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Methods to Improve V2V Communications in Platoons of Heavy Duty Vehicles
Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9313-4806
2016 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In the coming years V2V communications will probably be mandated and vehicle OEMs strive to find business opportunities to finance its investments in V2V communications technology. For heavy vehicles, platooning can be this business opportunity, with the motivation for the fleet owners that platooning can decrease the fuel consumption by up to 15 % when driving in platoons. However, challenges still exists with respect to the quality and reliability of the V2V communications, which is essential in order to enable platooning in a safe way.

In this thesis, two proposals of improving the quality and reliability of V2V communications in a platooning scenario are presented. The first proposal is the Curvature Based Antenna Selection Method that utilize the curvature of the road in order to estimate which antenna have the highest probability of having line of sight conditions, hence highest probability of successful communication. The method assumes a platoon of heavy vehicles with one antenna mounted in each rear view mirror. It also assumes that the leading vehicle can estimate the yaw rate of the platoon in order to determine if it is turning or not. The second proposal include two message forwarding algorithms, the Reachability Matrix forwarding algorithm and the Data Age Dependent forwarding algorithm. Both algorithms utilize information on the preceding communication capability in order to estimate which node to choose as forwarding candidate. The Reachability Matrix Algorithm puts its focus on keeping the overhead low, while at the same time improve the information up-to-dateness. The Data Age Dependent algorithm instead puts its main focus on performance with respect to improving the information up-to-dateness, with the cost of higher overhead compared to the Reachability Matrix algorithm.

Both proposals show potential of improving the quality of the V2V communication in a platooning scenario. The first proposal, the antenna selection method, is able to maintain a Data Age deadline of 150 ms approximately twice as often as when selecting transmission antenna in a round robin fashion. For the second proposal, the Reachability Matrix Algorithm reduces the miss of a 0.2 s Data Age deadline in the communication between the first and the fourth vehicle in a platoon from 18 % to 11 %, while only increasing the number of sent messages from 40 to 48.5 per second compared to when only broadcast is used. The Data Age Dependent algorithm shows even better performance with respect to reducing the missing of the 0.2 s Data Age deadline, i.e., with a reduction from 18 % to 5 %.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Halmstad: Halmstad University Press , 2016. , xiii + 22 p.
Series
Halmstad University Dissertations, 17
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-30142ISBN: 978-91-87045-37-0 ISBN: 978-91-87045-36-3 OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hh-30142DiVA: diva2:893150
Presentation
2016-02-05, Wigforssalen, Kristian IV:s väg 3, Halmstad, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
RelCommH
Funder
Knowledge FoundationVINNOVA
Available from: 2016-01-13 Created: 2016-01-11 Last updated: 2016-02-23Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Curvature based Antenna Selection Method Evaluated Using the Data Age Metric and V2V Measurements
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Curvature based Antenna Selection Method Evaluated Using the Data Age Metric and V2V Measurements
Show others...
2015 (English)In: 2015 IEEE International Conference on Communication Workshop (ICCW), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2015, 2356-2362 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we compare a method for selecting transmission antenna based on road curvature to a method based on periodically alternating between left and right hand side transmission antennas. Both methods aim to improve the success rate for communication between participants in a platoon of vehicles. Moreover, we propose the data age metric for online use as input to the algorithm controlling the inter-vehicle distance in platooning, e.g. to decide appropriate gap between the vehicles depending on the V2V communication quality. The methods have been evaluated through V2V communication measurements performed using heavy duty vehicles on public highway. We show that, when using the curvature-based method, a 150 ms data age deadline is only missed approximately half as often compared to when periodically alternating between left and right hand side transmission antennas. The methods have also been compared for different antenna combinations. © 2015 IEEE

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2015
Keyword
Antenna Selection, Data age, PER, IEEE 802.11p, ITS, V2V, Platooning, Field Measurement
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-29199 (URN)10.1109/ICCW.2015.7247533 (DOI)000380459900387 ()2-s2.0-84947783097 (Scopus ID)978-1-4673-6305-1 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE International Conference on Communication Workshop, ICCW 2015, London, United Kingdom, 8 – 12 June 2015
Projects
RelCommH
Funder
VINNOVAKnowledge Foundation
Note

This work has partly been financed by The Swedish government agency for innovation systems (VINNOVA) within the RelCommH project and the KK-Foundation.

Available from: 2015-08-15 Created: 2015-08-15 Last updated: 2016-12-02Bibliographically approved
2. Evaluation of a Low-Overhead Forwarding Algorithm for Platooning
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of a Low-Overhead Forwarding Algorithm for Platooning
2015 (English)In: 2015 IEEE International Conference on Vehicular Electronics and Safety (ICVES), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2015, 48-55 p., 7396892Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper we present a novel message forwarding algorithm, the reachability matrix algorithm, for V2V communication in a platooning scenario. The algorithm uses a communication quality estimate to determine appropriate forwarding candidates. We show that the algorithm achieve a higher reliability in the communication compared to only using broadcast but still keeping the message intensity at a low level. The reachability matrix algorithm can decrease the ratio of missing a data age limit of 0.2 seconds from 18% to 11%, a decrease of 40%, while increasing the message intensity by only 21% compared to only using broadcast. The evaluation has been performed through simulation using input from real-life V2V measurements on heavy duty trucks in a platooning scenario. © 2015 by IEEE

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2015
Keyword
Forwarding, 802.11p, Platooning, V2V
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-29859 (URN)10.1109/ICVES.2015.7396892 (DOI)000380486800009 ()2-s2.0-84966783925 (Scopus ID)978-1-4673-91 14-6 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE ICVES 2015, International Conference on Vehicular Electronics and Safety, Yokohama, Japan, November 5-7, 2015
Projects
RelCommH
Funder
VINNOVAKnowledge Foundation
Available from: 2015-12-02 Created: 2015-12-02 Last updated: 2016-12-01Bibliographically approved
3. A Data Age Dependent Broadcast Forwarding Algorithm for Reliable Platooning Applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Data Age Dependent Broadcast Forwarding Algorithm for Reliable Platooning Applications
2016 (English)In: International Journal of Mobile Information Systems, ISSN 1574-017X, E-ISSN 1875-905X, Vol. 2016, 7489873Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We propose a broadcast message forwarding algorithm for V2V communication in a platooning scenario for heavy duty trucks. The algorithm utilizes link information, which is piggybacked on the original data packet, to estimate which nodes are best suited to forward the packet. The aim is to reach all nodes in the platoon with as few forward messages as possible in order to avoid channel congestion. The algorithm is evaluated by simulation using real world V2V measurement data as input. We show that the algorithm performs almost as good as two ETSI standardized forwarding algorithms with respect to keeping the data age for the entire platoon at a low level. But when it comes to keeping the message intensity low, our algorithm outperforms the better of the ETSI algorithms by 35%.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2016
Keyword
Forwarding, IEEE 802.11p, ITS, Multihop, Platooning, V2V
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-29860 (URN)10.1155/2016/7489873 (DOI)000375587900001 ()2-s2.0-84971668081 (Scopus ID)
Projects
RelCommH
Funder
VINNOVAKnowledge Foundation
Available from: 2015-12-02 Created: 2015-12-02 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved

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Larsson, Marcus

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