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  • 1.
    Devi, Chandni
    et al.
    Central University of Rajasthan, Ajmer, India.
    Gellanki, Jnaneswari
    Central University of Rajasthan, Ajmer, India.
    Pettersson, Håkan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Kumar, Sandeep
    Central University of Rajasthan, Ajmer, India.
    High sodium ionic conductivity in PEO/PVP solid polymer electrolytes with InAs nanowire fillers2021In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 20180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solid-state sodium ion batteries are frequently referred to as the most promising technology for next-generation energy storage applications. However, developing a suitable solid electrolyte with high ionic conductivity, excellent electrolyte–electrode interfaces, and a wide electrochemical stability window, remains a major challenge. Although solid-polymer electrolytes have attracted great interest due to their low cost, low density and very good processability, they generally have significantly lower ionic conductivity and poor mechanical strength. Here, we report on the development of a low-cost composite solid polymer electrolyte comprised of poly(ethylene oxide), poly(vinylpyrrolidone) and sodium hexafluorophosphate, mixed with indium arsenide nanowires. We show that the addition of 1.0% by weight of indium arsenide nanowires increases the sodium ion conductivity in the polymer to 1.50 × 10−4 Scm−1 at 40 °C. In order to explain this remarkable characteristic, we propose a new transport model in which sodium ions hop between close-spaced defect sites present on the surface of the nanowires, forming an effective complex conductive percolation network. Our work represents a significant advance in the development of novel solid polymer electrolytes with embedded engineered ultrafast 1D percolation networks for near-future generations of low-cost, high-performance batteries with excellent energy storage capabilities. © 2021, The Author(s).

  • 2.
    Nilsang, Suthasinee
    et al.
    Asian Institute of Technology, Klong Luang Pathumthani, Thailand; Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Nandakumar, Kutty Selva
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Galaev, Igor Yu
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Rakshit, Sudip Kumar
    Asian Institute of Technology, Klong Luang Pathumthani, Thailand.
    Holmdahl, Rikard
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Mattiasson, Bo
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Kumar, Ashok
    Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur, India.
    Monoclonal antibody production using a new supermacroporous cryogel bioreactor2007In: Biotechnology progress (Print), ISSN 8756-7938, E-ISSN 1520-6033, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 932-939Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A supermacroporous cryogel bioreactor has been developed to culture hybridoma cells for long-term continuous production of monoclonal antibodies (mAb). Hybridoma clone M2139, secreting antibodies against J1 epitope (GERGAAGIAGPK; amino acids, 551-564) of collagen type II, are immobilized in the porous bed matrix of a cryogel column (10 mL bed volume). The cells got attached to the matrix within 48 h after inoculation and grew as a confluent sheet inside the cryogel matrix. Cells were in the lag phase for 15 days and secreted mAb into the circulation medium. Glucose consumption and lactic acid production were also monitored, and during the exponential phase (approximately 20 days), the hybridoma cell line consumed 0.75 mM day-1 glucose, produced 2.48 mM day-1 lactic acid, and produced 6.5 microg mL-1 day-1 mAb during the exponential phase. The mAb concentration reached 130 microg mL-1 after continuous run of the cryogel column for 36 days. The yield of the mAb after purification was 67.5 mg L-1, which was three times greater than the mAb yield obtained from T-flask batch cultivation. Even after the exchange of medium reservoir, cells in the cryogel column were still active and had relatively stable mAb production for an extended period of time. The bioreactor was operated continuously for 55 days without any contamination. The results from ELISA as well as arthritis experiments demonstrate that the antibodies secreted by cells grown on the cryogel column did not differ from antibodies purified from the cells grown in commercial CL-1000 culture flasks. Thus, supermacroporous cryogels can be useful as a supporting material for productive hybridoma cell culture. Cells were found to be viable inside the porous matrix of the cryogel during the study period and secreted antibodies continuously. The antibodies thus obtained from the cryogel reactor were found to be functionally active in vivo, as demonstrated by their capacity to induce arthritis in mice. © 2007 American Chemical Society and American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  • 3.
    Shakya, A. K.
    et al.
    Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur, India; Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Holmdahl, R.
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nandakumar, Kutty Selva
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kumar, A.
    Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur, India.
    Characterization of chemically defined poly-N-isopropylacrylamide based copolymeric adjuvants2013In: Vaccine, ISSN 0264-410X, E-ISSN 1873-2518, Vol. 31, no 35, p. 3519-3527Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PNiPAAm is a thermo-responsive polymer with an adjuvant activity. To identify the minimal chemical structure present within PNiPAAm responsible for its adjuvant property, three different constituent polymers with specific functional groups were synthesized through free radical reaction and tested their adjuvant potential along with PNiPAAm. Among them, polymer with isopropyl attached to an amide showed maximal adjuvant activity in rodents followed by polymer with amide or ketone functional groups. However, secondary amine containing polymer did not show any adjuvant activity. In addition, to improve the adjuvant properties of PNiPAAm, we incorporated an affinity ligand, boronate. At first, we synthesized and characterized the dual responsive copolymers PNiPAAm-co-VPBA and PNiPAAm-co-VPBA-co-DMAEMA. Biocompatibility of these copolymers was confirmed both in vitro and in vivo. Mice injected with these copolymers mixed with collagen (CII) developed significant levels of anti-CII antibodies comprising of all the major IgG subclasses and an increased T cell activation. At the injection site, massive infiltration of immune cells was observed. However, only PNiPAAm-co-VPBA-co-DMAEMA-CII induced arthritis in mice after injection of 0.5M fructose confirming the importance of effective release of CII from the polymer for its adjuvant activity. Thus, a fine balance of hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity promotes adjuvant properties and continuous release of antigen, in this case CII, from polymer is essential for its adjuvant activity.

  • 4.
    Shakya, Akhilesh Kumar
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nandakumar, Kutty Selva
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stimuli responsive polymers as adjuvants and carriers for antigen delivery2013In: Responsive Materials and Methods: State-of-the-Art Stimuli-Responsive Materials and Their Applications / [ed] Ashutosh Tiwari; Hisatoshi Kobayashi, Wiley-Scrivener Publishing LLC , 2013, 1, p. 123-139Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stimuli responsive polymers are gaining importance in immunology not only as carriers for delivering antigens to target tissues but also as immunologically inert adjuvants. Delivery of antigens in the presence or absence of a specific stimulus like pH, temperature, ionic strength offers wide range of application possibilities to these smart polymers including vaccine formulations, implantation studies, targeted therapies and induction of autoimmunity. Other properties of polymers such as biocompatibility, biodegradability with different kinetics, non-toxicity, easy and defined chemical synthesis and, the ability to incorporate different types of antigens/immuno-stimulators make them promising candidates over other conventional materials for biomedical applications. Activation or suppression of antigen-specific immune responses and protection of antigens from in vivo degradation are some of the other advantages with these polymers. Changes in physical conformation of the polymers due to an environment stimulus provide an optimal release of an antigen. Varying the ratio of monomers and cross linkers in their synthesis controlled the release of antigens and degradation of polymers. In particulate form (as nano-sized) polymers can efficiently encapsulate desired amount of antigens, which can easily cross across several biological barriers. However, adjuvant and carrier properties of these smart polymers depend not only on their intrinsic properties such as chain length, molecular weight, charge and a balance between hydrophobic and hydrophilic functional moieties but also on extrinsic properties like format, shape and distribution of polymeric chains. In conclusion, further characterization of smart polymers could facilitate their direct application in humans.

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