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  • 1.
    Abdulrazzaq, Mohammed
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Wei, Yuan
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Industrial Control System (ICS) Network Asset Identification and Risk Management2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Setting against the significant background of Industrial 4.0, the Industrial Control System (ICS) accelerates and enriches the upgrade the existing production infrastructure. To make the infrastructures “smart”, huge parts of manual operations have been automated in this upgrade and more importantly, the isolated controlled processes have been connected through ICS. This has also raised the issues in asset management and security concerns. Being the starting point of securing the ICS, the asset identification is, nevertheless, first dealt by exploring the definition of assets in the ICS domain due to insufficient documentation and followed by the introduction of ICS constituents and their statuses in the whole network. When the definition is clear, a well-received categorization of assets in the ICS domain is introduced, while mapping out their important attributes and their significance relating the core of service they perform. To effectively tackle the ever-increasing amount of assets, identification approaches are compared and a case study was performed to test the effectiveness of two open source software. Apart from the identification part, this thesis describes a framework for efficient asset management from CRR. The four cyclic modules proposed give an overview on how the asset management should be managed according the dynamics of the assets in the production environment.

  • 2.
    Aceto, L.
    et al.
    School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Iceland.
    Birgisson, A.
    Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ingolfsdottir, A.
    School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Iceland.
    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza
    Department of Computer Science, TU/Eindhoven, Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Decompositional Reasoning about the History of Parallel Processes2011In: Fundamentals of software engineering: revised selected papers, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2011, Vol. 4171, p. 32-47Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a decomposition technique for Hennessy-Milner logic with past and its extension with recursively defined formulae. In order to highlight the main ideas and technical tools, processes are described using a subset of CCS with parallel composition, nondeterministic choice, action prefixing and the inaction constant. The study focuses on developing decompositional reasoning techniques for parallel contexts in that language. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  • 3.
    Aceto, L.
    et al.
    School of Computer Science, Reykjavík University, Kringlan 1, 103 Reykjavík, Iceland.
    Fokkink, W. J.
    Department of Computer Science, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, 1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Ingólfsdóttir, A.
    School of Computer Science, Reykjavík University, Kringlan 1, 103 Reykjavík, Iceland.
    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza
    Department of Computer Science, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Lifting non-finite axiomatizability results to extensions of process algebras2010In: Acta Informatica, ISSN 0001-5903, E-ISSN 1432-0525, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 147-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a general technique for obtaining new results pertaining to the non-finite axiomatizability of behavioural (pre)congruences over process algebras from old ones. The proposed technique is based on a variation on the classic idea of reduction mappings. In this setting, such reductions are translations between languages that preserve sound (in)equations and (in)equational provability over the source language, and reflect families of (in)equations responsible for the non-finite axiomatizability of the target language. The proposed technique is applied to obtain a number of new non-finite axiomatizability theorems in process algebra via reduction to Moller's celebrated non-finite axiomatizability result for CCS. The limitations of the reduction technique are also studied. In particular, it is shown that prebisimilarity is not finitely based over CCS with the divergent process Ω, but that this result cannot be proved by a reduction to the non-finite axiomatizability of CCS modulo bisimilarity. This negative result is the inspiration for the development of a sharpened reduction method that is powerful enough to show that prebisimilarity is not finitely based over CCS with the divergent process Ω. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  • 4.
    Aceto, Luca
    et al.
    ICE-TCS, School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Menntavegur 1, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Birgisson, Arnar
    Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ingolfsdottir, Anna
    ICE-TCS, School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Menntavegur 1, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza
    Department of Computer Science, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, NL-5600 MB Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Reniers, Michel A.
    Department of Computer Science, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, NL-5600 MB Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Rule Formats for Determinism and Idempotence2012In: Science of Computer Programming, ISSN 0167-6423, E-ISSN 1872-7964, Vol. 77, p. 889-907Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Determinism is a semantic property of (a fragment of) a language that specifies that a program cannot evolve operationally in several different ways. Idempotence is a property of binary composition operators requiring that the composition of two identical specifications or programs will result in a piece of specification or program that is equivalent to the original components. In this paper, we propose (related) meta-theorems for guaranteeing the determinism and idempotence of binary operators. These meta-theorems are formulated in terms of syntactic templates for operational semantics, called rule formats. In order to obtain a powerful rule format for idempotence, we make use of the determinism of certain transition relations in the definition of the format for idempotence. We show the applicability of our formats by applying them to various operational semantics from the literature. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 5.
    Aceto, Luca
    et al.
    School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Iceland.
    Birgisson, Arnar
    School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Iceland & Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ingólfsdóttir, Anna
    School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Iceland.
    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza
    Department of Computer Science, TU/Eindhoven, Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Decompositional Reasoning about the History of Parallel Processes2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Decompositional reasoning aims at automatically decomposing a global property of a composite system into local properties of (possibly unknown) components. In concurrency theory, decompositional reasoning techniques date back to the seminal work of Larsen and Liu in the late 1980s and early 1990s. However, we are not aware of any such decomposition technique that applies to reasoning about the "past". In this paper, we address this problem and present a decomposition technique for Hennessy-Milner logic with past and its extension with recursively defined formulae. As a language for processes, we use a subset of Milner's CCS with parallel composition, non-deterministic choice, action prefixing and the inaction constant. We focus on developing decompositional reasoning techniques for parallel contexts in that language.

  • 6.
    Aceto, Luca
    et al.
    ICE-TCS, School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Menntavegur 1, IS 101 Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Cimini, Matteo
    ICE-TCS, School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Menntavegur 1, IS 101 Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Ingolfsdottir, Anna
    ICE-TCS, School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Menntavegur 1, IS 101 Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza
    Department of Computer Science, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, NL-5600 MB Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Reniers, Michel A.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, NL-5600 MB Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Rule Formats for Distributivity2012In: Theoretical Computer Science, ISSN 0304-3975, E-ISSN 1879-2294, Vol. 458, p. 1-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes rule formats for Structural Operational Semantics guaranteeing that certain binary operators are left distributive with respect to a set of binary operators. Examples of left-distributivity laws from the literature are shown to be instances of the provided formats. Some conditions ensuring the invalidity of the left-distributivity law are also offered. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 7.
    Aceto, Luca
    et al.
    ICE-TCS, School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Menntavegur 1, IS 101 Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Cimini, Matteo
    ICE-TCS, School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Menntavegur 1, IS 101 Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Ingolfsdottir, Anna
    ICE-TCS, School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Menntavegur 1, IS 101 Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza
    Department of Computer Science, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, NL-5600 MB Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Reniers, Michel A.
    Department of Computer Science, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, NL-5600 MB Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    SOS Rule Formats for Zero and Unit Elements2011In: Theoretical Computer Science, ISSN 0304-3975, E-ISSN 1879-2294, Vol. 412, no 28, p. 3045-3071Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes rule formats for Structural Operational Semantics guaranteeing that certain constants act as left or right unit/zero elements for a set of binary operators. Examples of left and right zero, as well as unit, elements from the literature are shown to fit the rule formats offered in this study. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 8.
    Aceto, Luca
    et al.
    ICE-TCS, School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Cimini, Matteo
    ICE-TCS, School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Ingólfsdóttir, Anna
    ICE-TCS, School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza
    Department of Computer Science, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Reniers, Michael A.
    Department of Computer Science, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    On Rule Formats for Zero and Unit Elements2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a rule format for Structural Operational Semantics guaranteeing that certain constants act as left or right zero elements for a set of binary operators. Our design approach is also applied to reformulate an earlier rule format for unit elements developed by some of the authors. Examples of left and right zero, as well as unit, elements from the literature are shown to be checkable using the provided formats.

  • 9.
    Aceto, Luca
    et al.
    ICE-TCS, School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Cimini, Matteo
    ICE-TCS, School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Ingólfsdóttir, Anna
    ICE-TCS, School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza
    Department of Computer Science, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Reniers, Michael A.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Rule Formats for Distributivity2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes rule formats for Structural Operational Semantics guaranteeing that certain binary operators are left distributive with respect to a set of binary operators. Examples of left-distributivity laws from the literature are shown to be instances of the provided formats.

  • 10.
    Aceto, Luca
    et al.
    School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Iceland.
    Cimini, Matteo
    School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Iceland.
    Ingólfsdóttir, Anna
    School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Iceland.
    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza
    Department of Computer Science, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, NL-5600 MB Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Reniers, Michel A.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, NL-5600 MB Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Rule Formats for Distributivity2011In: Language and Automata Theory and Applications: 5th International Conference : Proceedings / [ed] Adrian Horia Dediu, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2011, Vol. 6638, p. 79-90Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes rule formats for Structural Operational Semantics guaranteeing that certain binary operators are left distributive with respect to a set of binary operators. Examples of left-distributivity laws from the literature are shown to be instances of the provided formats. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  • 11.
    Aceto, Luca
    et al.
    Reykjavík University, Kringlan 1, IS-103, Reykjavík, Iceland.
    Fokkink, Wan
    Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, NL-1081HV, The Netherlands.
    Ingólfsdóttir, Anna
    Reykjavík University, Kringlan 1, IS-103, Reykjavík, Iceland.
    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza
    Eindhoven University of Technology, NL-5600MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Lifting non-finite axiomatizability results to extensions of process algebras2008In: Fifth Ifip International Conference On Theoretical Computer Science – Tcs 2008 / [ed] Ausiello, G, Karhumaki, J, Mauri, G, Ong, L, New York: Springer-Verlag New York, 2008, Vol. 273, p. 301-316Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a general technique for obtaining new results pertaining to the non-finite axiomatizability of behavioral semantics over process algebras from old ones. The proposed technique is based on a variation on the classic idea of reduction mappings. In this setting, such reductions are translations between languages that preserve sound (in)equations and (in)equational proofs over the source language, and reflect families of (in)equations responsible for the non-finite axiomatizability of the target language. The proposed technique is applied to obtain a number of new non-finite axiomatizability theorems in process algebra via reduction to Moller’s celebrated non-finite axiomatizability result for CCS. The limitations of the reduction technique are also studied.

  • 12.
    Aceto, Luca
    et al.
    ICE-TCS, School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Fokkink, Wan J.
    Department of Computer Science, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Ingólfsdóttir, Anna
    ICE-TCS, School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza
    Department of Computer Science, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Lifting non-finite axiomatizability results to extensions of process algebras2008Report (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Aceto, Luca
    et al.
    ICE-TCS, School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Goriac, Eugen-Ioan
    ICE-TCS, School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Ingolfsdottir, Anna
    ICE-TCS, School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Reniers, Michel A.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Exploiting Algebraic Laws to Improve Mechanized Axiomatizations2013In: Algebra and Coalgebra in Computer Science: 5th International Conference, Calco 2013, Warsaw, Poland, September 2013, Proceedings, Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013, p. 36-50Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the field of structural operational semantics (SOS), there have been several proposals both for syntactic rule formats guaranteeing the validity of algebraic laws, and for algorithms for automatically generating ground-complete axiomatizations. However, there has been no synergy between these two types of results. This paper takes the first steps in marrying these two areas of research in the meta-theory of SOS and shows that taking algebraic laws into account in the mechanical generation of axiomatizations results in simpler axiomatizations. The proposed theory is applied to a paradigmatic example from the literature, showing that, in this case, the generated axiomatization coincides with a classic hand-crafted one. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  • 14.
    Aceto, Luca
    et al.
    School of Computer Science, Reykjavík University, Kringlan 1, 103 Reykjavík, Iceland.
    Ingólfsdóttir, A.
    School of Computer Science, Reykjavík University, Kringlan 1, 103 Reykjavík, Iceland.
    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza
    Department of Computer Science, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Reniers, M. A.
    Algebraic properties for free!2009In: Bulletin of the European Association for Theoretical Computer Science, ISSN 0252-9742, Vol. 99, p. 81-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Algebraic properties specify some natural properties of programming and specification constructs. This paper provides an overview of techniques to guarantee or generate algebraic properties of language constructs by investigating the syntactic shape of the deduction rules defining their operational semantics.

  • 15.
    Aceto, Luca
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science, Reykjavík University, Kringlan 1, IS-103, Reykjavík, Iceland.
    Ingólfsdóttir, Anna
    Department of Computer Science, Reykjavík University, Kringlan 1, IS-103, Reykjavík, Iceland.
    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza
    Department of Computer Science, Reykjavík University, Kringlan 1, IS-103, Reykjavík, Iceland.
    Impossibility results for the equational theory of timed CCS2007In: Algebra and Coalgebra in Computer Science: Second International Conference, CALCO 2007, Bergen, Norway, August 20-24, 2007. Proceedings, Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2007, Vol. 4624, p. 80-95Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the equational theory of Timed CCS as proposed by Wang Yi in CONCUR'90. Common to Wang Yi's paper, we particularly focus on a class of linearly-ordered time domains exemplified by the positive real or rational numbers. We show that, even when the set of basic actions is a singleton, there are parallel Timed CCS processes that do not have any sequential equivalent and thus improve on the Gap Theorem for Timed CCS presented by Godskesen and Larsen in FSTTCS'92. Furthermore, we show that timed bisimilarity is not finitely based both for single-sorted and two-sorted presentations of Timed CCS. We further strengthen this result by showing that, unlike in some other process algebras, adding the untimed or the timed left-merge operator to the syntax and semantics of Timed CCS does not solve the axiomatizability problem.

  • 16.
    Aceto, Luca
    et al.
    ICE-TCS, School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Ingólfsdóttir, Anna
    ICE-TCS, School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza
    Department of Computer Science, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Reniers, Michel A.
    Department of Computer Science, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    A Rule Format for Unit Elements2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper offers a meta-theorem for languages with a Structural Operational Semantics (SOS) in the style of Plotkin. Namely, it proposes a generic rule format for SOS guaranteeing that certain constants act as left- or right-unit elements for a set of binary operators. We show the generality of our format by applying it to a wide range of operators from the literature on process calculi.

  • 17.
    Aceto, Luca
    et al.
    ICE-TCS, School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University Kringlan 1, IS-103 Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Ingólfsdóttir, Anna
    ICE-TCS, School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University Kringlan 1, IS-103 Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza
    Department of Computer Science, Eindhoven University of Technology P.O. Box 513, NL-5600 MB Ei ndhoven, The Netherlands.
    Reniers, Michel A.
    Department of Computer Science, Eindhoven University of Technology P.O. Box 513, NL-5600 MB Ei ndhoven, The Netherlands.
    A rule format for unit elements2010In: SOFSEM 2010: Theory and Practice of Computer Science: Proceedings / [ed] VanLeeuwen, J, Muscholl, A, Peleg, D, Pokorny, J, Rumpe, B, Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2010, Vol. 5901, p. 141-152Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper offers a meta-theorem for languages with a Structural Operational Semantics (SOS) in the style of Plotkin. Namely, it proposes a generic rule format for SOS guaranteeing that certain constants act as left- or right-unit elements for a set of binary operators. We show the generality of our format by applying it to a wide range of operators from the literature on process calculi.

  • 18.
    Aceto, Luca
    et al.
    Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Mousavi, Mohammad RezaEindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Proceedings First International Workshop on Process Algebra and Coordination2011Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Process algebra provides abstract and rigorous means for studying communicating concurrent systems. Coordination languages also provide abstract means for the specifying and programming communication of components. Hence, the two fields seem to have very much in common and the link between these two research areas have been established formally by means of several translations, mainly from coordination languages to process algebras. There have also been proposals of process algebras whose communication policy is inspired by the one underlying coordination languages. The aim of this workshop was to push the state of the art in the study of the connections between process algebra and coordination languages by bringing together experts as well as young researchers from the two fields to communicate their ideas and findings. It includes both contributed and invited papers that have been presented during the one day meeting on Process Algebra and Coordination (PACO 2011) which took place on June 9, 2011 in Reykjavik, Iceland.

  • 19.
    Aerts, Arend
    et al.
    Control Systems Technology Group, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Reniers, Michel A.
    Control Systems Technology Group, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    A Tool Prototype for Model-Based Testing of Cyber-Physical Systems2015In: Theoretical Aspects of Computing – ICTAC 2015: 12th International Colloquium Cali, Colombia, October 29–31, 2015, Proceedings / [ed] Martin Leucker, Camilo Rueda, and Frank D. Valencia, Cham: Springer, 2015, Vol. 9399, p. 563-572Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on a tool prototype for model-based testing of cyber-physical systems. Our starting point is a hybrid-system model specified in a domain-specific language called Acumen. Our prototype tool is implemented in Matlab and covers three stages of model-based testing, namely, test-case generation, test-case execution, and conformance analysis. We have applied our implementation to a number of typical examples of cyber-physical systems in order to analyze its applicability. In this paper, we report on the result of applying the prototype tool on a DC-DC boost converter. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

  • 20.
    Aerts, Arend
    et al.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Reniers, Michel A.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Model-Based Testing of Cyber-Physical Systems2016In: Cyber-Physical Systems: Foundations, Principles and Applications / [ed] H. Song, D.B. Rawat, S. Jeschke, and Ch. Brecher, Saint Louis: Elsevier, 2016, p. 287-304Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyber-physical systems (CPSs) are the result of the integration of connected computer systems with the physical world. They feature complex interactions that go beyond traditional communication schemes and protocols in computer systems. One distinguished feature of such complex interactions is the tight coupling between discrete and continuous interactions, captured by hybrid system models.

    Due to the complexity of CPSs, providing rigorous and model-based analysis methods and tools for verifying correctness of such systems is of the utmost importance. Model-based testing (MBT) is one such verification technique that can be used for checking the conformance of an implementation of a system to its specification (model).

    In this chapter, we first review the main concepts and techniques in MBT. Subsequently, we review the most common modeling formalisms for CPSs, with focus on hybrid system models. Subsequently, we provide a brief overview of conformance relations and conformance testing techniques for CPSs. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 21.
    Afrim, Cerimi
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Norén, Joakim
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Motåtgärder vid IT-forensisk liveanalys2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Live Analysis is a concept that in this paper means analyzing a computer system while it is running. This can be done for several reasons, such as when there is a risk that the system has encryption which can be activated when the system shuts down. Otherwise, it is common if you want to examine network connections, active processes or other phenomena that can be volatile, i.e. disappear when the system shuts down. This work will focus on countermeasures to live forensic analysis and describe different methods and strategies that can be used for these countermeasures. For example, we wrote a program that automatically shuts down the system when you insert a USB memory stick or any other media. These are usually the media which you have your forensic programs on when you do a live analysis. Other important elements of the work are the use of encryption, timestamps and malicious code for challenging live analysis. Our analysis of the topic shows that it is relatively easy to prevent that a live analysis can be performed in a reliable way.

  • 22.
    Agelis, Sacki
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Jacobsson, Sofia
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Alping, Arne
    Ericsson Microwave Systems, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Ligander, Per
    Ericsson Microwave Systems, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Modular interconnection system for optical PCB and backplane communication2002In: Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium., Proceedings International, IPDPS 2002, Abstracts and CD-ROM, Los Alamitos, Calif.: IEEE Press, 2002, p. 245-250Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a way of building modular systems with a powerful optical interconnection network. Each module, placed on a Printed Circuit Board (PCB), has a generic optical communication interface with a simple electronic router. Together with optical switching using micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) technology, packet switching over reconfigurable topologies is possible. The interconnection system gives the possibility to integrate electronics with optics without changing existing PCB technology. Great interest from industry is therefore expected and the cost advantages are several: reuse of module designs, module upgrades without changing the PCB, low-cost conventional PCB technology, etc. In the version described in this paper, the interconnection system has 48 bidirectional optical channels for intra-PCB communication on each board. For inter-PCB communication, a backplane with 192 bidirectional optical channels supports communication between twelve PCBs. With 2.5 Gbit/s per optical channel in each direction, the aggregated intra-PCB bit rate is 120 Gbit/s full duplex (on each PCB) while the aggregated inter-PCB bit rate is 480 Gbit/s full duplex. A case study shows the feasibility of the interconnection system in a parallel processing system for radar signal processing.

  • 23.
    Agelis, Sacki
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Optoelectronic router with a reconfigurable shuffle network based on micro-optoelectromechanical systems2004In: Journal of Optical Networking, ISSN 1536-5379, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An optoelectronic router with a shuffle exchange network is presented and enhanced by the addition of micro-optoelectromechanical systems (MOEMS) in the network to add the ability to reconfigure the shuffle network. The MOEMS described here are fully connected any-to-any crossbar switches. The added reconfigurability provides the opportunity to adapt the system to different common application characteristics. Two representative application models are described: The first has symmetric properties, and the second has asymmetric properties. The router system is simulated with the specified applications and an analysis of the results is carried out. By use of MOEMS in the optical network, and thus reconfigurability, greater than 50% increased throughput performance and decreased average packet delay are obtained for the given application. Network congestion is avoided throughout the system if reconfigurability is used.

  • 24.
    Agelis, Sacki
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Optoelectronic router with MOEMS–based reconfigurable shuffle network2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Ahlqvist Nilsson, Petra
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Svensson Tynkkynen, Carolin
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Förslag på design av digitala knuffar för vägledning2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Decisions are increasingly made in connection with screens, amongst other things due to thecontinuous growth of e-commerce. When people make decisions they are influenced by thechoice environment as well as heuristics and biases, which are mental shortcuts. People areinfluenced by heuristics and biases as it is often difficult for them to make decisions based onall of the information presented. Nudges are a way to guide people to make specific choiceswithout limiting their freedom and have primarily been used in non-digital contexts, but havenow also been introduced in informatics. However, in order for nudges to be able to bedeveloped and used digitally it is important to have knowledge about how people make choicesand the effect nudges have. Previous research on digital nudges also asks for studies on howdigital nudges can be designed and their impact on people's choices online.As nudging is a relatively new term in informatics, as well as research regarding the topic isinquired, this study investigate how digital nudges can be designed to guide people tosustainable choices online. The study was conducted with a design research approach wheredigital nudges were designed based on four different heuristics and biases. The nudges wereapplied on an e-commerce website and tested by means of a prototype. The process fordesigning and evaluating the digital nudges was iterated four or five times to in an exploratoryway test different ways to design the nudges in relation to the research question. The studycontribute with a number of suggestions on how digital nudges can be designed based onheuristics and biases, with guidance and sustainability as focal points.

  • 26.
    Ahlström, Tove
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Kaikkonen, Amanda
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Hur kan ett e-hälsostöd designas för att främja inre motivation till fysisk rehabilitering?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to an increased need for health care, physical rehabilitation is an area where there is a growing need for implementation of e-health support. An unsuccessful rehabilitation plan could potentially lead to a patient's pain or discomfort not being improved as planned. This may lead to the patient needing more rehabilitation care than what had been required if the rehabilitation plan had been completed from the beginning. In addition to this being a cost for the patients themselves, it also entails an extra cost for health care services. Motivation is considered one of the main aspects to take into account as it influences people's ability and willingness to do something. If the motivational aspect is ignored in the design of e- health support in a rehabilitation context, there is a risk that the design will not possess the functions that can be crucial for the user to use the digital support. Although rehabilitation patients are provided with proper physiotherapy exercises they do not perform their exercises, which may be due to their lack of intrinsic motivation. Despite this dilemma, there are few studies that investigate how digital support can be designed to promote intrinsic motivation in a rehabilitation context. The study therefore aimed to examine how an e-health support can be designed to promote intrinsic motivation in a rehabilitation context. The research question was examined using a design-oriented approach. In order to investigate intrinsic motivation, the concept is concretized to the three psychological needs: autonomy, competence and relatedness. The study then resulted in nine design proposals that informed how an e-health support could be designed to promote intrinsic motivation by supporting the three basic psychological needs: autonomy, competence and relatedness.

  • 27.
    Ahmed, Iftikhar
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Farooq, Muhammad
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Switched Multi-hop Priority Queued Networks-Influence of priority levels on Soft Real-time Performance2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the last few years, the number of real-time applications has increased. These applications are sensitive and require the methods to utilize existing network capacity efficiently to meet performance requirements and achieve the maximum throughput to overcome delay, jitter and packet loss. In such cases, when the network needs to support highly interactive traffic like packet-switched voice, the network congestion is an issue that can lead to various problems. If the level of congestion is high enough, the users may not be able to complete their calls and have existing calls dropped or may experience a variety of delays that make it difficult to participate smooth conversation.

    In this paper, we investigate the effect of priority levels on soft real-time performance. We use the priority queues to help us manage the congestion, handle the interactive traffic and improve the over all performance of the system. We consider switched multi-hop network with priority queues. All the switches and end-nodes control the real-time traffic with “Earlier Deadline First” scheduling. The performance of the network is characterized in terms of the average delay, the deadline missing ratio and the throughput.

    We will analyze these parameters with both the bursty traffic and evenly distributed traffic. We will analyze different priority levels and will see how the increase in priority level increases the performance of the soft real-time system.

  • 28.
    Aichernig, Bernhard K.
    et al.
    Graz University of Technology, Graz, Austria.
    Mostowski, Wojciech
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES). Department of Informatics, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK.
    Tappler, Martin
    Graz University of Technology, Graz, Austria.
    Taromirad, Masoumeh
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Model Learning and Model-Based Testing2018In: Machine Learning for Dynamic Software Analysis: Potentials and Limits / [ed] Amel Bennaceur, Reiner Hähnle, Karl Meinke, Heidelberg: Springer, 2018, p. 74-100Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a survey of the recent research efforts in integrating model learning with model-based testing. We distinguished two strands of work in this domain, namely test-based learning (also called test-based modeling) and learning-based testing. We classify the results in terms of their underlying models, their test purpose and techniques, and their target domains. © Springer International Publishing AG

  • 29.
    Aires, Nibia
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    A guide to the Fortran programs to calculate inclusion probabilities for conditional Poisson sampling and Pareto pi ps sampling designs2004In: Computational statistics (Zeitschrift), ISSN 0943-4062, E-ISSN 1613-9658, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 337-345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conditional Poisson Sampling and Pareto pips Sampling designs are sampling methods with fixed sample size and with inclusion probabilities proportional to given size measures.. Algorithms were introduced to calculate first and second exact inclusion probabilities for both schemes. Methods were also provided to adjust the parameters to get predetermined inclusion probabilities. In this paper, the Fortran procedures are introduced and documented. Moreover, guidelines are provided for their use as well as examples and the programs codes commented.

  • 30.
    Akram, Asif
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Value Creation in Digital Ecosystem – A Study of Remote Diagnostics2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The advancement of digital technologies is driving traditional product oriented businesses to move from selling product to selling solutions. In order to exploit business potentials from technology, it is necessary to understand the technological capacity and how it influences the value creation in the environment where it is deployed. I study remote diagnostics as an example of digital technology within the vehicle industry. I found that this technology provides potential to generate new value. To create this value, traditional product oriented organizations are required to create value in different way than traditional mode of creating value. In this paper, I show that how generative capacity of remote diagnostics technology creates value in digital ecosystem.

  • 31.
    Akram, Asif
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Man and Information technology laboratory (MI-lab). University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Value Network Transformation: Digital Service Innovation in the Vehicle Industry2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Advancement in digital technology is rapidly changing the contemporary landscape of business and associated networks for manufacturing firms. Many traditional physical products are now being embedded with digital components, providing them digital capability to become digitized products. The digitization of physical products has become an important driver for digital service innovation within manufacturing industries. Such digital service innovation transforms value networks of manufacturing firms in various industries. While digitization of products and digital service innovation can be observed in many manufacturing industries, this thesis focuses on the transformation of value networks within the vehicle industry.

    This thesis is a collection of papers and a cover paper. The thesis reports from a collaborative project in the vehicle industry. The project explored new digital services for vehicles based on remote diagnostics technology. The exploration and conceptualization of digital services is investigated in a collaborative manner with participants from the vehicle industry. The results reflect that there is a paradigm shift for manufacturing firms digitizing their products, and stretching the business scope from product to solution oriented business.

    This thesis contributes to the existing literature on digital innovation with insights on the transformation of value networks in the vehicle industry. The research question addressed in this thesis is: How are value networks of manufacturing firms transformed by digital service innovation? To answer the question, this thesis conceptualizes how the value creating pattern of digitized products transforms value networks of manufacturing firms. A model is presented that reflects how the symbiotic value relationship between the digitized product and digital services transforms the roles, relationships and exchanges in the value networks of manufacturing firms. The model can serve as an analytical tool to further advance the knowledge on business aspects in digital innovation. This thesis contributes to practice by providing an understanding of how manufacturing firms can leverage value of digitized products and digital services in value networks.

  • 32.
    Akram, Asif
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Bergquist, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS). University of Gothenburg.
    Åkesson, Maria
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Digital Visions vs. Product Practices: Understanding Tensions in Incumbent Manufacturing Firms2014In: Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences / [ed] Ralph H. Sprague, Jr., Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society, 2014, p. 4516-4525Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Incumbent manufacturing firms face challenges when expanding their product focus with digital services. Such expansion creates tensions in organizations in the servitization process. While management visions and conceptualizes new service oriented businesses, the actual practice of implementing these service concepts is influenced by the product paradigmatic way of thinking in the organization. This dominant thinking creates tensions between business visions and business practice. We use the case of remote diagnostics services to provide insights into a manufacturing firm’s attempt to transform the dominant oriented business models into a new networked environment. We suggest that such acts that may or may not lead to transition are lingered by dominant logics related to the product focus. This indicates that firms are required to embed new logics into their existing practice in order to exploit the full potential of digital technology. © 2014 IEEE.

  • 33.
    Akram, Asif
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Man and Information technology laboratory (MI-lab).
    Åkesson, Maria
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Man and Information technology laboratory (MI-lab).
    Value Network Transformation By Digital Service Innovation In The Vehicle Industry2011In: Proceedings of the 15th Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems | Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems (PACIS), Brisbane, Australia: Association for Information Systems, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports from preparations in an ongoing research study concerning how digital service innovation transforms value networks in the vehicle industry. The research study concerns digital services based on remote diagnostics systems. This digital service innovation in particular is of great importance since the vehicle industry has great potential to expand its business and found new and extended boundaries and relationships with other stakeholder in the networks they are attached to. Core challenges and opportunities for digital service innovation will lead us to the study of its influence on the business and innovation environment i.e. the value network. In this paper, we propose three propositions to study transformation from product oriented value networks to digital service oriented value networks.

  • 34.
    Alasjö, Alexander
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Sidokanalattack mot knappsats för elektroniskt passersystem2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Through an exploratory experiment using electromagnetic side-channel attack against a keypad for a commercial entry system it is demonstrated that information leakage through side-channels are an ongoing issue and may make entry systems vulnerable by recording of user data.

    Using simple radio equipment, keypresses can be recorded and decoded by undesired electromagnetic radiation and theoretically it is possible to carry out the attack on a longer distance with a specially designed antenna and a custom recieiver.

    The report discusses emission security in consumer products which in military context is termed Tempest or compromising emanations (Swedish: RÖS) and requires expensive tests to be detected and handled.

    The EMC regulations (electromagnetic compatibility) handles radiation and influence of electromagnetic waves in electronic apparatus and nets, but not directly how information can leak from information technology equipment which this report wants to problematize.

  • 35.
    Albinsson, John
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Dept Biomed Engn, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Brorsson, Sofia
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Rydén Ahlgren, Åsa
    Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci, Clin Physiol & Nucl Med Unit, Malmo, Sweden..
    Cinthio, Magnus
    Lund Univ, Dept Biomed Engn, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Improved tracking performance of lagrangian block-matching methodologies using block expansion in the time domain: In silico, phantom and invivo evaluations2014In: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, ISSN 0301-5629, E-ISSN 1879-291X, Vol. 40, no 10, p. 2508-2520Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to evaluate tracking performance when an extra reference block is added to a basic block-matching method, where the two reference blocks originate from two consecutive ultrasound frames. The use of an extra reference block was evaluated for two putative benefits: (i) an increase in tracking performance while maintaining the size of the reference blocks, evaluated using in silico and phantom cine loops; (ii) a reduction in the size of the reference blocks while maintaining the tracking performance, evaluated using in vivo cine loops of the common carotid artery where the longitudinal movement of the wall was estimated. The results indicated that tracking accuracy improved (mean - 48%, p<0.005 [in silico]; mean - 43%, p<0.01 [phantom]), and there was a reduction in size of the reference blocks while maintaining tracking performance (mean - 19%, p<0.01 [in vivo]). This novel method will facilitate further exploration of the longitudinal movement of the arterial wall. (C) 2014 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology.

  • 36.
    Aldén, Victoria
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Gunnarsson, Ebba
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Användningen av Robotic Process Automation i kommunala förvaltningars beslutsstödsprocesser: En studie om vilka konsekvenser som kan uppstå genom användningen av RPA och påverkan på kommunala beslutsstödsprocesser för försörjningsstöd2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In communal organizations there has previously not existed a law that allowed automated decision support, it was during the year 2018 that the law changed. Previous research has focused on automation in the private business sector, which has created a lack of research on public organizations. Following the change in the law, Social services have started to automate the decision support in their decision support processes. The automation takes place using the software technology RPA (Robot Process Automation). RPA can only handle processes that are regulated and structured. It forces the Social services to define and structure their decision support processes that were previously manually performed by administrators. It involves creation of consequences that affects the decision support process and leads to the study ́s question: How is the decision support process in communal organizations affected using RPA? A qualitative method has been used in the collection of literature and empirical data, in order to be able to identify the consequences and its impact in the decision support process. The identified consequences presented in the study's conclusion are divided into the categories: consequences based on RPA and consequences based on the administrators. The consequences identified in the study have differed between the communal organizations, depending on how they interpreted the law and whether RPA has started to be used in the communes yet.

  • 37.
    Alendal, Gunnar
    et al.
    NTNU.
    Axelsson, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Exploiting Vendor-Defined Messages in the USB Power Delivery Protocol2019In: Advances in Digital Forensics XV: 15th IFIP WG 11.9 International Conference, Orlando, FL, USA, January 28–29, 2019, Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Peterson, Gilbert L., Shenoi, Sujeet, Springer, 2019, p. 101-118Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The USB Power Delivery protocol enables USB-connected devices to negotiate power delivery and exchange data over a single connection such as a USB Type-C cable. The protocol incorporates standard commands; however, it also enables vendors to add non-standard commands called vendor-defined messages. These messages are similar to the vendor-specific commands in the SCSI protocol, which enable vendors to specify undocumented commands to implement functionality that meets their needs. Such commands can be employed to enable firmware updates, memory dumps and even backdoors.

    This chapter analyzes vendor-defined message support in devices that employ the USB Power Delivery protocol, the ultimate goal being to identify messages that could be leveraged in digital forensic investigations to acquire data stored in the devices.

  • 38.
    Alendal, Gunnar
    et al.
    NTNU, Gjøvik, Norway.
    Dyrkolbotn, Geir Olav
    NTNU, Gjøvik, Norway & Norwegian Defence Cyber Academy (NDCA), Jørstadmoen, Norway.
    Axelsson, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Forensics acquisition – Analysis and circumvention of samsung secure boot enforced common criteria mode2018In: Digital Investigation. The International Journal of Digital Forensics and Incident Response, ISSN 1742-2876, E-ISSN 1873-202X, Vol. 24, no Suppl., p. S60-S67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The acquisition of data from mobile phones have been a mainstay of criminal digital forensics for a number of years now. However, this forensic acquisition is getting more and more difficult with the increasing security level and complexity of mobile phones (and other embedded devices). In addition, it is often difficult or impossible to get access to design specifications, documentation and source code. As a result, the forensic acquisition methods are also increasing in complexity, requiring an ever deeper understanding of the underlying technology and its security mechanisms. Forensic acquisition techniques are turning to more offensive solutions to bypass security mechanisms, through security vulnerabilities. Common Criteria mode is a security feature that increases the security level of Samsung devices, and thus make forensic acquisition more difficult for law enforcement. With no access to design documents or source code, we have reverse engineered how the Common Criteria mode is actually implemented and protected by Samsung's secure bootloader. We present how this security mode is enforced, security vulnerabilities therein, and how the discovered security vulnerabilities can be used to circumvent Common Criteria mode for further forensic acquisition. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of DFRWS.

  • 39.
    Alfredsson, Erika
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Bengtsson, Matilda
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Bluetooth-implementation för Netbiter EC3502014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In industries today the demand for reading the state of industrial equipment and thus prevent machine breakdown, is increasing. The company HMS Industrial Networks AB has a product on the market, Netbiter EC350 that is used to read sensors and thus find out the condition of industrial equipment. By reporting scanned data to users through a cloud service, users can keep track of their equipment.

     

    When developing Netbiter EC350 a slot was made for a Bluetooth module to offer clients a wireless reading in future developments. In this project a prototype was made to show how this Bluetooth communication can be implemented.

     

    The goal of the project was to create a Bluetooth communication between a Bluetooth sensor and Netbiter EC350. A user interface was made to allow the user to read sensor values.

     

    The result of the project shows how a Bluetooth communication can be implemented to read sensors wireless and therefore it fulfills its purpose and goal. The user can find connectable Bluetooth devices, connect to a device and read measured values through a user interface.

     

    The prototype demonstrates how a Bluetooth communication with a Netbiter EC350 can be implemented and the project is therefore considered to be a good basis for future development.

  • 40.
    Ali Hamad, Rebeen
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Järpe, Eric
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Lundström, Jens
    JeCom Consulting, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Stability analysis of the t-SNE algorithm for human activity pattern data2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Health technological systems learning from and reacting on how humans behave in sensor equipped environments are today being commercialized. These systems rely on the assumptions that training data and testing data share the same feature space, and residing from the same underlying distribution - which is commonly unrealistic in real-world applications. Instead, the use of transfer learning could be considered. In order to transfer knowledge between a source and a target domain these should be mapped to a common latent feature space. In this work, the dimensionality reduction algorithm t-SNE is used to map data to a similar feature space and is further investigated through a proposed novel analysis of output stability. The proposed analysis, Normalized Linear Procrustes Analysis (NLPA) extends the existing Procrustes and Local Procrustes algorithms for aligning manifolds. The methods are tested on data reflecting human behaviour patterns from data collected in a smart home environment. Results show high partial output stability for the t-SNE algorithm for the tested input data for which NLPA is able to detect clusters which are individually aligned and compared. The results highlight the importance of understanding output stability before incorporating dimensionality reduction algorithms into further computation, e.g. for transfer learning.

  • 41.
    Ali, Hazem
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Patoary, Mohammad Nazrul Ishlam
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Design and Implementation of an Audio Codec (AMR-WB) using Dataflow Programming Language CAL in the OpenDF Environment2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last three decades, computer architects have been able to achieve an increase in performance for single processors by, e.g., increasing clock speed, introducing cache memories and using instruction level parallelism. However, because of power consumption and heat dissipation constraints, this trend is going to cease. In recent times, hardware engineers have instead moved to new chip architectures with multiple processor cores on a single chip. With multi-core processors, applications can complete more total work than with one core alone. To take advantage of multi-core processors, we have to develop parallel applications that assign tasks to different cores. On each core, pipeline, data and task parallelization can be used to achieve higher performance. Dataflow programming languages are attractive for achieving parallelism because of their high-level, machine-independent, implicitly parallel notation and because of their fine-grain parallelism. These features are essential for obtaining effective, scalable utilization of multi-core processors.

    In this thesis work we have parallelized an existing audio codec - Adaptive Multi-Rate Wide Band (AMR-WB) - written in the C language for single core processor. The target platform is a multi-core AMR11 MP developer board. The final result of the efforts is a working AMR-WB encoder implemented in CAL and running in the OpenDF simulator. The C specification of the AMR-WB encoder was analysed with respect to dataflow and parallelism. The final implementation was developed in the CAL Actor Language, with the goal of exposing available parallelism - different dataflows - as well as removing unwanted data dependencies. Our thesis work discusses mapping techniques and guidelines that we followed and which can be used in any future work regarding mapping C based applications to CAL. We also propose solutions for some specific dependencies that were revealed in the AMR-WB encoder analysis and suggest further investigation of possible modifications to the encoder to enable more efficient implementation on a multi-core target system.

  • 42.
    Aljarbouh, Ayman
    et al.
    Centre de Recherche INRIA, Rennes, France.
    Zeng, Yingfu
    Rice University, Houston, Texas, United States.
    Duracz, Adam
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Caillaud, Benoît
    Centre de Recherche INRIA, Rennes, France.
    Taha, Walid
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES). Rice University, Houston, Texas, United States.
    Chattering-Free Simulation for Hybrid Dynamical Systems: Semantics and Prototype Implementation2016In: 2016 IEEE Intl Conference on Computational Science and Engineering (CSE) and IEEE Intl Conference on Embedded and Ubiquitous Computing (EUC) and 15th Intl Symposium on Distributed Computing and Applications for Business Engineering (DCABES) / [ed] Randall Bilof, Los Alamitos: IEEE Computer Society, 2016, p. 412-422, article id 7982279Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chattering is a fundamental phenomenon that is unique to hybrid systems, due to the complex interaction between discrete dynamics (in the form of discrete transitions) and continuous dynamics (in the form of time). In practice, simulating chattering hybrid systems is challenging in that simulation effectively halts near the chattering time point, as an infinite number of discrete transitions would need to be simulated. In this paper, formal conditions are provided for when the simulated models of hybrid systems display chattering behavior, and methods are proposed for avoiding chattering “on the fly” in runtime. We utilize dynamical behavior analysis to derive conditions for detecting chattering without enumeration of modes. We also present a new iterative algorithm to allow for solutions to be carried past the chattering point, and we show by a prototypical implementation how to generate the equivalent chattering-free dynamics internally by the simulator in the main simulation loop. The concepts are illustrated with examples throughout the paper. © 2016 IEEE.

  • 43.
    Alkhawaja, Abdel Rahman
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Sheibani, Hatem
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Security issues with Mobile IP2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With a rapid growth in wireless technology in recent years, Mobile IP has become very important for consumers and businesses by providing mobility based on IP addresses using several applications, which keep the employees connected with each others with critical information. In mobile IP the node can change its location by maintaining the same IP address and keep connected to the internet, which solves the issue of terminating the communication once it moves.

    Since Mobile IP uses open airwaves as a transmission medium, it is subject to the many security threats that are routed in mobile IP network .Protecting mobile IP from threats and attacks is one of the most challenging task now days. IPSec is a standard security protocol solution for TCP/IP network that provides security through Authentication, Encryption and data integrity services. Mobile IP data traffic can be secured by combining with IP Security (IPSec) protocol.

    This thesis describes Mobile IP operations, security threats, different existing methods for securing mobile IP and then IPSec standard, how it works and why IPSec is the best solution. This thesis also describes how to combine IPSec with a mobile IP to provide a solution called (SecMIP) that protects the mobile device’s communication from any threats. Finally it describes Mobile IPv6, binding update and associated security concern.

  • 44.
    Alm, Ilkoo
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Man and Information technology laboratory (MI-lab).
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Man and Information technology laboratory (MI-lab).
    Cognitive aspects in visualisation of complex data2001In: CISST'2001: proceedings of the International Conference on Imaging Science, Systems, and Technology : Las Vegas, Nevada, USA, June 25-28, 2001 / [ed] Arabnia, H.R., Avalon, Athens, USA: CSREA Press, 2001, p. 633-638Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information Visualization applications are dealing with fundamental difficulties related to overlap in cognitive models between designers and users, goal ambiguity, and accuracy in search strategies These difficulties are more obvious in applications aimed at reducing information overload by general users, than in applications aimed at visualising scientific data. General users have very likely quite different cognitive reference for approaching an abstract complex task, than designers. This can result in designs which can unintentionally increase information overload by users. In visualisation of scientific data the overlap of cognitive reference between specialists and designs is very likely much higher, but we need methods which can facilitate data exploration in real-time interaction. One possibility to facilitate exploration in a more or less systematic way is by means of metaphors which can support human perception in searching for patterns.

  • 45.
    Alonso-Fernandez, Fernando
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Bigun, Josef
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Eye Detection by Complex Filtering for Periocular Recognition2014In: 2nd International Workshop on Biometrics and Forensics (IWBF2014): Valletta, Malta (27-28th March 2014), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2014, article id 6914250Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a novel system to localize the eye position based on symmetry filters. By using a 2D separable filter tuned to detect circular symmetries, detection is done with a few ID convolutions. The detected eye center is used as input to our periocular algorithm based on retinotopic sampling grids and Gabor analysis of the local power spectrum. This setup is evaluated with two databases of iris data, one acquired with a close-up NIR camera, and another in visible light with a web-cam. The periocular system shows high resilience to inaccuracies in the position of the detected eye center. The density of the sampling grid can also be reduced without sacrificing too much accuracy, allowing additional computational savings. We also evaluate an iris texture matcher based on ID Log-Gabor wavelets. Despite the poorer performance of the iris matcher with the webcam database, its fusion with the periocular system results in improved performance. ©2014 IEEE.

  • 46.
    Alonso-Fernandez, Fernando
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Bigun, Josef
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Periocular Biometrics: Databases, Algorithms and Directions2016In: 2016 4th International Workshop on Biometrics and Forensics (IWBF): Proceedings : 3-4 March, 2016, Limassol, Cyprus, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2016, article id 7449688Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Periocular biometrics has been established as an independent modality due to concerns on the performance of iris or face systems in uncontrolled conditions. Periocular refers to the facial region in the eye vicinity, including eyelids, lashes and eyebrows. It is available over a wide range of acquisition distances, representing a trade-off between the whole face (which can be occluded at close distances) and the iris texture (which do not have enough resolution at long distances). Since the periocular region appears in face or iris images, it can be used also in conjunction with these modalities. Features extracted from the periocular region have been also used successfully for gender classification and ethnicity classification, and to study the impact of gender transformation or plastic surgery in the recognition performance. This paper presents a review of the state of the art in periocular biometric research, providing an insight of the most relevant issues and giving a thorough coverage of the existing literature. Future research trends are also briefly discussed. © 2016 IEEE.

  • 47.
    Alonso-Fernandez, Fernando
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Bigun, Josef
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE Viktoria, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Expression Recognition Using the Periocular Region: A Feasibility Study2018In: 2018 14th International Conference on Signal-Image Technology & Internet-Based Systems (SITIS) / [ed] Gabriella Sanniti di Baja, Luigi Gallo, Kokou Yetongnon, Albert Dipanda, Modesto Castrillón-Santana & Richard Chbeir, Los Alamitos: IEEE Computer Society, 2018, p. 536-541Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the feasibility of using the periocular region for expression recognition. Most works have tried to solve this by analyzing the whole face. Periocular is the facial region in the immediate vicinity of the eye. It has the advantage of being available over a wide range of distances and under partial face occlusion, thus making it suitable for unconstrained or uncooperative scenarios. We evaluate five different image descriptors on a dataset of 1,574 images from 118 subjects. The experimental results show an average/overall accuracy of 67.0%/78.0% by fusion of several descriptors. While this accuracy is still behind that attained with full-face methods, it is noteworthy to mention that our initial approach employs only one frame to predict the expression, in contraposition to state of the art, exploiting several order more data comprising spatial-temporal data which is often not available.

  • 48.
    Alonso-Fernandez, Fernando
    et al.
    ATVS/Biometric Recognition Group, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Univ. Autonoma de Madrid, Spain.
    Bigun, Josef
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Fierrez, Julian
    ATVS/Biometric Recognition Group, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Univ. Autonoma de Madrid, Spain.
    Fronthaler, Hartwig
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Kollreider, Klaus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Ortega-Garcia, Javier
    ATVS/Biometric Recognition Group, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Univ. Autonoma de Madrid, Spain.
    Fingerprint Recognition2009In: Guide to Biometric Reference Systems and Performance Evaluation / [ed] Dijana Petrovska-Delacrétaz, Gérard Chollet, Bernadette Dorizzi, London: Springer London, 2009, p. 51-88Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    First, an overview of the state of the art in fingerprint recognition is presented, including current issues and challenges. Fingerprint databases and evaluation campaigns, are also summarized. This is followed by the description of the BioSecure Benchmarking Framework for Fingerprints, using the NIST Fingerpint Image Software (NFIS2), the publicly available MCYT-100 database, and two evaluation protocols. Two research systems are compared within the proposed framework. The evaluated systems follow different approaches for fingerprint processing and are discussed in detail. Fusion experiments involving different combinations of the presented systems are also given. The NFIS2 software is also used to obtain the fingerprint scores for the multimodal experiments conducted within the BioSecure Multimodal Evaluation Campaign(BMEC’2007) reported in Chap.11.

  • 49.
    Alonso-Fernandez, Fernando
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Farrugia, Reuben
    University of Malta, Msida, Malta.
    Bigun, Josef
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Very Low-Resolution Iris Recognition Via Eigen-Patch Super-Resolution and Matcher Fusion2016In: 2016 IEEE 8th International Conference on Biometrics Theory, Applications and Systems (BTAS), Piscataway: IEEE, 2016, article id 7791208Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current research in iris recognition is moving towards enabling more relaxed acquisition conditions. This has effects on the quality of acquired images, with low resolution being a predominant issue. Here, we evaluate a super-resolution algorithm used to reconstruct iris images based on Eigen-transformation of local image patches. Each patch is reconstructed separately, allowing better quality of enhanced images by preserving local information. Contrast enhancement is used to improve the reconstruction quality, while matcher fusion has been adopted to improve iris recognition performance. We validate the system using a database of 1,872 near-infrared iris images. The presented approach is superior to bilinear or bicubic interpolation, especially at lower resolutions, and the fusion of the two systems pushes the EER to below 5% for down-sampling factors up to a image size of only 13×13.

  • 50.
    Alonso-Fernandez, Fernando
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Mikaelyan, Anna
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Bigun, Josef
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Compact Multi-scale Periocular Recognition Using SAFE Features2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present a new approach for periocular recognition based on the Symmetry Assessment by Feature Expansion (SAFE) descriptor, which encodes the presence of various symmetric curve families around image key points. We use the sclera center as single key point for feature extraction, highlighting the object-like identity properties that concentrates to this unique point of the eye. As it is demonstrated, such discriminative properties can be encoded with a reduced set of symmetric curves. Experiments are done with a database of periocular images captured with a digital camera. We test our system against reference periocular features, achieving top performance with a considerably smaller feature vector (given by the use of a single key point). All the systems tested also show a nearly steady correlation between acquisition distance and performance, and they are also able to cope well when enrolment and test images are not captured at the same distance. Fusion experiments among the available systems are also provided.

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