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Annex X Final report: Toward 4th Generation District Heating: Experience and Potential of Low-Temperature District Heating
Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9069-0807
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2014 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background and Objective

The evolution of district heating (DH) has gone through three generations since the first introduction of distirct heating. It is characterized by the type of transport media and the network temperature levels: the 1st generation DH system is steam-based system, the 2nd generation DH uses high network supply temperature above 100oC, and the 3rd generation DH represents the current DH system with medium network supply temperature between 80oC to 100oC. Up until now, the 4th generation DH as the low-temperature district heating (LTDH) is emerging as a new system which is going to replace the existing 3rd generation DH system. Comparing with the existing DH system, the LTDH reduces the network supply temperature down to consumer required temperature level, thus greatly improves the quality match between the energy supply and the energy demand. Meanwhile, LTDH coupling with reduced network temperature and well-designed DH network can reduce network heat loss by up to 75% comparing with the current system. This makes DH economically competitive comparing with local heat generation units in the areas with low heat density or with low-energy buildings.

The traditional approach to evaluating a DH system often focuses on the production/supply aspect and only afterwards on the final users. The LTDH concept switches the perspective, starting from end-user thermal comfort and a quality match between energy supply and energy consumption, and aiming to find the best and most economical way to satisfy the heat demand through efficient distribution networks and supply systems based on waste heat and RE. The new concept therefore starts by identifying suitable in-house substations for low-energy-demand buildings at low supply temperature, goes back to design efficient and reliable networks, and finally considers environmentally-friendly heat production units.

This report describes the concept of LTDH, collects and discusses successful examples of implementation LTDH in the building heating sector. The objective of this report is to raise awareness and provide insights that will stimulate the research, development and implementation of LTDH systems. It will help to increase public recognition and assist policy makers and energy planners, both at local and governmental level, in promoting cost-effective and environmentally friendly DH systems, and in planning and realizing long-term sustainable urban area development. To this end, the report addresses the following research issues:

1. What are the main advantages of LTDH?

2. What technology options are available for LTDH, and what are the associated challenges to consider?

3. How can the risk of Legionella be mitigated in LTDH?

4. What lessons can be learned from early LTDH projects?

5. What heat distribution costs are associated with LTDH?

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. , 205 p.
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-27197OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hh-27197DiVA: diva2:770036
Available from: 2014-12-09 Created: 2014-12-09 Last updated: 2015-02-10Bibliographically approved

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