitted at certain wind turbinelocations.

  • 30.
    Bredstenslien, Julia
    Miljö-och hälsoskydd.
    VINDKRAFTSETABLERINGAR: EN JÄMFÖRANDE STUDIE OM NÄRBOENDES INSTÄLLNING TILL VINDKRAFT OCH VINDKRAFTSETABLERINGAR I SVERIGE OCH BRASILIEN2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To achieve a sustainable development, three aspects have to take equal place in the society; environmental, economical and social. To reduce the impact on the environment and the amount of greenhouse gases supplied to the atmosphere, industrialized countries and less developed countries must start cooperating. Also the use of renewable energy sources, like solar, hydro and wind power, have to increase.

    Wind power has great potential as a future energy supply. It is cost efficient, quickly developed and the resource is abundant and available worldwide.

    Examinations made in Sweden, indicates that there are difficulties establishing wind power at the same pace as the environmental goals, set by the Swedish government, requires. Mainly because people living nearby potential areas for wind power farms, appeal against the decision.

    This study aims to investigate differences between how people in Sweden and Brazil look at wind power as a future energy source and at the establishing process. It is divided in two parts, a Swedish literature study and a Brazilian study based on interviews with both local and governmental authorities and with people living nearby the wind power farm Osório.

    The Swedish study shows that the majority of people living nearby wind power farms are positive to wind power as a future energy source. The challenges lies in the establishing process because of fear of the consequences to the surrounding areas. The main concerns are:

     Changes in landscape

     Noise

     Visual effects

    Results from the Brazilian study indicate that 96 percent of the people living close to Osório were positive to wind power as a future energy source. 52 percent thought that the possibilities to be involved in the establishing process had been insufficient and that they were given to little opportunity to express their opinion. They did not experience any interference from the wind power farm and they thought that the landscape gave a clean impression.

    This study can be used to gain a more efficient expansion of wind power by an improvement of

  • 31.
    Bristav, Anton
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Svantesson, Max
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Viktiga kommunikationsfaktorer för ökad utsortering av matavfall2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental goal “God bebyggd miljö” states that 50 percent of the food waste should be collected, and 40 percent of it should go through biological treatment. This goal together with the prohibition on organic waste to landfill is a mean of control to get municipalities toimplement waste treatment systems for food waste. This study focused on what the localwaste treatment company in Halmstad municipality is doing to tackle the environmentalgoals and the system they’ve implemented, which is an optical sorting system. By talking to the local waste treatment company HEM (Halmstad Energi och Miljö AB) to get an idea of the current situation regarding what can be improved, the idea of communication aspects were brought up by the company as an area which could be developed and improved upon to increase the collection of food waste in the municipality.

    The study was conducted in mainly two ways. First a literature study and secondly interviews were conducted. The following questions were asked: Which communication factors areimportant and affect the result for a successful degree of sorting for the optical sorting system? What’s important to communicate to get customers to sort their waste correctly? How can the communication between the municipal waste treatment company and theinhabitants change over time to ensure a successful collection of food waste?

    The study resulted in an identification of different central components which are importantand affect the result for a successful waste collection - these are (1) audience targeting, (2) simplicity, (3) incentive, (4) continued communication (after the implementation of thesystem) and lastly (5) positive morale. To get customers to sort their waste correctly thestudy suggests that several of the central factors are included in the communication betweenthe municipality and the inhabitants. To also ensure a successful waste collection over timethe study also concluded that a continued communication is also needed.

    The conclusions drawn from the study is that the central factors gave good results for the interviewed municipalities and therefore would probably work for other municipalities.

  • 32.
    Castellano Jorge, Aurora
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science.
    Species richness in riparian vegetation, a pilot study in Halmstad2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The riparian forests are hotspots of biodiversity and serve important roles in maintainingthe water quality. The study and understanding of this ecosystem is basic to know how theriparian zones respond to the threat and the changes produced by the urbanization. Theobjective of this pilot study was to know the species richness and check the status of theriparian vegetation along two different rivers in Halmstad, Nissan and Fylleån. The studywas focus on the status of trees at both rivers to see if the proximity of the city has anyimpact on the biodiversity. In total 9 different species were found, nevertheless only 3 ofthese species were founded on both localizations: Quercus robur, Betula pendula and Pinussylvestris. The Shannon Index showed a higher biodiversity on Nissan riparian zones, whichis the river that present the urban component. The urban area is the one that presentshigher level of biodiversity, tree species and number of individuals but there are notenough to be in a good standard. The result just show that the urban area is in a bettercondition that the natural one. The institutional efforts should be focusing on preserveboth environments with special attention to the natural environment.

  • 33.
    Chamberlain, Richard
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Validating Citizen Science data for use in the design and management of constructed wetlands: a case study of Tufted Duck and Eurasian Teal.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Citizen science offers a potentially powerful tool for the environmental scientist to access large data sets over increasingly greater time scales. Given the ease of which information can be reported or shared online and the increase in community interest there is an overwhelming amount of data available. But two major questions remain; is the data reliable and how is it best used? This study addresses the first question by testing the ability of such data from Artportalen, Sweden’s Species Gateway for reporting observations of birds (and other flora and fauna), to reflect patterns in the presence and absence of breeding records of Tufted Duck (Aythya fuligula) and Eurasian Teal (Annas crecca). This was done by undertaking wetland assessments in a set of constructed wetland sites from Artportalen in Halland, Southern Sweden, with breeding records of the target species. A literature review was also undertaken to explore the existing ecological knowledge of breeding habitat requirements for each species. Physical and biological characteristics from the wetlands visited were then qualitatively compared to the existing ecological knowledge for each species’ preferred breeding habitat. This method resulted in some support for the reliability of this particular Citizen Science data, in that it reflected Tufted Duck’s preference to breed in wetlands closer to the coast, that provided some form of cover or screening around the edges and which had a large proportion of their shoreline bordered by tall emergent vegetation. Conversely, it reflected Eurasian Teal’s preference for inland wetlands that were closer to relatively open natural freshwater bodies, where tall emergent vegetation wasn’t as abundant. How this and other Citizen Science data can be used in the design and management of constructed wetlands for conservation purposes in light of these results is then discussed.

  • 34.
    Charlson, Alexandra
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Reduktion av föroreningar i processvatten från en äggfabrik i Brasilien: Kväve- och fosforrening i anlagda våtmarker.2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A water treatment unit consisting of two aeration basins, two settling tanks, a residence basinand a horizontal subsurface flow wetland were used to treat wastewater from an eggprocessing factory in Brazil. The aim of this paper was to determine the efficiency of thesystem in reducing nitrogen, phosphorus, BOD5 and TSS (among other parameters) andgetting a further understanding on different kinds of constructed treatment wetlands as well astheir nitrogen and phosphorus removal processes. The wastewater from the factory consistedof process water from manufacturing and water used for cleaning, no stormwater or sewagewater entered the system. Tests were taken three times a month from October 2013 ‘til April2014. The mean influent concentrations from wastewater directly from the factory were2,606 mg/L, 46.60 mg/L, 318.3 mg/L and 1,112 mg/L for BOD5, TP, TKN and TSS. Themean results of reduction through the wetlands gave the following results; BOD5 42 ± 351%,TP 66 ± 9.7%, TN 42 ± 13% and TS -11 ± 30%. Compared to other wetland systems treatingsimilar wastewater the reduction of BOD5 and TSS is low. Recommended solutions toincrease the reduction in the wetland are presented in the discussion.

  • 35.
    CHEN, XINYAO
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Using PCA & Repeated ANOVA to evaluate the In Situ Bioremediation performance of sites contaminated by trichloroethylene2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Currently, one of the most common techniques to remediate contaminated sites of TCE is in situ bioremediation (ISB). In this study, PCA and repeated ANOVA were used to statistically analyze the trends of variables over time to aid in the interpretation of the performance of the in situ bioremediation (ISB) technique. cDCE, Mn2+, chloride and alkalinity have appeared a significant trend over time suggested they have relative stronger indicating power to the performance of ISB. The variables that most effectively describe the bioremediation performance are Fe2+, DOC, Mn2+, methane and alkalinity. Their dramatic changes with time indicate the active functioning of dechlorinating bacteria to remediate the contamination. Three group of indicators can be identified according to their trends over time having a certain consistent character. The first group is methane and ethane, the second group consists of chloride, sulfate and alkalinity and the third group consists of cDCE and tDCE. Definitely, PCA can be an effective tool to analyze the overall trends and transformation pattern of variables over time and at different sampling points within the site. However, the fragmented data set reduce the possibilities for a complete understanding of the remediation process at the site.

  • 36.
    Classon, Linnea
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Fluctuations in the odonate (dragonfly) species composition in relation to anthropogenic modifications of the forest landscape2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study is to assess if the odonate species composition have transformed in relation to modifications in the forest landscapes of Norrbotten County since the mid 1900´s. In order to reach this aim, 19 grids (1x1 km) with documented odonate observations in Norrbotten County were chosen, and grid images of the 19 grids were analyzed and quantified using ten landscape variables. In order to analyze the changes over time, four time periods were selected and grids from other counties were chosen for simulated historic odonate compositions. The data was analysed using the statistical tests discriminant analysis and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). Time period 4 (representing the years 2010-2018) stands out from the historic time periods in terms of species composition in relation to landscape development. Significant changes can be observed in number of forest fragments and in the abundance of three odonate species; Aeshna caerulea, Pyrrhosoma nymphula and Somatochlora alpestris. To conclude, the odonate compositions have changed in relation to anthropogenic changes, perhaps mainly because of lag effects (delayed effects caused by previous impacts) induced by climate changes, and not as a result of modified forest landscapes.

  • 37.
    Cooney, Martin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Sant'Anna, Anita
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Avoiding Playfulness Gone Wrong: Exploring Multi-objective Reaching Motion Generation in a Social Robot2017In: International Journal of Social Robotics, ISSN 1875-4791, E-ISSN 1875-4805, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 545-562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Companion robots will be able to perform useful tasks in homes and public places, while also providing entertainment through playful interactions. “Playful” here means fun, happy, and humorous. A challenge is that generating playful motions requires a non-trivial understanding of how people attribute meaning and intentions. The literature suggests that playfulness can lead to some undesired impressions such as that a robot is obnoxious, untrustworthy, unsafe, moving in a meaningless fashion, or boring. To generate playfulness while avoiding such typical failures, we proposed a model for the scenario of a robot arm reaching for an object: some simplified movement patterns such as sinusoids are structured toward appearing helpful, clear about goals, safe, and combining a degree of structure and anomaly. We integrated our model into a mathematical framework (CHOMP) and built a new robot, Kakapo, to perform dynamically generated motions. The results of an exploratory user experiment were positive, suggesting that: Our proposed system was perceived as playful over the course of several minutes. Also a better impression resulted compared with an alternative playful system which did not use our proposed heuristics; furthermore a negative effect was observed for several minutes after showing the alternative motions, suggesting that failures are important to avoid. And, an inverted u-shaped correlation was observed between motion length and degree of perceived playfulness, suggesting that motions should neither be too short or too long and that length is also a factor which can be considered when generating playful motions. A short follow-up study provided some additional support for the idea that playful motions which seek to avoid failures can be perceived positively. Our intent is that these exploratory results will provide some insight for designing various playful robot motions, toward achieving some good interactions. © 2017, The Author(s).

  • 38.
    Dahlborg, Anna
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Engberg, Johanna
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Hur framställer miljökonsekvensbeskrivningarna vindkraftens effekter på miljön?: Ett arbete om vindkraft och dess påverkan.2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 39.
    Dantas Mendes, Lipe Renato
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Long term assessment of created wetlands functioning within agricultural areas2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The polluted agricultural wastewater, after reaching marine recipients, can cause eutrophication. This problem can be tackled and mitigated by using constructed wetlands as water treatment systems. The fact that constructed wetlands work through long periods of time has led many scientists to evaluate how long they can still treat their influents effectively. The development and growth of vegetation and the accumulation of nutrients on the soils in a wetland are expected to occur. These processes change the wetland efficiency to remove pollutants. In this study, a set of wetlands constructed to treat agricultural wastewater were analyzed in different periods to assess if there is a difference in removal efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus. This assessment was performed by analyzing the retention rate, k and k20 values, which are variables that quantify the nutrients removal, in different periods of each employed wetland. Some of the observations demonstrated differences when comparing different periods of the wetlands. The nitrogen removal presented better performance in one of the employed wetlands when this was older. Another employed wetland has not shown a clear difference between different periods. In the wetlands with high vegetation densities, the nitrogen removal was more stable over consecutive years. The occurrence of oscillations in nitrogen removal was observed more often in the wetlands with the highest vegetation densities over consecutive years. The phosphorus removal presented no clear differences between different periods. The results suggest that the removal of nitrogen improves after wetland creation due to the growth of vegetation. In addition, they suggest that wetlands with high vegetation densities tend to oscillate the nitrogen removal more or less often according to the density of the vegetation due to the balance between denitrification and decomposition. Further, the results suggest that the removal of phosphorus remains unchanged over longer periods than the periods considered in this study (four to six years) due to the deposition of organic matter on the soils.

  • 40.
    Denkiewicz, Sonia
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Ambient noise levels or single noise events at night in urban neighbourhoods: What causes sleep disturbance?2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic noise exposure is a constant problem even though some measures against it are taken. It causes disturbances both during the day but also during the night when people are sleeping. A literature review, that was part of this thesis, showed that adverse response to noise from railways is more severe that from the main roads on sleep nighttime. Furthermore, exposure of noise from freight trains has a higher negative effect than that from passenger trains. The main adverse effects that have been found in these studies are on the sleep parameters and the cardiovascular system.

    A study made by Pedersen (2012) showed that there are some areas in the city Halmstad in Sweden where people are especially disturbed by traffic noise during their sleep nighttime. The aim of the study presented in this thesis was to find out if there is a connection between peoples’ reports of noise disturbance during sleep nighttime and the actual noise exposure. Two modes of measurements have been taken in three of the residential areas from the study by Pedersen (2012) which was Area H close to the harbour, Area MW close to the motorway E6/E20 and Area R close to the railway. The two modes of measurements were A-weighted equivalent sound pressure levels, representing ambient noise levels, and A-weighted maximum sound pressure levels, representing single noise events. These modes were used to identify the possible cause of sleep disturbance by the type of noise exposure. For ambient noise levels, 10 measurements at two occasions, each one minute long, were carried out during the same night at 23:00-24:00 and 03:00-04:00. These specific times have been chosen to obtain the traffic noise exposure when people go to sleep and when their sleep is very deep. Single noise events were measured when the harbour, motorway and railway were used nighttime. The Swedish Transport Administration and Halmstad Harbour were contacted for information on possible exposure times.

    The results show a relationship between peoples’ reported sleep disturbance nighttime and the exposure to single noise events. The highest maximum noise levels were measured in the area close to the railway which exceeded the recommended guidelines 55dB(A) outside the facades nighttime that have been set up by the World Health Organization. There was no connection found for the ambient noise levels and peoples’ reported sleep disturbance. The highest equivalent sound pressure levels were found in the area close to the motorway. The study in this thesis confirms the results from previous studies that show that railway noise have a higher effect on sleep than road traffic noise. It has been shown in other studies but also in this study that the highest noise exposure comes from freight trains. There has not been found any previous studies that investigate the possible relationship between sleep disturbance and noise coming from the harbour and no single noise events could be measured in the area close to the harbour in the current study.

    The conclusions are that the single noise events have higher negative effects especially at higher noise exposures. More studies should be made in this area to find the connection between noise exposure, sleep disturbance and long-term health effects. The focus should be on long-term studies and more studies should also be made on the noise exposure from harbours.

  • 41.
    Denkiewicz, Sonia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Goral, Aleksandra
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Genomgång av kemikalieförteckning som exempel på uppströmsarbete: en identifiering av utfasningsämnen i spillvattnet2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 42.
    Dennis Wilson, Dennis
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Estimation of Carbon Dioxide emissions from forest soils based on CO2 concentrations2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Forest soil is an important source of atmospheric CO2. Emission of CO2 from soil is the result of respiration of plant roots and soil organisms (Autotrophic and Heterotrophic respiration). This soil CO2 emission has a variation throughout the year with maximum emissions being in the summer. However, the seasonal variation affected by the external factors is not fully known. The aim of this thesis is to analyze a relationship between concentration of CO2 in the soil-atmosphere and CO2 emissions to the aboveground atmosphere. When knowing the relationship between CO2 concentration in the soil-atmosphere and the emission of CO2 from the soil atmosphere, a function (equation) can be established. Usually, the best fit is considered to establish the relationship. With the equations obtained, it is possible to calculate CO2 emissions using data different projects, where only soil-atmosphere CO2 concentrations were determined. Using the relationships, emissions rates in different soil types and in forest transect have been analyzed for a large number of samples. The effect of nitrogen deposition on CO2 emissions and seasonal variation of CO2 emission has also been studied. The sampled sites chosen for this study were located in different parts of Southern Scandinavia and Germany. A closed chamber was used to measure CO2 emission from soil. Soil CO2 concentrations were measured at every station and the equations were established. Finally, these relationships were used for analyses and comparison of the sites. An equation (best fit) obtained was used to calculate the emission values of CO2. The soil texture had a great influence on the CO2 from the soil besides the atmospheric pressure and temperature variations during the seasons. It is concluded that, therefore the soil texture and had a great influence on the CO2 emission from the soil besides the atmospheric pressure and temperature variations during the season. When knowing the equation between CO2 concentration and emission for a special type of soil, it is possible to estimate emissions based on CO2 concentrations. Therefore large scale sampling of CO2 concentrations could be done and this will facilitate the inventories carried out in e.g. global change studies.

  • 43.
    Edgren, Disa
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Hallberg, Sandra
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    En sista anhalt: en analys av djurskydd, välfärd och kontroll vid slakt2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Official veterinarians (OVs), employed by the National Food Administration of Sweden, are responsible for the monitoring of animal welfare as well as food hygiene procedures in the country ́s slaughterhouses. In 2014, the National Food Administration of Sweden introduced new policy guidelines to ensure that the OVs report all deviations to the County Administrative Boards of Sweden, which are responsible for welfare inspections in Sweden. Therefore, it is important that the OVs notify the administrative boards if they have any suspicions regarding animal neglect.

    The overall aim of this study is to investigate the cooperation between the County Administrative Boards of Sweden and the National Food Administration of Sweden, and to find out how this collaboration impacts animal welfare. In addition to this, its second aim is to explore the current state of animal welfare in slaughterhouses in southern Sweden. This study is based on a qualitative research method, which combines questioners with the analysis of publicly available documents. Furthermore, this study shows that although the new guidelines have resulted in heavier workloads, both parties are satisfied with the arrangement and agree that the new procedures have led to an improvement of animal welfare. In 2015, OVs in Skåne, Blekinge, Halland and Kronoberg submitted 506 cases of suspected animal cruelty taken place in these counties to the County Administrative Boards of Sweden. After comparison of the total number of reports from 2015 and the overall animals slaughtered in the counties in 2014, this study highlights that 0,03 % of all lambs, 0,12 % of all swine and 0,01 % of all cattle were reported with deviations during slaughter. Therefore, this study concludes that animal welfare in slaughterhouses can be considered to be of a high standard. 

  • 44.
    Eggert, Caroline
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Hormonstörande ämnen och deras effekt på barns hälsa: - Hur ser kunskapen ut hos småbarnsföräldrar?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Endocrine disruptive chemicals (EDCs) are found in many everyday products and can cause adverse effects on human health. Small children are particularly sensitive to EDCs and they are also exposed to them in a greater extent than adults. Despite this, EDCs are only banned in a few toys and childcare products. There are many sources of exposure and if no steps are taken to reduce the incidence of EDCs we may face an increasing number of people diagnosed with obesity, diabetes type 2 or various types of cancer.

    The Swedish Government has set a number of environmental objectives, one of which is called

    a non-toxic environment. The Swedish Chemicals Agency was instructed to produce and conduct a national action plan to achieve this goal. According to the Swedish Government this objective will not be achieved on time. Other legislation that regulates EDCs needs to be improved in order to make sure that there are no adverse effects on children’s health.

    This report consists of a literature review and a questionnaire study. The questionnaire study examined what the parents of small children knew about EDCs and their effects on children. The results show that knowledge amongst parents is poor when it comes to children’s exposure to EDCs. The majority of the parents lack the information necessary to select toys and childcare products without EDCs for their children. They also trust that toys and childcare products sold in Sweden are safe to use.

    Most EDCs are not banned in toys and childcare products and because of that the consumer has to take more responsibility when choosing what products to buy. If the consumer, in this case the parent, doesn’t have enough knowledge about EDCs to make an informed decision it can cause problems.

  • 45.
    Ekholm, Emy
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Bottensubstrat och dess inverkan på reducering av BOD5, COD och TKN i lakvatten genom konstruerade rotzonsanläggningar: En pilotstudie vid Univates, Lajeado – RS Brasilien2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Treatment wetlands been showed efficient for reducing pollutant in waste water. In Lajeado – RS, Brazil the landfill has poor leachate water treatment. It is necessary to supplement the treatment plant because they need to reduce BOD, COD and nitrate of the water going to recipient. A subsurface flow wetland (SSF) can be a good choice.  In order to be able to design an efficient SSF it is important to understand how the grain sizes of a substrate affect the reducing of pollutants in waste water. This study focus on two substrate, sand with grain size of 0 - 3 mm and gravel with the grain size of 10 - 20 mm. To see the grain size reduces BOD, COD and nitrate best, the experiment used eight pilot scales SSF for leachate water treatment, four filled with sand and four filled with gravel. Two different flows, four with batch and four used continuous flow; two of each was planted with Thypa angustifolia L. Samples were taken from each wetland every week during a four week period. The results showed that the wetlands with the fine- grained substrate; sand gave the better reduction of BOD, COD and TKN (total kjeldahl kväve). It also showed great reduction in color. Important to notice in this study is the lack of time; more samples are required to be able to establish a pattern.

  • 46.
    Eriksson, Linn
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Thomsen, Johanna
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Ekologisk dagvattenhantering på parkeringsytor: Lösningsförslag för Eurostop köpcentrum i Halmstad2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Stormwater from trafficked areas often contains high pollution levels. In traditional stormwater management design, stormwater is first transported away through piped networks, and then in most cases passes through oil separators before finally reaching the recipients. While this traditional method removes certain pollutants from the stormwater, it does not reduce the total flow, as in the case of ecological stormwater management. In the ecological method the stormwater is not simply transported away, but is recirculated through infiltration, percolation, and detention. The aim of this study is to investigate possible advantages of ecological management designs, in contrast to traditional management. The study also incorporates legal aspects of the stormwater issue, in particular how the Swedish national environmental quality goals Poison-free Environment and Adequate Habitational Environment can be successfully linked to stormwater management. A parking area located next to a shopping centre is used as an example in order to offer practical solutions for designing an ecological stormwater management system. This involves using adjacent green spaces for infiltration and to construct wet ponds to maintain flood control and separation of pollution; furthermore it is argued that ecological management can contribute to enhance the aesthetics of an area.

  • 47.
    Ersman, Sofia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Fritiofsson, Isabell
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    GIS-baserad metod för kartläggning av ekosystemtjänster i urban miljö: Validering av metod i Svärdfisken och Delfinen2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We depend on the ecosystem services that nature provides, such as water and air purification. In cities, ecosystem services are decreasing because of anthropogenic activities. To avoid a further reduction in ecosystem services, it is necessary to start mapping ecosystem services. The aim of this study is to develop a GIS-based mapping methodology for these services and to validate this methodology by applying it to two urban areas in Varberg, Sweden. The urban ecosystem services we selected to map in this study are habitats, biodiversity, food production, freshwater, noise reduction, climate regulation, air filtration, pollination, social interactions and health. This study includes a literature review, a field study and a GIS-based working process containing geographic data in ArcMap 10.5.1. Thirteen different policy options, which increase ecosystem services, are listed in the report. The developed five-step methodology include processing, mapping, visualization and analysis. The results show that being able to map urban ecosystem services is a prerequisite to incorporating ecosystem services into city planning. The developed method can also help to map and protect ecosystem services in cities when new urban areas are developed and to promote a sustainable development. 

  • 48. Fabris, Rebecca
    et al.
    Olausson, Therese
    En granskning av behovet att uppföra stationer med miljövänliga hundpåsar i Halmstad kommun: -          och hur ser kunskapsnivån ut kring hundfekalier2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 49.
    Fleischer, Siegfried
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Emissionen av koldioxid inom Vesanområdet2010In: Överkörd natur: Rolands Hav och Vesan / [ed] Sven Björk, Olofström: Vekerum , 2010, p. 562-563Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Fleischer, Siegfried
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Interaction between N and C in Soil has Consequences for Global Carbon Cycling2012In: Journal of Resources and Ecology, ISSN 1674-764X, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 16-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy—yielding processes in the N—cycle form important links with the global C—cycle. One example is demonstrated with the supply of nitrogen to soils, initially resulting in lowered CO2 emissions. This well known effect has mostly been interpreted as hampered or delayed soil respiration. When added in surplus, however, nitrogen supply does not stabilize the minimum emissions initially obtained, but gradually results in increased CO2 emissions. Specific inhibition of the CO2 consuming process nitrification in soils, with surplus ammonium supply or with acetylene, mostly results in additional CO2 emissions. The difference between this disclosed gross heterotrophic respiration (GHR) and the net CO2 emission (NHR) is the result of a within—soil CO2—sink. Soil respiration solely determined as CO2 emitted as NHR (the common situation) therefore may lead to misinterpretations of the function of the soil system, especially in areas with high N—deposition. As a consequence, the interpreted ‘acclimation’ of the soil respiration response in a warmer world should be reconsidered. The concept of respiration inhibition by nitrogen supply may also be questioned. Disregard of these processes, including the indicated N—driven within—soil CO2—sink, may prevent adequate measures counteracting climate change.

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