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  • 1.
    Abdulrazzaq, Mohammed
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi.
    Wei, Yuan
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi.
    Industrial Control System (ICS) Network Asset Identification and Risk Management2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Setting against the significant background of Industrial 4.0, the Industrial Control System (ICS) accelerates and enriches the upgrade the existing production infrastructure. To make the infrastructures “smart”, huge parts of manual operations have been automated in this upgrade and more importantly, the isolated controlled processes have been connected through ICS. This has also raised the issues in asset management and security concerns. Being the starting point of securing the ICS, the asset identification is, nevertheless, first dealt by exploring the definition of assets in the ICS domain due to insufficient documentation and followed by the introduction of ICS constituents and their statuses in the whole network. When the definition is clear, a well-received categorization of assets in the ICS domain is introduced, while mapping out their important attributes and their significance relating the core of service they perform. To effectively tackle the ever-increasing amount of assets, identification approaches are compared and a case study was performed to test the effectiveness of two open source software. Apart from the identification part, this thesis describes a framework for efficient asset management from CRR. The four cyclic modules proposed give an overview on how the asset management should be managed according the dynamics of the assets in the production environment.

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  • 2.
    Abiri, Najmeh
    et al.
    Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Linse, Björn
    Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Edén, Patrik
    Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Ohlsson, Mattias
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR Centrum för tillämpade intelligenta system (IS-lab). Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Establishing strong imputation performance of a denoising autoencoder in a wide range of missing data problems2019Ingår i: Neurocomputing, ISSN 0925-2312, E-ISSN 1872-8286, Vol. 65, s. 137-146Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Dealing with missing data in data analysis is inevitable. Although powerful imputation methods that address this problem exist, there is still much room for improvement. In this study, we examined single imputation based on deep autoencoders, motivated by the apparent success of deep learning to efficiently extract useful dataset features. We have developed a consistent framework for both training and imputation. Moreover, we benchmarked the results against state-of-the-art imputation methods on different data sizes and characteristics. The work was not limited to the one-type variable dataset; we also imputed missing data with multi-type variables, e.g., a combination of binary, categorical, and continuous attributes. To evaluate the imputation methods, we randomly corrupted the complete data, with varying degrees of corruption, and then compared the imputed and original values. In all experiments, the developed autoencoder obtained the smallest error for all ranges of initial data corruption. © 2019 Elsevier B.V.

  • 3.
    Aceto, L.
    et al.
    School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Iceland.
    Birgisson, A.
    Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ingolfsdottir, A.
    School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Iceland.
    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza
    Department of Computer Science, TU/Eindhoven, Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Decompositional Reasoning about the History of Parallel Processes2011Ingår i: Fundamentals of software engineering: revised selected papers, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2011, Vol. 4171, s. 32-47Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a decomposition technique for Hennessy-Milner logic with past and its extension with recursively defined formulae. In order to highlight the main ideas and technical tools, processes are described using a subset of CCS with parallel composition, nondeterministic choice, action prefixing and the inaction constant. The study focuses on developing decompositional reasoning techniques for parallel contexts in that language. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  • 4.
    Aceto, L.
    et al.
    School of Computer Science, Reykjavík University, Kringlan 1, 103 Reykjavík, Iceland.
    Fokkink, W. J.
    Department of Computer Science, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, 1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Ingólfsdóttir, A.
    School of Computer Science, Reykjavík University, Kringlan 1, 103 Reykjavík, Iceland.
    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza
    Department of Computer Science, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Lifting non-finite axiomatizability results to extensions of process algebras2010Ingår i: Acta Informatica, ISSN 0001-5903, E-ISSN 1432-0525, Vol. 47, nr 3, s. 147-177Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a general technique for obtaining new results pertaining to the non-finite axiomatizability of behavioural (pre)congruences over process algebras from old ones. The proposed technique is based on a variation on the classic idea of reduction mappings. In this setting, such reductions are translations between languages that preserve sound (in)equations and (in)equational provability over the source language, and reflect families of (in)equations responsible for the non-finite axiomatizability of the target language. The proposed technique is applied to obtain a number of new non-finite axiomatizability theorems in process algebra via reduction to Moller's celebrated non-finite axiomatizability result for CCS. The limitations of the reduction technique are also studied. In particular, it is shown that prebisimilarity is not finitely based over CCS with the divergent process Ω, but that this result cannot be proved by a reduction to the non-finite axiomatizability of CCS modulo bisimilarity. This negative result is the inspiration for the development of a sharpened reduction method that is powerful enough to show that prebisimilarity is not finitely based over CCS with the divergent process Ω. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  • 5.
    Aceto, Luca
    et al.
    ICE-TCS, School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Menntavegur 1, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Birgisson, Arnar
    Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ingolfsdottir, Anna
    ICE-TCS, School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Menntavegur 1, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza
    Department of Computer Science, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, NL-5600 MB Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Reniers, Michel A.
    Department of Computer Science, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, NL-5600 MB Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Rule Formats for Determinism and Idempotence2012Ingår i: Science of Computer Programming, ISSN 0167-6423, E-ISSN 1872-7964, Vol. 77, s. 889-907Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Determinism is a semantic property of (a fragment of) a language that specifies that a program cannot evolve operationally in several different ways. Idempotence is a property of binary composition operators requiring that the composition of two identical specifications or programs will result in a piece of specification or program that is equivalent to the original components. In this paper, we propose (related) meta-theorems for guaranteeing the determinism and idempotence of binary operators. These meta-theorems are formulated in terms of syntactic templates for operational semantics, called rule formats. In order to obtain a powerful rule format for idempotence, we make use of the determinism of certain transition relations in the definition of the format for idempotence. We show the applicability of our formats by applying them to various operational semantics from the literature. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 6.
    Aceto, Luca
    et al.
    School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Iceland.
    Birgisson, Arnar
    School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Iceland & Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ingólfsdóttir, Anna
    School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Iceland.
    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza
    Department of Computer Science, TU/Eindhoven, Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Decompositional Reasoning about the History of Parallel Processes2010Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Decompositional reasoning aims at automatically decomposing a global property of a composite system into local properties of (possibly unknown) components. In concurrency theory, decompositional reasoning techniques date back to the seminal work of Larsen and Liu in the late 1980s and early 1990s. However, we are not aware of any such decomposition technique that applies to reasoning about the "past". In this paper, we address this problem and present a decomposition technique for Hennessy-Milner logic with past and its extension with recursively defined formulae. As a language for processes, we use a subset of Milner's CCS with parallel composition, non-deterministic choice, action prefixing and the inaction constant. We focus on developing decompositional reasoning techniques for parallel contexts in that language.

  • 7.
    Aceto, Luca
    et al.
    ICE-TCS, School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Menntavegur 1, IS 101 Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Cimini, Matteo
    ICE-TCS, School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Menntavegur 1, IS 101 Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Ingolfsdottir, Anna
    ICE-TCS, School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Menntavegur 1, IS 101 Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza
    Department of Computer Science, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, NL-5600 MB Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Reniers, Michel A.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, NL-5600 MB Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Rule Formats for Distributivity2012Ingår i: Theoretical Computer Science, ISSN 0304-3975, E-ISSN 1879-2294, Vol. 458, s. 1-28Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes rule formats for Structural Operational Semantics guaranteeing that certain binary operators are left distributive with respect to a set of binary operators. Examples of left-distributivity laws from the literature are shown to be instances of the provided formats. Some conditions ensuring the invalidity of the left-distributivity law are also offered. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 8.
    Aceto, Luca
    et al.
    ICE-TCS, School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Menntavegur 1, IS 101 Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Cimini, Matteo
    ICE-TCS, School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Menntavegur 1, IS 101 Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Ingolfsdottir, Anna
    ICE-TCS, School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Menntavegur 1, IS 101 Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza
    Department of Computer Science, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, NL-5600 MB Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Reniers, Michel A.
    Department of Computer Science, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, NL-5600 MB Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    SOS Rule Formats for Zero and Unit Elements2011Ingår i: Theoretical Computer Science, ISSN 0304-3975, E-ISSN 1879-2294, Vol. 412, nr 28, s. 3045-3071Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes rule formats for Structural Operational Semantics guaranteeing that certain constants act as left or right unit/zero elements for a set of binary operators. Examples of left and right zero, as well as unit, elements from the literature are shown to fit the rule formats offered in this study. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 9.
    Aceto, Luca
    et al.
    ICE-TCS, School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Cimini, Matteo
    ICE-TCS, School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Ingólfsdóttir, Anna
    ICE-TCS, School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza
    Department of Computer Science, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Reniers, Michael A.
    Department of Computer Science, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    On Rule Formats for Zero and Unit Elements2010Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a rule format for Structural Operational Semantics guaranteeing that certain constants act as left or right zero elements for a set of binary operators. Our design approach is also applied to reformulate an earlier rule format for unit elements developed by some of the authors. Examples of left and right zero, as well as unit, elements from the literature are shown to be checkable using the provided formats.

  • 10.
    Aceto, Luca
    et al.
    ICE-TCS, School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Cimini, Matteo
    ICE-TCS, School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Ingólfsdóttir, Anna
    ICE-TCS, School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza
    Department of Computer Science, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Reniers, Michael A.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Rule Formats for Distributivity2010Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes rule formats for Structural Operational Semantics guaranteeing that certain binary operators are left distributive with respect to a set of binary operators. Examples of left-distributivity laws from the literature are shown to be instances of the provided formats.

  • 11.
    Aceto, Luca
    et al.
    School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Iceland.
    Cimini, Matteo
    School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Iceland.
    Ingólfsdóttir, Anna
    School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Iceland.
    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza
    Department of Computer Science, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, NL-5600 MB Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Reniers, Michel A.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, NL-5600 MB Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Rule Formats for Distributivity2011Ingår i: Language and Automata Theory and Applications: 5th International Conference : Proceedings / [ed] Adrian Horia Dediu, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2011, Vol. 6638, s. 79-90Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes rule formats for Structural Operational Semantics guaranteeing that certain binary operators are left distributive with respect to a set of binary operators. Examples of left-distributivity laws from the literature are shown to be instances of the provided formats. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  • 12.
    Aceto, Luca
    et al.
    Reykjavík University, Kringlan 1, IS-103, Reykjavík, Iceland.
    Fokkink, Wan
    Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, NL-1081HV, The Netherlands.
    Ingólfsdóttir, Anna
    Reykjavík University, Kringlan 1, IS-103, Reykjavík, Iceland.
    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza
    Eindhoven University of Technology, NL-5600MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Lifting non-finite axiomatizability results to extensions of process algebras2008Ingår i: Fifth Ifip International Conference On Theoretical Computer Science – Tcs 2008 / [ed] Ausiello, G, Karhumaki, J, Mauri, G, Ong, L, New York: Springer-Verlag New York, 2008, Vol. 273, s. 301-316Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a general technique for obtaining new results pertaining to the non-finite axiomatizability of behavioral semantics over process algebras from old ones. The proposed technique is based on a variation on the classic idea of reduction mappings. In this setting, such reductions are translations between languages that preserve sound (in)equations and (in)equational proofs over the source language, and reflect families of (in)equations responsible for the non-finite axiomatizability of the target language. The proposed technique is applied to obtain a number of new non-finite axiomatizability theorems in process algebra via reduction to Moller’s celebrated non-finite axiomatizability result for CCS. The limitations of the reduction technique are also studied.

  • 13.
    Aceto, Luca
    et al.
    ICE-TCS, School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Fokkink, Wan J.
    Department of Computer Science, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Ingólfsdóttir, Anna
    ICE-TCS, School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza
    Department of Computer Science, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Lifting non-finite axiomatizability results to extensions of process algebras2008Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 14.
    Aceto, Luca
    et al.
    ICE-TCS, School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Goriac, Eugen-Ioan
    ICE-TCS, School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Ingolfsdottir, Anna
    ICE-TCS, School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för Informationsvetenskap, Data– och Elektroteknik (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centrum för forskning om inbyggda system (CERES).
    Reniers, Michel A.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Exploiting Algebraic Laws to Improve Mechanized Axiomatizations2013Ingår i: Algebra and Coalgebra in Computer Science: 5th International Conference, Calco 2013, Warsaw, Poland, September 2013, Proceedings, Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013, s. 36-50Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the field of structural operational semantics (SOS), there have been several proposals both for syntactic rule formats guaranteeing the validity of algebraic laws, and for algorithms for automatically generating ground-complete axiomatizations. However, there has been no synergy between these two types of results. This paper takes the first steps in marrying these two areas of research in the meta-theory of SOS and shows that taking algebraic laws into account in the mechanical generation of axiomatizations results in simpler axiomatizations. The proposed theory is applied to a paradigmatic example from the literature, showing that, in this case, the generated axiomatization coincides with a classic hand-crafted one. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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  • 15.
    Aceto, Luca
    et al.
    School of Computer Science, Reykjavík University, Kringlan 1, 103 Reykjavík, Iceland.
    Ingólfsdóttir, A.
    School of Computer Science, Reykjavík University, Kringlan 1, 103 Reykjavík, Iceland.
    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza
    Department of Computer Science, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Reniers, M. A.
    Algebraic properties for free!2009Ingår i: Bulletin of the European Association for Theoretical Computer Science, ISSN 0252-9742, Vol. 99, s. 81-103Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Algebraic properties specify some natural properties of programming and specification constructs. This paper provides an overview of techniques to guarantee or generate algebraic properties of language constructs by investigating the syntactic shape of the deduction rules defining their operational semantics.

  • 16.
    Aceto, Luca
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science, Reykjavík University, Kringlan 1, IS-103, Reykjavík, Iceland.
    Ingólfsdóttir, Anna
    Department of Computer Science, Reykjavík University, Kringlan 1, IS-103, Reykjavík, Iceland.
    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza
    Department of Computer Science, Reykjavík University, Kringlan 1, IS-103, Reykjavík, Iceland.
    Impossibility results for the equational theory of timed CCS2007Ingår i: Algebra and Coalgebra in Computer Science: Second International Conference, CALCO 2007, Bergen, Norway, August 20-24, 2007. Proceedings, Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2007, Vol. 4624, s. 80-95Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the equational theory of Timed CCS as proposed by Wang Yi in CONCUR'90. Common to Wang Yi's paper, we particularly focus on a class of linearly-ordered time domains exemplified by the positive real or rational numbers. We show that, even when the set of basic actions is a singleton, there are parallel Timed CCS processes that do not have any sequential equivalent and thus improve on the Gap Theorem for Timed CCS presented by Godskesen and Larsen in FSTTCS'92. Furthermore, we show that timed bisimilarity is not finitely based both for single-sorted and two-sorted presentations of Timed CCS. We further strengthen this result by showing that, unlike in some other process algebras, adding the untimed or the timed left-merge operator to the syntax and semantics of Timed CCS does not solve the axiomatizability problem.

  • 17.
    Aceto, Luca
    et al.
    ICE-TCS, School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Ingólfsdóttir, Anna
    ICE-TCS, School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza
    Department of Computer Science, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Reniers, Michel A.
    Department of Computer Science, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    A Rule Format for Unit Elements2009Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper offers a meta-theorem for languages with a Structural Operational Semantics (SOS) in the style of Plotkin. Namely, it proposes a generic rule format for SOS guaranteeing that certain constants act as left- or right-unit elements for a set of binary operators. We show the generality of our format by applying it to a wide range of operators from the literature on process calculi.

  • 18.
    Aceto, Luca
    et al.
    ICE-TCS, School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University Kringlan 1, IS-103 Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Ingólfsdóttir, Anna
    ICE-TCS, School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University Kringlan 1, IS-103 Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza
    Department of Computer Science, Eindhoven University of Technology P.O. Box 513, NL-5600 MB Ei ndhoven, The Netherlands.
    Reniers, Michel A.
    Department of Computer Science, Eindhoven University of Technology P.O. Box 513, NL-5600 MB Ei ndhoven, The Netherlands.
    A rule format for unit elements2010Ingår i: SOFSEM 2010: Theory and Practice of Computer Science: Proceedings / [ed] VanLeeuwen, J, Muscholl, A, Peleg, D, Pokorny, J, Rumpe, B, Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2010, Vol. 5901, s. 141-152Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper offers a meta-theorem for languages with a Structural Operational Semantics (SOS) in the style of Plotkin. Namely, it proposes a generic rule format for SOS guaranteeing that certain constants act as left- or right-unit elements for a set of binary operators. We show the generality of our format by applying it to a wide range of operators from the literature on process calculi.

  • 19.
    Aceto, Luca
    et al.
    Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Mousavi, Mohammad RezaEindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Proceedings First International Workshop on Process Algebra and Coordination2011Proceedings (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Process algebra provides abstract and rigorous means for studying communicating concurrent systems. Coordination languages also provide abstract means for the specifying and programming communication of components. Hence, the two fields seem to have very much in common and the link between these two research areas have been established formally by means of several translations, mainly from coordination languages to process algebras. There have also been proposals of process algebras whose communication policy is inspired by the one underlying coordination languages. The aim of this workshop was to push the state of the art in the study of the connections between process algebra and coordination languages by bringing together experts as well as young researchers from the two fields to communicate their ideas and findings. It includes both contributed and invited papers that have been presented during the one day meeting on Process Algebra and Coordination (PACO 2011) which took place on June 9, 2011 in Reykjavik, Iceland.

  • 20.
    Aerts, Arend
    et al.
    Control Systems Technology Group, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centrum för forskning om inbyggda system (CERES).
    Reniers, Michel A.
    Control Systems Technology Group, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    A Tool Prototype for Model-Based Testing of Cyber-Physical Systems2015Ingår i: Theoretical Aspects of Computing – ICTAC 2015: 12th International Colloquium Cali, Colombia, October 29–31, 2015, Proceedings / [ed] Martin Leucker, Camilo Rueda, and Frank D. Valencia, Cham: Springer, 2015, Vol. 9399, s. 563-572Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on a tool prototype for model-based testing of cyber-physical systems. Our starting point is a hybrid-system model specified in a domain-specific language called Acumen. Our prototype tool is implemented in Matlab and covers three stages of model-based testing, namely, test-case generation, test-case execution, and conformance analysis. We have applied our implementation to a number of typical examples of cyber-physical systems in order to analyze its applicability. In this paper, we report on the result of applying the prototype tool on a DC-DC boost converter. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

  • 21.
    Aerts, Arend
    et al.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Reniers, Michel A.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centrum för forskning om inbyggda system (CERES).
    Model-Based Testing of Cyber-Physical Systems2016Ingår i: Cyber-Physical Systems: Foundations, Principles and Applications / [ed] H. Song, D.B. Rawat, S. Jeschke, and Ch. Brecher, Saint Louis: Elsevier, 2016, s. 287-304Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyber-physical systems (CPSs) are the result of the integration of connected computer systems with the physical world. They feature complex interactions that go beyond traditional communication schemes and protocols in computer systems. One distinguished feature of such complex interactions is the tight coupling between discrete and continuous interactions, captured by hybrid system models.

    Due to the complexity of CPSs, providing rigorous and model-based analysis methods and tools for verifying correctness of such systems is of the utmost importance. Model-based testing (MBT) is one such verification technique that can be used for checking the conformance of an implementation of a system to its specification (model).

    In this chapter, we first review the main concepts and techniques in MBT. Subsequently, we review the most common modeling formalisms for CPSs, with focus on hybrid system models. Subsequently, we provide a brief overview of conformance relations and conformance testing techniques for CPSs. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 22.
    Afram, Abboud
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi.
    Sarab Fard Sabet, Danial
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi.
    Exploring State-of-the-Art Machine Learning Methods for Quantifying Exercise-induced Muscle Fatigue2023Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Muscle fatigue is a severe problem for elite athletes, and this is due

    to the long resting times, which can vary. Various mechanisms can

    cause muscle fatigue which signifies that the specific muscle has

    reached its maximum force and cannot continue the task. This thesis

    was about surveying and exploring state-of-the-art methods and

    systematically, theoretically, and practically testing the applicability

    and performance of more recent machine learning methods on an existing

    EMG to muscle fatigue pipeline. Several challenges within the

    EMG domain exist, such as inadequate data, finding the most suitable

    model, and how they should be addressed to achieve reliable

    prediction. This required approaches for addressing these problems

    by combining and comparing various state-of-the-art methodologies,

    such as data augmentation techniques for upsampling, spectrogram

    methods for signal processing, and transfer learning to gain a reliable

    prediction by various pre-trained CNN models.

    The approach during this study was to conduct seven experiments

    consisting of a classification task that aims to predict muscle fatigue

    in various stages. These stages are divided into 7 classes from 0-6, and

    higher classes represent a fatigued muscle. In the tabular part of the

    experiments, the Decision Tree, Random Forest, and Support Vector

    Machine (SVM) were trained, and the accuracy was determined. A

    similar approach was made for the spectrogram part, where the signals

    were converted to spectrogram images, and with a combination

    of traditional- and intelligent data augmentation techniques, such as

    noise and DCGAN, the limited dataset was increased. A comparison

    between the performance of AlexNet, VGG16, DenseNet, and InceptionV3

    pre-trained CNN models was made to predict differences in

    jump heights.

    The result was evaluated by implementing baseline classifiers on

    tabular data and pre-trained CNN model classifiers for CWT and

    STFT spectrograms with and without data augmentation. The evaluation

    of various state-of-the-art methodologies for a classification

    problem showed that DenseNet and VGG16 gave a reliable accuracy

    of 89.8 % on intelligent data augmented CWT images.

    The intelligent data augmentation applied on CWT images allows

    the pre-trained CNN models to learn features that can generalize unseen

    data. Proving that the combination of state-of-the-art methods

    can be introduced and address the challenges within the EMG domain.

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  • 23.
    Afrim, Cerimi
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för Informationsvetenskap, Data– och Elektroteknik (IDE).
    Norén, Joakim
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för Informationsvetenskap, Data– och Elektroteknik (IDE).
    Motåtgärder vid IT-forensisk liveanalys2011Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Liveanalys är ett begrepp som i detta arbete innebär att man undersöker ett datorsystem under tiden det är igång. Detta kan göras av flera skäl, t.ex. när det är risk för att kryptering finns på systemet vilket kan aktiveras när det stängs ner. Annars är det vanligt om man vill undersöka nätverkskopplingar, aktiva processer eller andra företeelser som kan vara volatila, dvs. försvinner när systemet stängs ner. Detta arbete kommer att ha fokus på motåtgärder vid forensisk liveanalys och redogöra för olika metoder och strategier som kan användas för dessa motåtgärder. Vi har bland annat skrivit ett program som automatiskt stänger ner systemet när man sätter i ett USB-minne eller annan media. Dessa media är oftast de man har sina forensiska program på när man ska göra en liveanalys. Andra viktiga element i arbetet är användning av kryptering, tidstämplar och sabotagekod för att försvåra liveanalysen. Vår analys i ämnet visar att det är relativt enkelt att förhindra att en liveanalys kan utföras på ett tillförlitligt sätt.

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  • 24.
    Agelis, Sacki
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för Informationsvetenskap, Data– och Elektroteknik (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Reconfigurable Optical Interconnection Networks for High-Performance Embedded2005Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In embedded computer and communication system the capacity demand for interconnection networks is increasing continuously in order to achieve high-performance systems. Recent breakthroughs show that by using reconfigurability inside a single chip substantial performance gains can be added. However, in this thesis the focus is on system level reconfigurability (between chips or modules) and the performance gains that potentially can be achieved by having support for runtime reconfigurability on the system level.This thesis addresses the field of runtime system level reconfigurability with the use of optics in switches and routers for data- and telecommunications, and in multi-processor systems used for embedded signal processing. Several reconfigurable systems for switching and routing with support to adapt for asymmetric traffic patterns are proposed and compared to identify how design choices affect flexibility, performance etc. The proposed solutions are characterized by their multistage optical interconnection networks with reconfigurable shuffle patterns, where the reconfigurability is provided by micro-optical-electrical mechanical systems. More specifically, application-specific bottlenecks can be resolved by reconfiguring the interconnection network according to the current application demands. The benefits of the architectural solutions are confirmed by simulations that clearly show that the architectures can achieve high performance for both symmetric application characteristics and for several classes of asymmetric application characteristics. The final architectural solution is characterized by electronic packet-switches interconnected through an optical backplane, which is reconfigurable. Moreover, the thesis presents how several signal processing applications can be mapped to run concurrently in a time-shared scheme on a single reconfigurable multi-processor system that has high flexibility to adapt for the application currently at hand. The interconnection network is then adapted (reconfigured) according to the demands of the currently executed application in each time instance. The analysis shows that it is feasible to build such a system with today’s components.

  • 25.
    Agelis, Sacki
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Jacobsson, Sofia
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Alping, Arne
    Ericsson Microwave Systems, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Ligander, Per
    Ericsson Microwave Systems, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Modular interconnection system for optical PCB and backplane communication2002Ingår i: Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium., Proceedings International, IPDPS 2002, Abstracts and CD-ROM, Los Alamitos, Calif.: IEEE Press, 2002, s. 245-250Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a way of building modular systems with a powerful optical interconnection network. Each module, placed on a Printed Circuit Board (PCB), has a generic optical communication interface with a simple electronic router. Together with optical switching using micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) technology, packet switching over reconfigurable topologies is possible. The interconnection system gives the possibility to integrate electronics with optics without changing existing PCB technology. Great interest from industry is therefore expected and the cost advantages are several: reuse of module designs, module upgrades without changing the PCB, low-cost conventional PCB technology, etc. In the version described in this paper, the interconnection system has 48 bidirectional optical channels for intra-PCB communication on each board. For inter-PCB communication, a backplane with 192 bidirectional optical channels supports communication between twelve PCBs. With 2.5 Gbit/s per optical channel in each direction, the aggregated intra-PCB bit rate is 120 Gbit/s full duplex (on each PCB) while the aggregated inter-PCB bit rate is 480 Gbit/s full duplex. A case study shows the feasibility of the interconnection system in a parallel processing system for radar signal processing.

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  • 26.
    Agelis, Sacki
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för Informationsvetenskap, Data– och Elektroteknik (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för Informationsvetenskap, Data– och Elektroteknik (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Optoelectronic router with a reconfigurable shuffle network based on micro-optoelectromechanical systems2004Ingår i: Journal of Optical Networking, ISSN 1536-5379, Vol. 4, nr 1, s. 1-10Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An optoelectronic router with a shuffle exchange network is presented and enhanced by the addition of micro-optoelectromechanical systems (MOEMS) in the network to add the ability to reconfigure the shuffle network. The MOEMS described here are fully connected any-to-any crossbar switches. The added reconfigurability provides the opportunity to adapt the system to different common application characteristics. Two representative application models are described: The first has symmetric properties, and the second has asymmetric properties. The router system is simulated with the specified applications and an analysis of the results is carried out. By use of MOEMS in the optical network, and thus reconfigurability, greater than 50% increased throughput performance and decreased average packet delay are obtained for the given application. Network congestion is avoided throughout the system if reconfigurability is used.

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  • 27.
    Agelis, Sacki
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för Informationsvetenskap, Data– och Elektroteknik (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för Informationsvetenskap, Data– och Elektroteknik (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Optoelectronic router with MOEMS–based reconfigurable shuffle network2004Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 28.
    Ahl, Josefin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi.
    Djurklou, Julia
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi.
    Ransomware-hotet mot svenska sjukhus: – en intervju- och litteraturstudie2021Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Statistik visar att ransomware har ökat lavinartat de senaste åren, inte minst under den rådande Covid-19-pandemin. Cyberkriminella har kommit att utnyttja sjukhus runt om i världen som redan är överbelastade med att ta hand om patienter svårt sjuka i Covid-19.

    I denna uppsats undersöks det hur de svenska sjukhusen upplever och hanterar det ökade hotet av ransomware. Den utgörs av en litteraturstudie och några djupintervjuer. Litteraturstudien görs för att utforska fenomenet ransomware och ta reda på varför ransomware är en framgångsrik metod för kriminella att använda vid utpressning. Syftet är även att undersöka hur svenska sjukhus förhåller sig till att hälso- och sjukvårdssektorn har blivit attraktiva mål för cyberangrepp. I intervjustudien undersöks sjukhusens IT-säkerhet för att kartlägga om de är tillräckligt motståndskraftiga mot ransomware-angrepp. Intervjusvaren diskuteras och analyseras mot bakgrund av litteraturen. Slutsatsen av denna analys ligger till grund för åtgärdsförslag.

    Resultatet visar att sjukhusen/regionerna som tillfrågats har en bra IT-säkerhet. De mest centrala säkerhetsmekanismerna för verksamheterna är deras backup- och återställningsrutiner i kampen mot ransomware. Diskussionen i arbetet sammanfogar resultatet från både litteraturstudien och intervjustudien som genomförts. Utifrån diskussionen dras sedan slutsatsen att regionerna som tillfrågats har bra säkerhet och uppfyller de flesta av rekommendationer som publicerats av svenska myndigheter. Inte desto mindre resulterar studien i några uppslag till förbättringar i säkerhetsrutiner.

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  • 29.
    Ahlman, Adam
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi.
    Taylor, Adam
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi.
    Dataset characteristics effect on time series forecasting: comparison of statistical and deep learning models2023Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Tidsserier är punkter av data mätt under samma tidsintervall. De presenteraregenskaper så som nivå, brus, trend, säsongsvariation och avvikare.Tidsserieprognoser syftar till att försöka förutsäga ett eller fleranästkommande värden. Det har betydande relevans inom flera områden,inklusive, men inte begränsat till, sjukvård, ekonomi och väderprognoser. Dethar nyligen fått mer uppmärksamhet på grund av COVID-19 pandemin vilketbelyste vikten av att förutsäga och hantera kriser. Två metoder förförutspåendet är antingen genom statistiska- eller djupinlärningsmodeller ochdebatten om vilken modell som är bäst är ännu ofullständig. Huvudsyftet meddenna uppsatts var att klargöra för- och nackdelar med de tvåtillvägagångsätten, med avseende på både enstegs- och flerstegprognoser.Studien gick ut på att undersöka fyra modeller, två från varje metod, ochtillämpa dessa på datauppsättningar av varierande egenskaper. Modellernasberäkningstid mättes och deras prediktionsprecision utvärderades med hjälpav vanligen använda mått, som till exempel Root Mean Square Error.Resultaten jämfördes med datasetens egenskaper för att identifiera eventuellasamband. Analysen visade att djupinlärningsmodellerna i allmänhetproducerade noggrannare prognoser med nackdel av att de krävde merprocessorkraft och beräkningstid. I kontrast var de statistiska metodernamarginellt snabbare men de gav mindre exakta svar. Vidare visade det sig atttrend var den egenskapen som hade störst inverkan på prognosprecisionen.Koden och datauppsättningarna publicerades på:https://github.com/Adam20Taylor/BScThesis.

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  • 30.
    Ahlqvist Nilsson, Petra
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi.
    Svensson Tynkkynen, Carolin
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi.
    Förslag på design av digitala knuffar för vägledning2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Allt fler beslut tas i samband med skärmar, bland annat på grund av den ständigt växande e-handeln. När människor tar beslut påverkas de av hur valmiljön är utformad samt av heuristikeroch fördomar, vilka är mentala genvägar. Människor influeras av heuristiker och fördomar dådet ofta är svårt för dem att ta beslut som grundas på all information som presenteras. Knuffarär ett sätt att vägleda människor till att göra specifika val utan att sätta begränsningar för derasfrihet och har företrädesvis använts i icke-digitala kontexter, men har nu även introduceratsinom informatik. För att knuffar ska kunna utvecklas och användas digitalt är det dock viktigtmed kunskap om hur människor gör val samt om den påverkan knuffar har. Även tidigareforskning om digitala knuffar efterfrågar studier om hur digitala knuffar kan designas och omderas påverkan på människors val online. Då knuffar är ett relativt nytt begrepp inom informatik, och att fler studier om ämnetefterfrågas, undersöker denna studie hur digitala knuffar kan designas för att vägledamänniskor till hållbara val på nätet. Studien utfördes med en designorienterad forskningsansatsdär digitala knuffar designades utifrån fyra olika heuristiker och fördomar. Knuffarnaapplicerades sedan på en e-handelssida och testades med hjälp av en prototyp. Processen fördesign och utvärdering av de digitala knuffarna itererades fyra eller fem gånger för attexplorativt testa olika sätt att designa knuffarna på relaterat till forskningsfrågan. Studien bidrarmed ett antal förslag för hur digitala knuffar kan designas utifrån heuristiker och fördomar medfokus på vägledning och hållbarhet.

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  • 31.
    Ahlstrand, Roland
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL), Regionalt lärande och ledarskap (RELL).
    Social responsibility in connection with business closures: A study of closures of Ericsson Telecom facilities in Norrköping and Linköping2010Ingår i: Economic and Industrial Democracy, ISSN 0143-831X, E-ISSN 1461-7099, Vol. 31, nr 4, s. 537-555Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present article analyses why and how Ericsson Telecom assumeda greater responsibility than was legally required when it dismissedmore than 23,000 employees in Sweden at the beginning of the21st century. The analysis starts from neoinstitutional theoryand is based on case studies of the company’s closuresin Norrköping and Linköping. The article focuses,in particular, on the interaction between Ericsson, the tradeunions, the County Administrative Board, the County Labour Board,the Public Employment Service, the Swedish Employment SecurityCouncil, the government and the respective municipalities. Itis shown that the greater responsibility taken by Ericsson wasbased on its desire to maintain legitimacy by taking into considerationprevailing societal expectations regarding the company’sbehaviour.

  • 32.
    Ahlström, Tove
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi.
    Kaikkonen, Amanda
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi.
    Hur kan ett e-hälsostöd designas för att främja inre motivation till fysisk rehabilitering?2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    På grund av ett ökat vårdbehov är fysisk rehabilitering ett område där det finns ett växande behov för implementation av e-hälsostöd. En icke fullföljd rehabiliteringsplan kan potentiellt leda till att en patients smärtor eller besvär inte förbättras som planerat. Detta kan leda till att patienten behöver mer rehabiliteringsvård än vad som hade krävts om rehabiliteringsplanen hade fullföljts från början. Förutom att detta blir en kostnad för patienterna själva, innebär det dessutom en extra kostnad för vården. Motivation räknas som en av de främsta aspekterna att ta hänsyn till, eftersom det influerar människors förmåga och vilja att göra något. Om motivationsaspekten ignoreras vid designandet av ett digitalt stöd i ett rehabiliteringssammanhang, finns risk att designen inte innehar de funktioner som kan bli avgörande för att användaren ska använda det digitala stödet. Även om rehabiliteringspatienter förses med korrekta övningar från fysioterapeuter utför de inte sina övningar, vilket kan bero på deras brist på inre motivation. Trots detta dilemma finns idag få studier som undersöker hur ett digitalt stöd kan designas för att främja inre motivation i ett rehabiliteringssammanhang. Studien ämnade därför att undersöka hur ett digitalt stöd kan designas för att främja inre motivation i ett fysiskt rehabiliteringssammanhang. Frågeställningen undersöktes genom en designorienterad ansats. För att undersöka inre motivation konkretiseras begreppet till de tre grundläggande psykologiska behoven: autonomi, kompetens och samhörighet. Studien resulterade sedan i nio designförslag som informerade hur ett e-hälsostöd kan designas för att främja inre motivation genom att stödja de tre psykologiska behoven: autonomi, kompetens och samhörighet.

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  • 33.
    Ahmadi, Asghar
    et al.
    Australian Catholic University, North Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Noetel, Michael
    Australian Catholic University, North Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Schellekens, Melissa
    Australian Catholic University, North Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Parker, Philip
    Australian Catholic University, North Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Antczak, Devan
    Australian Catholic University, North Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Beauchamp, Mark
    The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
    Dicke, Theresa
    Australian Catholic University, North Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Diezmann, Carmel
    Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia.
    Maeder, Anthony
    Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia.
    Ntoumanis, Nikos
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd. Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark; School of Psychology, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Yeung, Alexander
    Australian Catholic University, North Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Lonsdale, Chris
    Australian Catholic University, North Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    A Systematic Review of Machine Learning for Assessment and Feedback of Treatment Fidelity2021Ingår i: Psychosocial Intervention, ISSN 1132-0559, E-ISSN 2173-4712, Vol. 30, nr 3, s. 139-153Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many psychological treatments have been shown to be cost-effective and efficacious, as long as they are implemented faithfully. Assessing fidelity and providing feedback is expensive and time-consuming. Machine learning has been used to assess treatment fidelity, but the reliability and generalisability is unclear. We collated and critiqued all implementations of machine learning to assess the verbal behaviour of all helping professionals, with particular emphasis on treatment fidelity for therapists. We conducted searches using nine electronic databases for automated approaches of coding verbal behaviour in therapy and similar contexts. We completed screening, extraction, and quality assessment in duplicate. Fifty-two studies met our inclusion criteria (65.3% in psychotherapy). Automated coding methods performed better than chance, and some methods showed near human-level performance; performance tended to be better with larger data sets, a smaller number of codes, conceptually simple codes, and when predicting session-level ratings than utterance-level ones. Few studies adhered to best-practice machine learning guidelines. Machine learning demonstrated promising results, particularly where there are large, annotated datasets and a modest number of concrete features to code. These methods are novel, cost-effective, scalable ways of assessing fidelity and providing therapists with individualised, prompt, and objective feedback. © 2021 Colegio Oficial de la Psicología de Madrid

  • 34.
    Ahmed, Iftikhar
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för Informationsvetenskap, Data– och Elektroteknik (IDE).
    Farooq, Muhammad
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för Informationsvetenskap, Data– och Elektroteknik (IDE).
    Switched Multi-hop Priority Queued Networks-Influence of priority levels on Soft Real-time Performance2010Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last few years, the number of real-time applications has increased. These applications are sensitive and require the methods to utilize existing network capacity efficiently to meet performance requirements and achieve the maximum throughput to overcome delay, jitter and packet loss. In such cases, when the network needs to support highly interactive traffic like packet-switched voice, the network congestion is an issue that can lead to various problems. If the level of congestion is high enough, the users may not be able to complete their calls and have existing calls dropped or may experience a variety of delays that make it difficult to participate smooth conversation.

    In this paper, we investigate the effect of priority levels on soft real-time performance. We use the priority queues to help us manage the congestion, handle the interactive traffic and improve the over all performance of the system. We consider switched multi-hop network with priority queues. All the switches and end-nodes control the real-time traffic with “Earlier Deadline First” scheduling. The performance of the network is characterized in terms of the average delay, the deadline missing ratio and the throughput.

    We will analyze these parameters with both the bursty traffic and evenly distributed traffic. We will analyze different priority levels and will see how the increase in priority level increases the performance of the soft real-time system.

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  • 35.
    Aichernig, Bernhard K.
    et al.
    Graz University of Technology, Graz, Austria.
    Mostowski, Wojciech
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centrum för forskning om inbyggda system (CERES).
    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centrum för forskning om inbyggda system (CERES). Department of Informatics, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK.
    Tappler, Martin
    Graz University of Technology, Graz, Austria.
    Taromirad, Masoumeh
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Model Learning and Model-Based Testing2018Ingår i: Machine Learning for Dynamic Software Analysis: Potentials and Limits / [ed] Amel Bennaceur, Reiner Hähnle, Karl Meinke, Heidelberg: Springer, 2018, s. 74-100Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a survey of the recent research efforts in integrating model learning with model-based testing. We distinguished two strands of work in this domain, namely test-based learning (also called test-based modeling) and learning-based testing. We classify the results in terms of their underlying models, their test purpose and techniques, and their target domains. © Springer International Publishing AG

  • 36.
    Ailm, Kajsa
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Lindroos, Max
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Vilka utmaningar finns för design av socialt användarengagemang på digitala spelplattformar?2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien har ämnat att undersöka socialt användarengagemang på digitala spelplattformar genom frågeställningen: Vilka utmaningar finns för design av socialt användarengagemang på digitala spelplattformar? Socialt användarengagemang innebär att användares engagemang mellan varandra främjas genom funktioner på den digitala plattformen som på exempelvis Facebook och Twitter. Tidigare forskning om användarengagemang på digitala spelplattformar har försökt att skapa användarengagemang genom nya sociala funktioner. Det finns däremot problematik för utvecklare av digitala spelplattformar eftersom användare väljer att interagera och kommunicera på andra digitala sociala plattformar. Att användarna väljer att kommunicera på andra digitala plattformar än på digitala spelplattformar kan vara kopplat till att användare av digitala spelplattformar har ett annat syfte och behov med sin interaktion. Vid design av digitala spelplattformar kan det därför vara viktigt att nya funktioner är en påbyggnad av den digitala spelplattformens grundfunktioner och att användares spelrelaterade mål prioriteras. Studien utgick från en designorienterad forskningsansats där tre stycken designelement har implementerats och utvärderats genom en probe. Studien resulterade i fyra designutmaningar som är ämnade att rikta sig till designers av digitala spelplattformar som ett stöd för framtagning och utveckling av digitala spelplattformar. De identifierade designutmaningar rekommenderas att ha i åtanke för att kunna förbättra upplevelsen för användare på digitala spelplattformar.

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  • 37.
    Aires, Nibia
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för Informationsvetenskap, Data– och Elektroteknik (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    A guide to the Fortran programs to calculate inclusion probabilities for conditional Poisson sampling and Pareto pi ps sampling designs2004Ingår i: Computational statistics (Zeitschrift), ISSN 0943-4062, E-ISSN 1613-9658, Vol. 19, nr 3, s. 337-345Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Conditional Poisson Sampling and Pareto pips Sampling designs are sampling methods with fixed sample size and with inclusion probabilities proportional to given size measures.. Algorithms were introduced to calculate first and second exact inclusion probabilities for both schemes. Methods were also provided to adjust the parameters to get predetermined inclusion probabilities. In this paper, the Fortran procedures are introduced and documented. Moreover, guidelines are provided for their use as well as examples and the programs codes commented.

  • 38.
    Akram, Asif
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Value Creation in Digital Ecosystem – A Study of Remote Diagnostics2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The advancement of digital technologies is driving traditional product oriented businesses to move from selling product to selling solutions. In order to exploit business potentials from technology, it is necessary to understand the technological capacity and how it influences the value creation in the environment where it is deployed. I study remote diagnostics as an example of digital technology within the vehicle industry. I found that this technology provides potential to generate new value. To create this value, traditional product oriented organizations are required to create value in different way than traditional mode of creating value. In this paper, I show that how generative capacity of remote diagnostics technology creates value in digital ecosystem.

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  • 39.
    Akram, Asif
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Människa och Informationsteknologi (MI-lab). University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Value Network Transformation: Digital Service Innovation in the Vehicle Industry2016Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Advancement in digital technology is rapidly changing the contemporary landscape of business and associated networks for manufacturing firms. Many traditional physical products are now being embedded with digital components, providing them digital capability to become digitized products. The digitization of physical products has become an important driver for digital service innovation within manufacturing industries. Such digital service innovation transforms value networks of manufacturing firms in various industries. While digitization of products and digital service innovation can be observed in many manufacturing industries, this thesis focuses on the transformation of value networks within the vehicle industry.

    This thesis is a collection of papers and a cover paper. The thesis reports from a collaborative project in the vehicle industry. The project explored new digital services for vehicles based on remote diagnostics technology. The exploration and conceptualization of digital services is investigated in a collaborative manner with participants from the vehicle industry. The results reflect that there is a paradigm shift for manufacturing firms digitizing their products, and stretching the business scope from product to solution oriented business.

    This thesis contributes to the existing literature on digital innovation with insights on the transformation of value networks in the vehicle industry. The research question addressed in this thesis is: How are value networks of manufacturing firms transformed by digital service innovation? To answer the question, this thesis conceptualizes how the value creating pattern of digitized products transforms value networks of manufacturing firms. A model is presented that reflects how the symbiotic value relationship between the digitized product and digital services transforms the roles, relationships and exchanges in the value networks of manufacturing firms. The model can serve as an analytical tool to further advance the knowledge on business aspects in digital innovation. This thesis contributes to practice by providing an understanding of how manufacturing firms can leverage value of digitized products and digital services in value networks.

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  • 40.
    Akram, Asif
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Bergquist, Magnus
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS). University of Gothenburg.
    Åkesson, Maria
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Digital Visions vs. Product Practices: Understanding Tensions in Incumbent Manufacturing Firms2014Ingår i: Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences / [ed] Ralph H. Sprague, Jr., Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society, 2014, s. 4516-4525Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Incumbent manufacturing firms face challenges when expanding their product focus with digital services. Such expansion creates tensions in organizations in the servitization process. While management visions and conceptualizes new service oriented businesses, the actual practice of implementing these service concepts is influenced by the product paradigmatic way of thinking in the organization. This dominant thinking creates tensions between business visions and business practice. We use the case of remote diagnostics services to provide insights into a manufacturing firm’s attempt to transform the dominant oriented business models into a new networked environment. We suggest that such acts that may or may not lead to transition are lingered by dominant logics related to the product focus. This indicates that firms are required to embed new logics into their existing practice in order to exploit the full potential of digital technology. © 2014 IEEE.

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  • 41.
    Akram, Asif
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Människa och Informationsteknologi (MI-lab).
    Åkesson, Maria
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Människa och Informationsteknologi (MI-lab).
    Value Network Transformation By Digital Service Innovation In The Vehicle Industry2011Ingår i: Proceedings of the 15th Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems | Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems (PACIS), Brisbane, Australia: Association for Information Systems, 2011Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports from preparations in an ongoing research study concerning how digital service innovation transforms value networks in the vehicle industry. The research study concerns digital services based on remote diagnostics systems. This digital service innovation in particular is of great importance since the vehicle industry has great potential to expand its business and found new and extended boundaries and relationships with other stakeholder in the networks they are attached to. Core challenges and opportunities for digital service innovation will lead us to the study of its influence on the business and innovation environment i.e. the value network. In this paper, we propose three propositions to study transformation from product oriented value networks to digital service oriented value networks.

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  • 42.
    Al Khatib, Sultan M.
    et al.
    Al-balqa Applied University, Al Salt, Jordan.
    Alkharabsheh, Khalid
    Al-balqa Applied University, Al Salt, Jordan.
    Alawadi, Sadi
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi. Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Selection of human evaluators for design smell detection using dragonfly optimization algorithm: An empirical study2023Ingår i: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 155, artikel-id 107120Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Design smell detection is considered an efficient activity that decreases maintainability expenses and improves software quality. Human context plays an essential role in this domain. Objective: In this paper, we propose a search-based approach to optimize the selection of human evaluators for design smell detection. Method: For this purpose, Dragonfly Algorithm (DA) is employed to identify the optimal or near-optimal human evaluator's profiles. An online survey is designed and asks the evaluators to evaluate a sample of classes for the presence of god class design smell. The Kappa-Fleiss test has been used to validate the proposed approach. Results: The results show that the dragonfly optimization algorithm can be utilized effectively to decrease the efforts (time, cost ) of design smell detection concerning the identification of the number and the optimal or near-optimal profile of human experts required for the evaluation process. Conclusions: A Search-based approach can be effectively used for improving a god-class design smell detection. Consequently, this leads to minimizing the maintenance cost. © 2022 The Author(s)

  • 43.
    Alabdallah, Abdallah
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi.
    Jakubowski, Jakub
    Pashami, Sepideh
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi.
    Bobek, Szymon
    Ohlsson, Mattias
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi.
    Rögnvaldsson, Thorsteinn
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi.
    Nalepa, Grzegorz J.
    Understanding Survival Models through Counterfactual ExplanationsManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of black-box survival models has created a need for methods that explain their outputs, just as in the case of traditional machine learning methods. Survival models usually predict functions rather than point estimates. This special nature of their output makes it more difficult to explain their operation. We propose a method to generate plausible counterfactual explanations for survival models. The method supports two options that handle the special nature of survival models' output. One option relies on the Survival Scores, which are based on the area under the survival function, which is more suitable for proportional hazard models. The other one relies on Survival Patterns in the predictions of the survival model, which represent groups that are significantly different from the survival perspective. This guarantees an intuitive well-defined change from one risk group (Survival Pattern) to another and can handle more realistic cases where the proportional hazard assumption does not hold. The method uses a Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm to optimize a loss function to achieve four objectives: the desired change in the target, proximity to the explained example, likelihood, and the actionability of the counterfactual example. Two predictive maintenance datasets and one medical dataset are used to illustrate the results in different settings. The results show that our method produces plausible counterfactuals, which increase the understanding of black-box survival models.

  • 44.
    Alabdallah, Abdallah
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi.
    Ohlsson, Mattias
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi. Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Pashami, Sepideh
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rögnvaldsson, Thorsteinn
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi.
    The Concordance Index Decomposition: A Measure for a Deeper Understanding of Survival Prediction Models2024Ingår i: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine, ISSN 0933-3657, E-ISSN 1873-2860, Vol. 148, s. 1-10, artikel-id 102781Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Concordance Index (C-index) is a commonly used metric in Survival Analysis for evaluating the performance of a prediction model. This paper proposes a decomposition of the C-index into a weighted harmonic mean of two quantities: one for ranking observed events versus other observed events, and the other for ranking observed events versus censored cases. This decomposition enables a more fine-grained analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of survival prediction methods. The usefulness of this decomposition is demonstrated through benchmark comparisons against state-of-the-art and classical models, together with a new variational generative neural-network-based method (SurVED), which is also proposed in this paper. Performance is assessed using four publicly available datasets with varying levels of censoring. The analysis using the C-index decomposition and synthetic censoring shows that deep learning models utilize the observed events more effectively than other models, allowing them to keep a stable C-index in different censoring levels. In contrast, classical machine learning models deteriorate when the censoring level decreases due to their inability to improve on ranking the events versus other events. © 2024 The Author(s)

  • 45.
    Alabdallah, Abdallah
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Centrum för forskning om tillämpade intelligenta system (CAISR).
    Pashami, Sepideh
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Centrum för forskning om tillämpade intelligenta system (CAISR). RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Rögnvaldsson, Thorsteinn
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Centrum för forskning om tillämpade intelligenta system (CAISR).
    Ohlsson, Mattias
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Centrum för forskning om tillämpade intelligenta system (CAISR). Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    SurvSHAP: A Proxy-Based Algorithm for Explaining Survival Models with SHAP2022Ingår i: 2022 IEEE 9th International Conference on Data Science and Advanced Analytics (DSAA) / [ed] Joshua Zhexue Huang; Yi Pan; Barbara Hammer; Muhammad Khurram Khan; Xing Xie; Laizhong Cui; Yulin He, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2022Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Survival Analysis models usually output functions (survival or hazard functions) rather than point predictions like regression and classification models. This makes the explanations of such models a challenging task, especially using the Shapley values. We propose SurvSHAP, a new model-agnostic algorithm to explain survival models that predict survival curves. The algorithm is based on discovering patterns in the predicted survival curves, the output of the survival model, that would identify significantly different survival behaviors, and utilizing a proxy model and SHAP method to explain these distinct survival behaviors. Experiments on synthetic and real datasets demonstrate that the SurvSHAP is able to capture the underlying factors of the survival patterns. Moreover, SurvSHAP results on the Cox Proportional Hazard model are compared with the weights of the model to show that we provide faithful overall explanations, with more fine-grained explanations of the sub-populations. We also illustrate the wrong model and explanations learned by a Cox model when applied to heterogeneous sub-populations. We show that a non-linear machine learning survival model with SurvSHAP can better model the data and provide better explanations than linear models.

  • 46.
    Alabdallah, Abdallah
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Centrum för forskning om tillämpade intelligenta system (CAISR).
    Rögnvaldsson, Thorsteinn
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Centrum för forskning om tillämpade intelligenta system (CAISR).
    Fan, Yuantao
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Centrum för forskning om tillämpade intelligenta system (CAISR).
    Pashami, Sepideh
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Centrum för forskning om tillämpade intelligenta system (CAISR).
    Ohlsson, Mattias
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Centrum för forskning om tillämpade intelligenta system (CAISR).
    Discovering Premature Replacements in Predictive Maintenance Time-to-Event Data2023Ingår i: Proceedings of the Asia Pacific Conference of the PHM Society 2023 / [ed] Takehisa Yairi; Samir Khan; Seiji Tsutsumi, New York: The Prognostics and Health Management Society , 2023, Vol. 4Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Time-To-Event (TTE) modeling using survival analysis in industrial settings faces the challenge of premature replacements of machine components, which leads to bias and errors in survival prediction. Typically, TTE survival data contains information about components and if they had failed or not up to a certain time. For failed components, the time is noted, and a failure is referred to as an event. A component that has not failed is denoted as censored. In industrial settings, in contrast to medical settings, there can be considerable uncertainty in an event; a component can be replaced before it fails to prevent operation stops or because maintenance staff believe that the component is faulty. This shows up as “no fault found” in warranty studies, where a significant proportion of replaced components may appear fault-free when tested or inspected after replacement.

    In this work, we propose an expectation-maximization-like method for discovering such premature replacements in survival data. The method is a two-phase iterative algorithm employing a genetic algorithm in the maximization phase to learn better event assignments on a validation set. The learned labels through iterations are accumulated and averaged to be used to initialize the following expectation phase. The assumption is that the more often the event is selected, the more likely it is to be an actual failure and not a “no fault found”.

    Experiments on synthesized and simulated data show that the proposed method can correctly detect a significant percentage of premature replacement cases.

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  • 47.
    Alasjö, Alexander
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi.
    Sidokanalattack mot knappsats för elektroniskt passersystem2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Genom ett undersökande experiment med elektromagnetisk sidokanalattack mot en knappsats för ett kommersiellt passersystem påvisas att informationsläckage i sidokanaler är ett fortsatt aktuellt problem och hur det gör fysisk åtkomstkontroll sårbart genom avlyssning och kopiering av användaruppgifter.

    Med enkel radioutrustning kan knapptryckningar registreras och avkodas genom oönskad elektromagnetisk strålning och teoretiskt är det möjligt att genomföra avlyssningen på en längre distans med särskilt utformad antenn och anpassad mottagare.

    Rapporten diskuterar problematiken med emission security hos konsumentprodukter som i militära sammanhang benämns Tempest eller RÖS (röjande signaler) och kräver kostsamma tester för att detekteras och hanteras.

    I regelverk för EMC (elektromagnetisk kompatibilitet) behandlas elektriska apparaters och näts utstrålning och påverkan av elektromagnetiska vågor, men inte direkt hur information kan läcka från informationsteknologisk utrustning vilket denna rapport vill problematisera.

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  • 48.
    Al-bashki, Abraham
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi.
    Oogle, Ahmed
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi.
    Math Visualizations in VR2023Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Visualization of linear algebra with virtual reality (VR) can be helpful for math teachers. A study has shown more engagement, focus, and active learning through immersion and interactivity, supplementing opportunities for visualizing abstract concepts. This project aims to provide math teachers with an accessible tool for linear algebra concepts in VR. The focus will be on abstraction for the coding by providing a graphical user interface (GUI) as a middle ground, premade virtual objects to reuse, and a manual with linear algebra examples. Furthermore, there are several math visualization tools available for VR. However, there is currently no information about a tool made specifically for math teachers focusing on linear algebra to prepare lessons for VR environments. Unity is the preferred game engine for this project. The object-oriented design used in this project is polymorphism, Model-View-Controller (MVC), and the commandpattern. The system development methodology is extreme programming (XP). The system development methodology is extreme programming (XP). Unit tests are used to drive development; integration tests are used to test between classes; paired t-testis used to test the student’s learning with the tool and, additionally, test the experience of using the tool with a usability test. Furthermore, integration tests, usability tests, and paired t-test are used to analysis the result. Moreover, the linear algebra objects is created as data models. A controller uses linear algebra objects to update the GUI and the handles for visual manipulation. Undoing and saving are handled in the controller. Two simple linear algebra lessons are created by two teachers. The student access the saved lessons in VR and uses handles to interact with the VR world. Moreover,linear algebra expressions of the objects manipulated are shown to the student. Thetest results showed positive results.This framework can assist in empowering the creation of three-dimensional (3D) worlds and VR experiences, making them more accessible to a wider variety of educators by removing the requirement that teachers possess coding abilities. As aconcept, it can be promising for math teachers to have control over the design of their own VR world without caring about the data science behind it.

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  • 49.
    Albinsson, John
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Dept Biomed Engn, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Brorsson, Sofia
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Rydén Ahlgren, Åsa
    Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci, Clin Physiol & Nucl Med Unit, Malmo, Sweden..
    Cinthio, Magnus
    Lund Univ, Dept Biomed Engn, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Improved tracking performance of lagrangian block-matching methodologies using block expansion in the time domain: In silico, phantom and invivo evaluations2014Ingår i: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, ISSN 0301-5629, E-ISSN 1879-291X, Vol. 40, nr 10, s. 2508-2520Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to evaluate tracking performance when an extra reference block is added to a basic block-matching method, where the two reference blocks originate from two consecutive ultrasound frames. The use of an extra reference block was evaluated for two putative benefits: (i) an increase in tracking performance while maintaining the size of the reference blocks, evaluated using in silico and phantom cine loops; (ii) a reduction in the size of the reference blocks while maintaining the tracking performance, evaluated using in vivo cine loops of the common carotid artery where the longitudinal movement of the wall was estimated. The results indicated that tracking accuracy improved (mean - 48%, p<0.005 [in silico]; mean - 43%, p<0.01 [phantom]), and there was a reduction in size of the reference blocks while maintaining tracking performance (mean - 19%, p<0.01 [in vivo]). This novel method will facilitate further exploration of the longitudinal movement of the arterial wall. (C) 2014 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology.

  • 50.
    Aldén, Victoria
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi.
    Gunnarsson, Ebba
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi.
    Användningen av Robotic Process Automation i kommunala förvaltningars beslutsstödsprocesser: En studie om vilka konsekvenser som kan uppstå genom användningen av RPA och påverkan på kommunala beslutsstödsprocesser för försörjningsstöd2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom offentliga organisationer har det tidigare inte funnits en lag som tillåtit automatiserat beslutsstöd, det var först år 2018 som lagen förändrades. Tidigare forskning har fokuserat på automation inom privata näringslivet, vilket skapat en brist på forskning för offentliga organisationer. Efter lagförändringen har socialförvaltningar börjat automatisera beslutsunderlaget för försörjningsstöd i sina beslutsstödsprocesser. Automatiseringen sker genom användningen av mjukvarutekniken RPA (robotstyrd processautomation). RPA kan enbart hantera processer som är regelstyrda och strukturerade. Det tvingar socialförvaltningarna att definiera och strukturera upp sina beslutsstödsprocesser som tidigare utfördes manuellt av handläggarna. Det innefattar att konsekvenser uppstår och påverkar beslutsstödsprocessen, vilket leder fram till studiens frågeställning: Hur påverkas beslutsstödsprocessen i kommunala förvaltningar genom användningen av RPA? En kvalitativ metod har använts vid insamling av litteratur och empiri, för att kunna identifiera konsekvenserna och dess påverkan i beslutsstödsprocessen. De identifierade konsekvenserna som presenteras i studiens slutsats är uppdelade efter: Konsekvenser utifrån RPA och Konsekvenser utifrån handläggarna. Konsekvenserna som identifierats i studien har skiljt sig åt mellan de kommunala förvaltningarna, beroende på hur lagen har tolkats eller om RPA har börjat användas i kommunerna än.

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