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  • 1.
    Arvidsson, Susann
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Gilljam, Britt-Mari
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing. Region Halland, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Nygren, Jens
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Ruland, Cornelia Maria
    The Centre for Shared Decision Making and Collaborative Care Research (CSDM), Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway & University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Nordby-Bøe, Trude
    The Centre for Shared Decision Making and Collaborative Care Research (CSDM), Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
    Svedberg, Petra
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Redesign and Validation of Sisom, an Interactive Assessment and Communication Tool for Children With Cancer2016In: JMIR mhealth and uhealth, E-ISSN 2291-5222, Vol. 4, no 2, article id e76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Children with cancer undergo intensive and long treatment periods that expose them and their families to a number of difficult physical, mental, and social challenges. Empowering children by actively involving them in their care can help them to cope with these challenges. It can, however, be difficult for children to be involved and talk about their illness experiences in a "traditional" conversation with health care professionals, especially for younger children. Sisom (Norwegian acronym "Si det som det er" or "Tell it how it is") is an interactive computer-based assessment and communication tool to give children (aged 6-12 years) with cancer a "voice" in their care. Because of technological advances and widespread use of mobile devices Sisom had to be redesigned to better meet the needs of children of today.

    OBJECTIVE: To redesign Sisom for use on mobile devices and to validate and adapt it for use in a Swedish population of children with cancer.

    METHODS: A user-experience design was used. Content adaptation included forward-backward translation by Swedish and Norwegian translators. Healthy children (n=5), children with experiences of cancer treatment (n=5) and their parents (n=5), and pediatric nurses (n=2) were then involved in culturally adapting Sisom to the Swedish context. The iterative low- and high-fidelity evaluation was supported by a think aloud method, semistructured interviews, and drawings to capture children's views of Sisom. The redesign and evaluation continued until no further changes or improvements were identified by the participants or the researchers.

    RESULTS: Children, parents, and pediatric nurses offered many suggestions for improvements to the original version in terms of content, aesthetics, and usability of Sisom. The most significant change that emerged through user input was a modification that entailed not using problem-focused statements in the assessment items. The parents and pediatric nurses considered the revised assessment items to be general and less diagnosis specific. The evaluation of aesthetics resulted in brighter colors and more positive and exciting details in the animations. The evaluation of usability included improvements of the verbal instructions on how to navigate in Sisom 2, and also that the answers to assessmentitems in Sisom 2 should be saved to provide the children with the option to pause and to continue answering the remaining assessment items at a later stage.

    CONCLUSIONS: Overall, this paper describes the process of using user-experience design with children in order to redesign and validate an interactive assessment and communication tool and how the outcomes of this process resulted in a new version, Sisom 2. All participants confirmed the usability and qualities of using the final version. Future research should be directed toward the implementation of Sisom 2 in clinical practice and to evaluate outcomes from individual and organizational levels.

  • 2.
    Berg, Martin
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Man and Information technology laboratory (MI-lab).
    Smart jewellery: measuring the unknown2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-tracking devices and apps often measure and provide interpretations of personal data in a rather straightforward way, for instance by visualising the speed and distance of a run or the quality of sleep during a night. There is however a growing number of devices that take the data analysis further by providing insights and algorithmic advices about domains of our lives that are otherwise thought of as difficult to grasp. This paper explores two devices of this kind, namely the Moodmetric and the ŌURA which are two recently released smart rings with associated mobile apps that claim to measure emotions and rest, promote happiness and help users to perform better. Whereas several studies have shed light over how users engage with self-tracking apps and devices, little attention has been paid to how these technologies stem from dreams, hopes and imaginaries of designers and developers. This paper approaches self-tracking from a producer perspective in order to frame how users and their everyday lives are imagined by designers and how these assumptions are built into the technologies. Empirically, the paper is based on a content analysis of blog posts, marketing materials and user guides from the ŌURA and Moodmetric companies along with video interviews with company representatives as well as recordings of their public appearances. Engaging with the field of software studies as well as the emerging field of self-tracking studies, this paper aims at providing a basis for further design oriented studies of self-tracking.

  • 3.
    Bibri, Simon Elias
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    The human face of ambient intelligence: Cognitive, emotional, affective, behavioral and conversational aspects2015Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As a socially disruptive technology, Ambient Intelligence is ultimately directed towards humans and targeted at the mundane life made of an infinite richness of circumstances that cannot fully be considered and easily be anticipated. Most books, however, focus their analysis on, or deal largely with, the advancement of the technology and its potential only. This book offers a fresh, up-to-date, and holistic approach to Ambient Intelligence. As such, it addresses the interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary aspects of the rapidly evolving field of Ambient Intelligence by seamlessly integrating and fusing it with artificial intelligence, cognitive science and psychology, social sciences, and humanities. It is divided into two main parts: Part 1 is about different permutations of enabling technologies as well as core computational capabilities, namely context awareness, implicit and natural interaction, and intelligent behavior. It details the existing and upcoming prerequisite technologies, and elucidates the application and convergence of major current and future computing trends. Part 2 is an accessible review and synthesis of the latest research in the human-directed sciences and computing and how these are intricately interrelated in the realm of Ambient Intelligence. It deals with the state-of-the-art human-inspired applications which show human-like understanding and exhibit intelligent behavior in relation to a variety of aspects of human functioning - states and processes. It describes and elaborates on the rich potential of Ambient Intelligence from a variety of interrelated perspectives and the plethora of challenges and bottlenecks involved in making Ambient Intelligence a reality, and also discusses the established knowledge and recent discoveries in the human-directed sciences and their application and convergence in the ambit of Ambient Intelligence computing. This seminal reference work is the most comprehensive of its kind, and will prove invaluable to students, researchers, and professionals across both computing and the human-directed sciences. © 2015 Atlantis Press and the author(s).

  • 4.
    Brooks, Anthony
    et al.
    Aalborg University Esbjerg, Esbjerg, Denmark.
    Petersson, Eva
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Recursive reflection and learning in raw data video analysis of interactive ’play’ environments for special needs health care2005In: Proceedings of 7th International Workshop on Enterprise networking and Computing in Healthcare Industry, 2005. HEALTHCOM 2005. / [ed] Heung Kook Choi, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2005, p. 83-87, article id 1500399Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Technology influences the situation of people’s every day life and this, in turn, has an impact on opportunities for health related quality of life. This paper presents how findings from two separate and distinct feasibility investigations under the SoundScapes body of research corroborate an important aspect of the original methodology of the concept such as to have influenced its future design and application in its health field context. The primary purpose of the independent studies was to test the potential of utilizing sensor technology to empower control of multimedia feedback across different sample groups of abilities and to test the effects on these participants. © 2005 IEEE.

  • 5.
    Brooks, Eva
    et al.
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Sjöberg, Jeanette
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science, Centrum för lärande, kultur och samhälle (CLKS), Lärande, Profession och Samhällsutveckling.
    Evolving Playful and Creative Activities When School Children Develop Game-based Designs2018In: Interactivity, Game Creation, Design, Learning, and Innovation: 7th EAI International Conference, ArtsIT 2018, and 3rd EAI International Conference, DLI 2018, ICTCC 2018, Braga, Portugal, October 24–26, 2018, Proceedings / [ed] Anthony Brooks, Eva Books, Cristina Sylla, Heidelberg: Springer, 2018, p. 485-495Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of digital technologies in classroom settings is relentlessly getting stronger and has shown to have powerful playful qualities. In recent years, digital game-based learning (DGBL) have been introduced in schools. In this paper we investigate an innovative approach to game-based learning, namely to use game design activities as motivators for developing children’s creative and social skills as well as other kinds of learning scenarios, e.g. computational. It is based on two cases, where game design activities by means of a narrative approach were applied in both analogue and digital form. The unit of analysis is game design activities. Hence, game design activities with the participating children (3 rd graders, 9–10 years of age), creative materials and technologies, and children’s actions as well as interactions are analyzed. The research questions posed in this study are: (1) What activities develop when school children design games in two cases, as an analogue activity, and as an activity including technology?; and (2) How do the learning environment, including the artefacts, employed mediate these activities? The outcomes of the study indicate that the game design workshop session which included both creative material and technology unfolded more combinational activities, which indicate that the inclusion of technology facilitated a more critical design decision making. However, the game design workshop session including only creative material exhibited a more thorough knowledge about what the material could do and what the children themselves could do with the material, which seemed to result in more playful interactions between the children. © 2019, ICST Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering.

  • 6.
    Ebbesson, Esbjörn
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Man and Information technology laboratory (MI-lab).
    Ihlström Eriksson, Carina
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Man and Information technology laboratory (MI-lab).
    A User Driven Design Approach to Creating UGC Services – Challenging the Newspaper Industry2013In: Human Interface and the Management of Information Information and Interaction Design: 15th International Conference, HCI International 2013 Las Vegas, NV, USA, July 2013 Proceedings, Part I / [ed] Sakae Yamamoto, Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013, Vol. 8147, p. 187-196Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a user driven approach to creating user generated content services together with newspaper representatives and researchers in a Living Lab setting. Two cases are discussed, one with creating city district blogs and one with creating a site for un-employed youth. In each case both situated and distributed design activities were conducted, and the paper discusses the challenges with this approach. As the newspaper industry traditionally designs their services in-house from their own ideas and thereafter tests them with their readers, a user driven approach by readers was very challenging. However, the newspaper representatives also found it rewarding to embrace their ideas. The participating readers were very active in the situated activities but only a few continued the same activity online. The paper concludes by proposing a model for how to view the changing role of a researcher or facilitator in these types of setting. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  • 7.
    Flodin, Eva
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Interactive Design - The desire for autonomous upright mobility: A longitudinal case study2007In: Technology and Disability, ISSN 1055-4181, E-ISSN 1878-643X, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 213-224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When a child is born with a motor disability, making it difficult or impossible to acquire independent locomotion, a challenging task is to find assistive compensating technology. This study addresses the motor needs of a child, Hanna, with Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA II). She participated in the development of her assistive technology, with a focus on her independent locomotion and posture, during her infancy, childhood and early teens in a longitudinal and interactive design project. From the very beginning, she expressed a strong attraction to autonomous upright mobility, in contrast to the more common sitting posture in a wheelchair. She has used different versions of the resulting powered walking aid ever since. The upright independent locomotion it has afforded has been of major importance for her self-image, independence and physical development. © 2007 IOS Press. All rights reserved.

  • 8.
    Fors, Vaike
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science, Center for Social Analysis (CESAM).
    Berg, Martin
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science, Center for Social Analysis (CESAM).
    Pink, Sarah
    School of Media and Communication/Design Research Institute, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Capturing the Ordinary: Imagining the User in Designing Automatic Photographic Lifelogging Technologies2016In: Lifelogging: Digital self-tracking and Lifelogging - between disruptive technology and cultural transformation / [ed] Stefan Selke, Wiesbaden: Springer, 2016, p. 111-128Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter we discuss how automatic wearable cameras are imagined by their designers. Such technologies have most often been approached from a user perspective, which overlooks how developers invest their personal experiences and emotions into the technologies. Focusing on the Narrative clip - a camera that takes a photo every 30 seconds, we show how developers its developers have imagined this camera as a device that enables people to gain access to the assumed authenticity of a recordable world, that exists externally to the human wearing the device. As this example shows, when we account for developers’ visions and imaginations, particular stories emerge. Thus, we argue it is important to account for these and the agency they might have in the possibilities created by automated technologies. © Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden 2016

  • 9.
    Fors, Vaike
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Pink, Sarah
    Monash University, Clayton, Australia.
    Lindgren, Thomas
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    How do we learn to know a self-driving car?: A pedagogical design anthropology approach to human - technology interaction2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How will autonomous driving (AD) features change how people will relate to, and act in and with cars? To understand these and similar questions, research within human-computer interaction (HCI) is concerned with how people will react and interact with the autonomous driving features while driving a self-driving car, and how these features can be designed to be perceived as both easy to use and useful. In this paper we demonstrate how a pedagogical design anthropological approach can push this agenda further by introducing a way of understanding use of AD that accounts for how technologies become meaningful in the contexts of the mundane everyday life circumstances in which they are actually used. This approach entails understanding use of technology beyond the moment of human-technology interaction, as a process in which experiential ways of knowing take over from rational action, and meaning becomes generated through the ongoing use of technologies in everyday life processes. In the context user experience of AD, this translates into a focus on how people learn to use AD features, and to imagine possible experiences of AD in ways that are situated in the mundane routines of everyday life.

    We will draw on our ethnographic research into everyday life experiences and expectations of AD cars undertaken between 2016-18, to demonstrate how people need these technologies to become part of their everyday lives, and subsequently need to learn to use them in order to accomplish everyday goals.

  • 10.
    Hammarström, Sara
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Wikberg, Jonne
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Gamification - digital design för att motiveralärande.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Blended learning is becoming more common within university education and the majoritiesof courses today are connected to an online portal. To easily combine teaching in theclassroom with online learning different types of learning management systems (LMS) arebeing used. Even though teachers cannot always put their trust in the students’ intrinsicmotivation and enthusiasm for learning, it is possible to affect the intrinsic motivation withthe help of extrinsic factors. With gamification extrinsic factors are used to create a fun andengaging environment without affecting the credibility of the studies. Gamification meansthat components of game design are used outside the context of gaming. This can lead to anincrease in motivation for the students. To better understand different types of motivationSelf-determination theory (SDT) is used. Based on the gameplay elements identified inscholarly texts this thesis confirms or denies, and complements this with an empirical studybased on a gamified course at university level. The gameplay elements were analyzed withSDT to see how they affected the three intrinsic psychological needs. Based on this, threedesign patterns were created to support developers and administrators of LMS whenforming a gamified course.

  • 11.
    Holdaj Petersson, Kalle
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Thunberg, Martin
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Adaptiva talbaserade system i fordon: Designförslag för att främja user experience2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor thesis aims to build an understanding how user experience can be promoted in an adaptive speech-based system, which is found in the context of an automobile. Investigating this particular context and system is of importance since the primary task is to drive safely and let the driver focus on driving rather than system. An adaptive system provides the opportunity to make the interaction more effective and a speech-based system lets the driver focus on the traffic environment. By studying relevant theory and by carrying out user tests, with the technique Wizard of Oz, we have drafted design and dialogue recommendations. These recommendations can promote user experience and make the interaction of the system more effective and pleasant.

  • 12. Levall, Johanna
    Design av digitala lärplattformar för att stödja samhörighet2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Under en lång tid har det rapporterats att distansstudier har ett högt antal studenter som gör studieavhopp. Tidigare forskning har visat att en anledning till att studenter inte fullföljer sin distansutbildning kan vara en brist på social kontakt och därmed en känsla av isolering hos studenten. Ett sätt för lärosäten att minska antalet studieavhopp skulle kunna vara att skapa en känsla av samhörighet för studenten. Spelifiering innebär att spelelement används utanför spelkontexten för att engagera användaren. Social spelifiering kan ses som en undergrupp där spelelement används från sociala spel. Sociala spel bygger på social interaktion och innehåller spelelement där användarna kan interagera med varandra. Denna studie utfördes med en designorienterad forskningsansats där sociala spelelement implementerades i en prototyp för att se hur en känsla av samhörighet kan stödjas. Denna studie resulterade i fyra designförslag för hur digitala lärplattformar kan designas för att stödja en känsla av samhörighet.

  • 13.
    Lindberg, Susanne
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Man and Information technology laboratory (MI-lab).
    Gamification for Self-Directed Learning in Higher Education2019In: EDULEARN19 Proceedings, The International Academy of Technology, Education and Development, 2019, p. 1764-1773Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on how gamification was used to promote Self-Directed Learning (SDL) in a course at a Swedish university. SDL is a strategy to lifelong learning [1], and essential in today's fast-changing society. However, it is challenging to achieve in higher education due to an emphasis on extrinsic motivation, and a tradition of the teacher being in control. Gamification is the use of game elements in non-game contexts [2] and has been used in educational contexts to motivate and engage students. Based on six years experience of teaching a gamified course, this paper seeks to answer the question: How can gamification support Self-Directed Learning in higher education?

    Self-directed learners continue to learn after the formal education has ended, which is essential in most professions today. The concept was described by Garrison [1] as having three dimensions: self-management (control), self-monitoring (responsibility) and motivation. This paper focuses on SDL as one perspective on learning, exploring the possibility for using gamification to support SDL.

    The paper reports on the experiences from the past six years of teaching a gamified course for first-year interaction design undergraduate students. A total of 253 students have taken the course, which implements several game elements: points, levels, choice, boss, collaboration, player status, and feedback. The students' experiences have been evaluated in several ways: the university’s standard summative evaluation form, since 2015 also a summative oral evaluation, and during 2016 and 2017 oral evaluations were also performed halfway through the course. The experiences from teaching the course are analysed using the three dimensions of SDL.

    For example, self-management is supported by the use of choice and the transparency of the player status page. In this case, the students were able to strategically choose some of their assignments, based on their level of ambition, through the overview of their current points. Self-monitoring is for example supported by the transparency of the reward structure and frequent external feedback; in this case, the point system and associated profile page.

    Furthermore, the reward structure, levels, choice, bosses, and the overall novelty of the concept supported motivation. The challenge in SDL is to internalise extrinsic motivation [1], and in this case the overall strong grades of the students, and their continued motivation to participate in course activities show that this was at least partly successful. In this case, the challenge was how to balance the game elements in order to achieve SLD, yet still maintain the structure of formal education.

    We formulate four ways in which gamification can support SDL: feedback can support all three dimensions of SDL and is one of the essential game elements in higher education; game elements can be used to direct students towards critical thinking activities, and thus support self-monitoring; choice can be used to support self-management, but is the most difficult to design; and intrinsic motivation can be supported by using appropriate reward structures and frequent feedback. 

    References:

    [1] Garrison, D.R., Self-directed learning: Toward a comprehensive model. Adult education quarterly, 1997. 48(1): p. 18-33.

    [2] Deterding, S. et al. From game design elements to gamefulness: defining gamification. in Proceedings of the 15th international academic MindTrek conference: Envisioning future media environments. 2011.

  • 14.
    Lindberg, Susanne
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Man and Information technology laboratory (MI-lab).
    Participatory design workshops with children with cancer: lessons learned2013In: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Interaction Design and Children, New York, N.Y.: ACM Press, 2013, p. 332-335Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The design and development of information technology for use in health services presents a complex and sensitive situation. It includes not only managing differing interests and situations, but does so in a context that might give rise to negative emotions among the participating users. When the future users are children, this design process becomes even more complex. Participatory design is considered suitable for design with children. The premise for the participation of the children in this study was that they were, or had been treated for cancer. Therefore, their participation could awaken negative emotions, and make the situation difficult for them to handle. How participatory design with children can be conducted in such a sensitive context is therefore explored, grounded in the experience from six design workshops. The workshops evolved around the concept of comics as a way to allow the children to express themselves with familiar means. Three main lessons were learned from the workshops: working in pairs promotes an efficient work situation and the possibility to keep an eye on the children's wellbeing; proxies need to be distanced from the participating children; and the scenarios in the comics set the level of realism of the result. Copyright 2013 ACM.

  • 15.
    Lindberg, Susanne
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Man and Information technology laboratory (MI-lab).
    Schizophrenia and Design: The Expectation Gaps with a Vulnerable User Group2019In: interactions, ISSN 1072-5520, E-ISSN 1558-3449, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 70-73Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    In this forum we celebrate research that helps to successfully bring the benefits of computing technologies to children, older adults, people with disabilities, and other populations that are often ignored in the design of mass-marketed products. --- Juan Pablo Hourcade, Editor

  • 16.
    Lindberg, Susanne
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Man and Information technology laboratory (MI-lab).
    Wickedness in Design for People Diagnosed with Schizophrenia2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Information Systems, ISSN 0905-0167, E-ISSN 1901-0990, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 47-77, article id 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the digitisation of society, e-health technology increasingly supports new design situations that extend those traditional to Information Systems, and therefore need to be better understood. In design for complex, new and sensitive design situations, it is not possible to apply known methods and solutions without a deeper situational understanding. These design situations are fraught with wicked problems that are contradictory and complex. This paper intends to answer how the wickedness of the design situation when designing e-health technology for people diagnosed with schizophrenia can be understood and what consequences the design situation has for the design process. The paper presents a grounded theory analysis of stakeholder interviews and focus group interviews with people diagnosed with schizophrenia. Four wicked problems are identified: struggle of dependence, contradiction of social interaction, contradiction of trust and counteracting improvement behaviour. The problems are interrelated and have consequences for the design, acceptance, use and user involvement in design of e-health technology for people diagnosed with schizophrenia. The paper also shows the viability of using grounded theory for studying and describing situational wickedness. © Scandinavian Journal of Information Systems, 2018.

  • 17.
    Lindberg, Susanne
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Man and Information technology laboratory (MI-lab).
    Svedberg, Petra
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Bergquist, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Man and Information technology laboratory (MI-lab).
    Nygren, Jens M.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Evaluating Digital Peer Support for Children Cured from Cancer2017In: International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, ISSN 1044-7318, E-ISSN 1532-7590, Vol. 33, no 8, p. 664-676Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes a case study of the challenges that emerged from a formative evaluation process with the purpose of evaluating a digital peer support (DPS) service for children between 8 and 12 cured from cancer. The evaluation of DPS for children is particularly challenging. While the literature on evaluation with children is extensive, challenges such as risk assessment that become prevalent in the evaluation of DPS are not highlighted. This case study analyzes how the DPS service was evaluated over the course of two usability tests, a two-week diary study, a focus group interview, and a survey. Challenges relating to ethics, trust, risk assessment, and recruitment emerged during the evaluation process. We identify key strategies to handle these challenges: progression, proxies, and reflection. Performing a multistage evaluation process with progressing sensitivity allowed control of some of the complexities of the context in order to balance the degree of the children’s involvement with the degree of sensitivity. © 2017 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  • 18.
    Lindberg, Susanne
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Man and Information technology laboratory (MI-lab).
    Wärnestål, Pontus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Man and Information technology laboratory (MI-lab).
    Nygren, Jens
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Svedberg, Petra
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Designing digital peer support for children: design patterns for social interaction2014In: IDC '14 Proceedings of the 2014 conference on Interaction design and children, [S.l.]: ACM Press, 2014, p. 47-56Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Children who have survived a life-threatening disease like cancer benefit from social support from other children with a similar background. However, these children are often geographically dispersed and have little opportunity to meet. We investigate the design and development of Digital Peer Support Services (DPS), which may overcome this problem. Peer support is a kind of social support that brings together peers with similar experiences to help their adjustment to a disease. The aim of this paper is to develop design patterns for social interaction that can be implemented in a DPS for children surviving cancer. We conducted four sets of design workshops with children, from which emerged clusters relating to peer support and friendship that were broken down into triads. From these, six design patterns for social interaction were developed. The patterns delineate different aspects of social interaction for children and are illustrated with examples from DPS prototypes and concepts. The patterns are organized into a hierarchy, comprising the beginning of a design pattern language for social interaction for children. An essential aspect of the patterns is providing users with transparency and control of the extent to which their social interaction is public or private. Copyright © 2014 ACM.

  • 19.
    Mirza, Asif
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Arshad, Faique Bin
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Performance Analysis of Cyclostationary Sensing in Cognitive Radio Networks2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive radio is one of the modern techniques for wireless communication systems to utilize the unused spread spectrum effectively. This novel paradigm makes wireless communication possible with less interference. In our work we have investigated one of the functions of cogni- tive radio called spectrum sensing. We have specifically used the method of Cyclostationary fea- ture detection. Spectrum sensing is also a very effective method to detect spectrum holes and to utilize them. We have implemented spectrum sensing technique in these experiments. A signal is randomly generated which could be Binary shift phase keying (BPSK) or Quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK), then this modulated signal is passed through Additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN), The output signal of AWGN is then passed to cyclostationary detector, various func- tions are pre-implemented inside cyclostationary detector and this includes Fast Fourier trans- form (FFT), Auto correlation, Sliding window to identify that signal. Finally we have demon- strated the results of signal to noise ratio to show the performance evaluation of our experiments. The results have shown a decreasing trend in the probability of incorrect detection by increasing signal to noise ratio.

  • 20.
    Pettersson, Ingrid
    et al.
    Volvo Car Group, Gothenburg, Sweden & Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hylving, Lena
    RISE Viktoria, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The Drive for New Driving Interfaces: Transformational Change in the Era of Digitalization2017In: interactions, ISSN 1072-5520, E-ISSN 1558-3449, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 54-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of HMI development at Volvo Car Group show that making HMI visible and tangible, establishing areas for cross-organizational collaboration, and reinventing the organization and its processes have all enabled it to better respond to the challenges of digitalization. The team focused on two changes made in the development process over the past. First, new software simulation tools were rapidly introduced, shifting the nature of development. Second, a new HMI laboratory was implemented that enabled intensified early testing and joint discussions across the organization. To enable well-founded decisions during the development process, a range of new simulation and prototyping tools were introduced. With the tools came opportunities and a drive to experiment and explore during the development process . For an interface to be road-ready, developing and evaluating interfaces from a desk do not suffice. The need for a new HMI test facility, including a driving simulator, became apparent. With the new tools, iterative design processes and higher user involvement became further embedded in the organization. While these changes allowed for new ways of working and innovating, they also resulted in more engaged developers who enjoyed their work. Department named Digital User Experience (DUX) was created. It approached car development solely from an enduser perspective, with the ambition of bringing some balance to the technology-minded organization.

  • 21.
    Pettersson, Ingrid
    et al.
    Volvo Car Group, Gothenburg, Sweden & Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hylving, Lena
    Viktoria Swedish ICT, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rydström, Annie
    Volvo Car Group, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gkouskos, Dimitrios
    Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    The Drive for New Driving Interfaces: Researching a Driver Interface from Design Intent to End-User Experience2016In: NordiCHI'16: Game-Changing Design : proceedings of the 9th Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction : Gothenburg, Sweden, 23-27 October, 2016, New York, NY: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2016, article id 125Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the development and the end-user experience of a digital driver information module, with the aim to research the adoption of user experience practice in a large industry organization and the influence of the practice on the end-user experience. Eight developers from the automotive company were interviewed, as well as eight end-users. The module was the first all-digital driver information module for the company. A number of organizational and procedural changes were required to deliver a novel user experience, such as hiring new competences and employing new simulation and development tools. For the end-users, the experience of the digital user interface played a significant role in creating pleasure of use and emotional bonds to the car. The results highlight the benefits for large organizations to adopt to flexible user experience development practices, such as cross-organizational cooperation, iterative prototyping and rapid user testing. © 2016 ACM.

  • 22.
    Pettersson, Ingrid
    et al.
    Volvo Cars, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rydström, Annie
    Volvo Cars, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Strömberg, Helena
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hylving, Lena
    Viktoria Swedish ICT, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Andersson, Jonas
    Viktoria Swedish ICT, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Klingegård, Maria
    Viktoria Swedish ICT, Kista, Sweden.
    Karlsson, MariAnne
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Living Room on the Move: Autonomous Vehicles and Social Experiences2016In: NordiCHI'16: Game-Changing Design : proceedings of the 9th Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction : Gothenburg, Sweden, 23-27 October, 2016, New York, NY: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2016, article id 129Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing autonomous vehicles is technically complex and up to now research has focused on technical improvement and operative safety. As the level of automation increases the role of the driver will change; from controlling every movement of the vehicle into becoming an operator/passenger. Little is known about how this new context will affect the social experiences with and within the vehicle. This workshop focuses on three different kinds of social experience and socializing, namely; between other road users and the autonomous car, the social activities taking place within the autonomous car, and lastly the relationship between the car and the operator. The workshop aims at exploring possible practices, research and design directions of autonomous vehicles in relation to these social experiences. A human-centered design approach is the core of the workshop, with playful field excursions and ideation sessions. © 2016 ACM.

  • 23.
    Samara, Anas
    et al.
    School of Computing and Mathematics, Ulster University, Belfast, United Kingdom.
    Menezes, Maria Luiza Recena
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Galway, Leo
    School of Computing and Mathematics, Ulster University, Belfast, United Kingdom.
    Feature Extraction for Emotion Recognition and Modelling using Neurophysiological Data2016In: Proceedings - 2016 15th International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing and Communications and 2016 8th International Symposium on Cyberspace and Security, IUCC-CSS 2016 / [ed] GarciaBlas, J Carretero, J Ray, I Jin, Q Georgalas, N, New York: IEEE, 2016, p. 138-144, article id 7828594Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ubiquitous computing paradigm is becoming a reality; we are reaching a level of automation and computing in which people and devices interact seamlessly. However, one of the main challenges is the difficulty users have in interacting with these increasingly complex systems. Ultimately, endowing machines with the ability to perceive users' emotions will enable a more intuitive and reliable interaction. Consequently, using the electroencephalogram (EEG) as a bio-signal sensor, the affective state of a user can be modelled and subsequently utilised in order to achieve a system that can recognise and react to the users emotions. In this context, this paper investigates feature vector generation from EEG signals for the purpose of affective state modelling based on Russells Circumplex Model. Investigations are presented that aim to provide the foundation for future work in modelling user affect and interaction experiences through exploitation of different input modalities. The DEAP dataset was used within this work, along with a Support Vector Machine, which yielded reasonable classification accuracies for Valence and Arousal using feature vectors based on statistical measurements, band power from the α, β, δ and θ waves, and High Order Crossing of the EEG signal. © 2016 IEEE.

  • 24.
    Sjödén, Björn
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science, Centrum för lärande, kultur och samhälle (CLKS).
    What Are Good Examples Of Educational Software?2018In: INTED2018 Proceedings, Valencia: The International Academy of Technology, Education and Development, 2018, p. 7206-7210Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the background and discussion points to a poster presentation, which aims to highlight and scrutinize good examples of educational software. The exploration of this question – in the exact formulation "What are good examples of educational software?" – dates back to 2015, when the author posted it for open discussion on ResearchGate, a social network for researchers. At the time of writing, this question has more than 6.800 reads and received 27 responses containing lists, examples, links, recommendations and motivations for 40 (types of) named software, from professional researchers and educators in the field. An attendant aim is to bring these suggestions into an overview that can tell something more precise about what makes for "good" educational software, taking into account both the research literature and the respondents’ motivations. For this purpose, the examples were categorized by their main instructional function as suggested in previous literature, and further assessed by applying my recently introduced concept of Integral Digital Values (IDV). The result is a concretization of how we can recognize the implementation of relevant cognitive and pedagogical principles in well-designed educational software. Some identified aspects were how the software made use of meaningful representations, effective feedback, adaptivity and novel social configurations. More complex software systems were suggested as "good examples" with reference to their use of AI-techniques, conceptual modelling and/or learning analytics. These non-conclusive results serve to inform the on-going work of formulating scientifically grounded criteria for identifying and assessing key features of educational technologies, such as the reviewed software. In order to pursuing this discussion further, a number of resulting questions are suggested.

  • 25.
    Sjödén, Björn
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science, Centrum för lärande, kultur och samhälle (CLKS).
    Dimitrova, Vania
    University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.
    Mitrovic, Antonija
    University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.
    Using Thematic Analysis to Understand Students’ Learning of Soft Skills from Videos2018In: Proceedings of European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning, Cham: Springer, 2018, Vol. 11082, p. 656-659Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning from visual and social media makes a complex area of study and a vital part of understanding the development of 21st century skills. The Active Video Watching (AVW) platform was developed in order to scaffold students’ active learning of soft skills from videos, by encouraging users to engage with the content (e.g. marking important aspects and writing comments). Previous studies of AVW used learning analytics to identify student comments which can be used in “intelligent nudges” for triggering reflection among others who watch the same video. Here, we describe the methodology and reasoning for conducting a qualitative thematic analysis of such comments, with respect to learning presentation skills. Our aim is to uncover additional learning opportunities from the data and how they might be explained within a broader theoretical framework of observational learning. As a basis for discussion, we present a preliminary thematic map of the results and how students’ remarks on good/bad examples in the videos relate to the types of knowledge they gain from it. We suggest several resulting topics for future study. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

  • 26.
    Spinsante, Susanna
    et al.
    Universita’ Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy.
    Angelici, Alberto
    Universita’ Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy.
    Lundström, Jens
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Espinilla, Macarena
    University of Jaen, Jaen, Spain.
    Cleland, Ian
    University of Ulster, Newtownabbey, Ulster, United Kingdom.
    Nugent, Christopher
    University of Ulster, Newtownabbey, Ulster, United Kingdom.
    A Mobile Application for Easy Design and Testing of Algorithms to Monitor Physical Activity in the Workplace2016In: International Journal of Mobile Information Systems, ISSN 1574-017X, E-ISSN 1875-905X, article id 5126816Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses approaches to Human Activity Recognition (HAR) with the aim of monitoring the physical activity of people in the workplace, by means of a smartphone application exploiting the available on-board accelerometer sensor. In fact, HAR via a smartphone or wearable sensor can provide important information regarding the level of daily physical activity, especially in situations where a sedentary behavior usually occurs, like inmodern workplace environments. Increased sitting time is significantly associated with severe health diseases, and the workplace is an appropriate intervention setting, due to the sedentary behavior typical of modern jobs. Within this paper, the state-of-the-art components of HAR are analyzed, in order to identify and select the most effective signal filtering and windowing solutions for physical activity monitoring. The classifier development process is based upon three phases; a feature extraction phase, a feature selection phase, and a training phase. In the training phase, a publicly available dataset is used to test among different classifier types and learning methods. A user-friendly Android-based smartphone application with low computational requirements has been developed to run field tests, which allows to easily change the classifier under test, and to collect new datasets ready for use with machine learning APIs. The newly created datasets may include additional information, like the smartphone position, its orientation, and the user's physical characteristics. Using the mobile tool, a classifier based on a decision tree is finally set up and enriched with the introduction of some robustness improvements. The developed approach is capable of classifying six activities, and to distinguish between not active (sitting) and active states, with an accuracy near to 99%. The mobile tool, which is going to be further extended and enriched, will allow for rapid and easy benchmarking of new algorithms based on previously generated data, and on future collected datasets. © 2016 Susanna Spinsante et al.

  • 27.
    Tantai, Along
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Chen, Da
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Facial Gestures for Infotainment Systems2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The long term purpose of this project is to reduce the attention demand of drivers whenusing infotainment systems in a car setting. With the development of the car industry,a contradiction between safety issue and entertainment demands in cars has arisen.Speech-recognition-based controls meet their bottleneck in the presence of backgroundaudio (such as engine noise, other passengers speech and/or the infotainment systemitself). We propose a new method to control the infotainment system using computervision technology in this thesis. This project uses algorithms of object detection, opticalflow(estimated motion) and feature analysis to build a communication channel betweenhuman and machine. By tracking the driver’s head and measuring the optical flow overthe lip region, the driver’s mouth feature can be indicated. Performance concerning theefficiency and accuracy of the system is analyzed. The contribution of this thesis is toprovide a method using facial gestures to communicate with the system, and we focuson the movement of lips especially. This method offers a possibility to create a new modeof interaction between human and machine.

  • 28.
    Taubner, Helena
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    DYSLEXI, INTERNET OCH STIGMA: en netnografisk studie av nätbaserad kommunikation hos personer med dyslexi2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Titel (translated from Swedish): Dyslexia, the internet and stigma – a netnographic study of online communication in people with dyslexia

    Author: Helena Taubner

    Supervisor: Åsa Wengelin

    Examinator: Magnus Tideman

    Masters thesis (30 ECTS) in Disability Studies, University of Halmstad, Sweden, spring 2013

    The thesis is written in Swedish.

    Our communication continually changes, and the internet is an important factor in that development. New ways of making writing more efficient, for example the use of abbreviations and special symbols are emerging. We mix written language with photos, films, sound clips and links. Norms for what is considered to be the correct use of language are displaced. When our abilities do not match society’s expectations, stigmatization occurs. This is what happens to a person with dyslexia when the demands placed upon them for their reading and writing abilities become too high. What happens when the communication moves into the online environment? The following three issues are addressed:

    How do individuals with dyslexia communicate online?

    How do individuals with dyslexia relate to their online communication?

    How do individuals with dyslexia control their stigma when communicating online?

    The study is a two-part qualitative case study based upon semi-structured interviews and netnographic shadowing with two informants, Andreas and Linda. The results were analysed with reference to Goffman’s theory of stigma. In spite of the fact that Andreas has greater difficulties with reading and writing than Linda, he experiences less stigma in relation to communication, since he more consciously manages to control his stigma. A crucial factor for both informants is whether or not the online forum is synchronous or asynchronous (it is impossible for them to pass in synchronous forums). Hence, the study suggests that the degree of stigmatization does not necessarily correspond to the degree of difficulties with reading and writing.

  • 29.
    Tran, Thao
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Tkauc, Nathalie
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Face recognition and speech recognition for access control2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project is a collaboration with the company JayWay in Halmstad. In order to enter theoffice today, a tag-key is needed for the employees and a doorbell for the guests. If someonerings the doorbell, someone on the inside has to open the door manually which is consideredas a disturbance during work time. The purpose with the project is to minimize thedisturbances in the office. The goal with the project is to develop a system that uses facerecognition and speech-to-text to control the lock system for the entrance door.

    The components used for the project are two Raspberry Pi’s, a 7 inch LCD-touch display, aRaspberry Pi Camera Module V2, a external sound card, a microphone and speaker. Thewhole project was written in Python and the platform used was Amazon Web Services (AWS)for storage and the face recognition while speech-to-text was provided by Google.The system is divided in three functions for employees, guests and deliveries. The employeefunction has two authentication steps, the face recognition and a random generated code that

    needs to be confirmed to avoid biometric spoofing. The guest function includes the speech-to-text service to state an employee's name that the guest wants to meet and the employee is then

    notified. The delivery function informs the specific persons in the office that are responsiblefor the deliveries by sending a notification.The test proves that the system will always match with the right person when using the facerecognition. It also shows what the threshold for the face recognition can be set to, to makesure that only authorized people enters the office.Using the two steps authentication, the face recognition and the code makes the system secureand protects the system against spoofing. One downside is that it is an extra step that takestime. The speech-to-text is set to swedish and works quite well for swedish-speaking persons.However, for a multicultural company it can be hard to use the speech-to-text service. It canalso be hard for the service to listen and translate if there is a lot of background noise or ifseveral people speak at the same time.

  • 30.
    Tärning, Betty
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Sjödén, Björn
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science, Centrum för lärande, kultur och samhälle (CLKS).
    Gulz, Agneta
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Haake, Magnus
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Young Children’s Experience and Preference of Feedback: Sense and Sensibility2018In: IxD&A: Interaction Design and Architecture(s), ISSN 1826-9745, E-ISSN 2283-2998, no 37, p. 206-230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explored the effects of adding visual continuous feedback in the form of feedback bars to a teachable-agent based learning game in mathematics. Forty-five (45) children, 8- to 12-years-old, from three Swedish school classes used the game during four math lessons. The focus was on how feedback to the students regarding their teachable agents learning progression – and different detailedness of such feedback – affects how the students (in a teacher role) experience the learning game. The results suggest that students were positive towards receiving immediate and continuous feedback, but their preferences with respect to the detailedness of the feedback differed according to their age. We found a divergence as to the preferred number of bars, where the 3rd and 5th graders preferred 1 or 3 bars but where the 2nd graders preferred the more detailed version (6 bars) despite their lack of understanding of what the different bars represented.

  • 31.
    Verikas, Antanas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Intelligent systems (IS-lab).
    Gelzinis, Adas
    Department of Electrical & Control Equipment, Kaunas University of Technology, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Bacauskiene, Marija
    Department of Electrical & Control Equipment, Kaunas University of Technology, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Mining data with random forests: A survey and results of new tests2011In: Pattern Recognition, ISSN 0031-3203, E-ISSN 1873-5142, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 330-349Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Random forests (RF) has become a popular technique for classification, prediction, studying variable importance, variable selection, and outlier detection. There are numerous application examples of RF in a variety of fields. Several large scale comparisons including RF have been performed. There are numerous articles, where variable importance evaluations based on the variable importance measures available from RF are used for data exploration and understanding. Apart from the literature survey in RF area, this paper also presents results of new tests regarding variable rankings based on RF variable importance measures. We studied experimentally the consistency and generality of such rankings. Results of the studies indicate that there is no evidence supporting the belief in generality of such rankings. A high variance of variable importance evaluations was observed in the case of small number of trees and small data sets.

  • 32.
    Verikas, Antanas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Gelzinis, Adas
    Kaunas University of Technology.
    Kovalenko, Marina
    Kaunas University of Technology.
    Bacauskiene, Marija
    Kaunas University of Technology.
    Selecting features from multiple feature sets for SVM committee-based screening of human larynx2010In: Expert systems with applications, ISSN 0957-4174, E-ISSN 1873-6793, Vol. 37, no 10, p. 6957-6962Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is concerned with a two stage procedure for designing a sequential SVM committee and selecting features for the committee from multiple feature sets. It is assumed that features of one type comprise one feature set. Selection of both features and hyper-parameters of SVM classifiers comprising the committee is integrated into one learning process based on genetic search. The designing process focuses on feature selection for pair-wise classification implemented by the SVM. In the first stage, a series of pair-wise SVM are designed starting from the original feature sets as well as from sets created by simple random selection from the original ones. Outputs of the SVM are then converted into probabilities and used as inputs to the second stage SVM. When testing the technique in a three-class classification problem of voice data, a statistically significant improvement in classification accuracy was obtained if compared to parallel committees. The number of feature types and features selected for the pair-wise classification are class specific.

  • 33.
    Weman Josefsson, Karin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Halila, Fawzi
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Lindwall, Magnus
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wickström, Nicholas
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Wärnestål, Pontus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Man and Information technology laboratory (MI-lab).
    Digital innovations and self-determined exercise motivation: a person-centred perspective2014In: Vitalis – Nordens ledande eHälsomöte 2014: Vetenskapliga papers presenterade vid Vitalis konferens, Svenska Mässan, Göteborg, 8-10 april 2014, Göteborg: Vitalis & Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet , 2014, p. 22-25Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Health care costs are increasing twice as fast as wealth, making health promotion and development of cost-effective care increasingly important in order to generate sustainable health care solutions. E-health, applications and interactive tools for exercise promotion flourish; but despite this and an overflow of information regarding health benefits of regular physical activity, exercise adherence has proven to be a significant challenge. This article concerns a project aimed to design an interactive tool based on comprehensive knowledge from the field of psychology combined with expertise from information technology and innovation, based on e-health industrial requirements and user needs. The research group will, together with the expertise and infrastructure of the collaborating companies Health Profile Institute AB and Tappa Service AB, support and progress an existing PhD-project on digital interventions in exercise motivation. This will be done by designing; applying and evaluating a person-centred digital intervention prototype for exercise motivation and adherence enhancement based on Self-Determination Theory.

  • 34.
    Wärnestål, Pontus
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Dialogue Behavior Management in Conversational Recommender Systems2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines recommendation dialogue, in the context of dialogue strategy design for conversational recommender systems. The purpose of a recommender system is to produce personalized recommendations of potentially useful items from a large space of possible options. In a conversational recommender system, this task is approached by utilizing natural language recommendation dialogue for detecting user preferences, as well as for providing recommendations. The fundamental idea of a conversational recommender system is that it relies on dialogue sessions to detect, continuously update, and utilize the user's preferences in order to predict potential interest in domain items modeled in a system. Designing the dialogue strategy management is thus one of the most important tasks for such systems.

    Based on empirical studies as well as design and implementation of conversational recommender systems, a behavior-based dialogue model called bcorn is presented. bcorn is based on three constructs, which are presented in the thesis. It utilizes a user preference modeling framework (preflets) that supports and utilizes natural language dialogue, and allows for descriptive, comparative, and superlative preference statements, in various situations. Another component of bcorn is its message-passing formalism, pcql, which is a notation used when describing preferential and factual statements and requests. bcorn is designed to be a generic recommendation dialogue strategy with conventional, information-providing, and recommendation capabilities, that each describes a natural chunk of a recommender agent's dialogue strategy, modeled in dialogue behavior diagrams that are run in parallel to give rise to coherent, flexible, and effective dialogue in conversational recommender systems.

    Three empirical studies have been carried out in order to explore the problem space of recommendation dialogue, and to verify the solutions put forward in this work. Study I is a corpus study in the domain of movie recommendations. The result of the study is a characterization of recommendation dialogue, and forms a base for a first prototype implementation of a human-computer recommendation dialogue control strategy. Study II is an end-user evaluation of the acorn system that implements the dialogue control strategy and results in a verification of the effectiveness and usability of the dialogue strategy. There are also implications that influence the refinement of the model that are used in the bcorn dialogue strategy model. Study III is an overhearer evaluation of a functional conversational recommender system called CoreSong, which implements the bcorn model. The result of the study is indicative of the soundness of the behavior-based approach to conversational recommender system design, as well as the informativeness, naturalness, and coherence of the individual bcorn dialogue behaviors.

  • 35.
    Wärnestål, Pontus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Man and Information technology laboratory (MI-lab).
    Studio Course Progression in Digital Design Education2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines how to leverage the design studio learning environment throughout long-term education in order to support students to progress from tactical, well-defined, device-centric routine design, to confidently design sustainable solutions for strategic, “wicked”, and device-agnostic problems. We present a model that describes design challenge progressions in the design studio environment based on six dimensions derived from literature on design, creativity, and theories on learning. This contribution can be used as a tool for designing course progressions within – and between – series of design studio courses, and is exemplified with a four-step studio progression in a three-year undergraduate design-oriented informatics program.

  • 36.
    Wärnestål, Pontus
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Degerstedt, Lars
    Department of Computer Science, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Arne
    Department of Computer Science, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Emergent Conversational Recommendations: A Dialogue Behavior Approach2007In: Proceedings of the 8th SIGdial Workshop on Discourse and Dialogue / [ed] Simon Keizer, Harry Bunt, Tim Paek, East Stroudsburg, USA: Association for Computational Linguistics, 2007, p. 63-66Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents and evaluates a behavior-based approach to dialogue management, where a system's complete dialogue strategy is viewed as the result of running several dialogue behaviors in parallel leading to an emergent coherent and flexible dialogue behavior. The conducted overhearer evaluation of the behavior-based conversational recommender system CORESONG indicates that the approach can give rise to informative and coherent dialogue; and that a complete dialogue strategy can be modeled as an emergent phenomenon in terms of lower-level autonomous behaviors for the studied class of recommendation dialogue interaction. © 2007 Association for Computational Linguistics.

  • 37.
    Wärnestål, Pontus
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science Linköping University, Sweden.
    Degerstedt, Lars
    Department of Computer Science Linköping University, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Arne
    Department of Computer Science Linköping University, Sweden.
    Interview and delivery: Dialogue strategies for conversational recommender systems2007In: Proceedings of the 16th Nordic Conference of Computational Linguistics NODALIDA 2007 / [ed] Joakim Nivre, Heiki-Jaan Kaalep, Kadri Muischnek, Mare Koit, Tartu, Estonia: University of Tartu, 2007, p. 199-205Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In our work with conversational recommender systems we have derived two dialogue strategiescalled interview and delivery. We explorethe symmetry between preferential interview andtraditional clarification questions, and arrive atbasic interview and delivery strategies suitablefor conversational recommender system implementations.The strategies are based on a corpusanalysis of recommendation dialogues inthe movie domain. We illustrate the strategiesin a conversational music recommender systemcalled CORESONG.

  • 38.
    Wärnestål, Pontus
    et al.
    Department of Computer and Information Science Linköping University, Sweden.
    Degerstedt, Lars
    Department of Computer and Information Science Linköping University, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Arne
    Department of Computer and Information Science Linköping University, Sweden.
    PCQL: A Formalism for Human-Like Preference Dialogues2007In: IJCAI 07: 5th IJCAI Workshop on Knowledge and Reasoning in Practical Dialogue Systems: Workshop Proceedings, 2007, p. 46-54Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Preference dialogues display several interestin gcharacteristics that have implications on how to design human-like dialogue strategies in conversational recommender systems. Using human-human preference dialogues as an empirical base, this paper introduces a novel data manipulation language calledPCQLthat comprises explicit descriptive, comparative and superlative preference management as well as implicit preference statements such as factual information queries. The usage of the PCQL language is demonstrated by an implementation of a music conversational recommender system.

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