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Production and characterization of intraspecific somatic hybrids of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)
Department of Physiological Botany, University of Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0553-7918
1991 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A culture protocol has been developed for mesophyll protoplasts isolated from various d¡haploid clones of potato. A large number of call¡ was obtained after serial dilution of the cultures w¡th a suitable amount and type of medium at different stages of cell colony development.

A polyelhylene glycol fusion procedure was developed that yielded up to 12 % heterokaryons. Using this fusion protocol hybrid cells have been manually lsolated, cultured and regenerated into plants. Fus¡on products were identified 2-3 days after fuslon by the dual fluorescence emission from the chloroplasts in mesophyll protoplasts (red) and the fluorescein diacetate stain in l¡ght and norflurazon bleached protoplasts (yellow-green). This fusion and select¡on strategy leads to the recovery of almost 100 % hybr¡d plants as established by isozyme analysls.

Cytolog¡cal analysis of protoplast-derived plants and somatic hybrid plants revealed genetic changes as a consequence of protoplast culture and protoplast fus¡on. Twenty-three tetraplo¡d somatic hybrid plants were obta¡ned from 6 different calli and 9 of these were euploid.

Morphological assessments of somatic hybr¡d plants of different ploidy levels demonstrated that tetraploid as well as several hexaploid somatic hybrids showed an increased vigour as compared to the parental plants. Most tetraploid somat¡c hybrids had a similar appearance although not all euploid plants were identical. Loss of vigour was evident in all mixoploid and octoplo¡d plants. These were stunted, weak and had an abnormal leaf morphology.

The plastid type in hybrid plants was determined by RFLP analysis. All analysed hybrids had a cpDNA restrict¡on fragment pattern ¡dent¡cal to one of the parents wh¡ch contained either S. tuberosum or S. stoloniferum cpDNA. A slight preference for S. tuberosum plastids was observed in hybild plants. No influence on tho assortment of chloroplast by the norflurazon bleaching could be detected.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis , 1991. , p. 44
Series
Comprehensive summaries of Uppsala dissertations from the Faculty of Science, ISSN 0282-7468 ; 323
National Category
Plant Biotechnology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-23705Libris ID: 7425440ISBN: 91-554-2748-0 OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hh-23705DiVA, id: diva2:652971
Public defence
1991-05-16, Uppsala, 10:00
Note

Financial support was given by the Swedish Council for Forestry and Agricultural Research.

Available from: 2010-02-23 Created: 2013-10-02 Last updated: 2016-05-03Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Factors promoting sustained divisions of mesophyll protoplasts isolated from dihaploid clones of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and a cytological analysis of regenerated plants
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Factors promoting sustained divisions of mesophyll protoplasts isolated from dihaploid clones of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and a cytological analysis of regenerated plants
1991 (English)In: Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture, ISSN 0167-6857, E-ISSN 1573-5044, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 257-265Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A culture protocol has been developed for mesophyll protoplasts isolated from various dihaploid clones of potato. A special effort was made to promote the growth of initially dividing cells to form cell colonies and calli. An increase in plating efficiency in 3 different dihaploid clones and one doubled dihaploid clone was obtained after serial dilution of cultures with a suitable amount and type of medium at different stages of cell colony development. Plating on a refined semi-solid medium after 14 days of culture further improved both the yield and the quality of calli obtained. The refined plating medium also enhanced shoot regeneration ability from 67 to 90% in one of the dihaploid clones (67:9). The refined culture protocol could also be used without causing a decrease in plating efficiency at a low population density adjusted after 3 days of culture. The ploidy level of plants regenerated from dihaploid protoplasts were determined by chromosome counting and DNA analysis by flow cytometry. Most of the plants were aneuploid or tetraploid although, some dihaploid plants were obtained after protoplast culture of 2 dihaploid clones derived from the same cultivar (cv. Stina). 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 1991
Keywords
cytological analysis, dihaploid potato, protoplast culture, shoot regeneration, sustained division
National Category
Plant Biotechnology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-30777 (URN)A1991GV57100004 ()
Available from: 2016-04-20 Created: 2016-04-20 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
2. Somatic hybridization between anther-derived dihaploid clones of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and the identification of hybrid plants by isozyme analysis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Somatic hybridization between anther-derived dihaploid clones of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and the identification of hybrid plants by isozyme analysis
1989 (English)In: Theoretical and Applied Genetics, ISSN 0040-5752, E-ISSN 1432-2242, Vol. 77, no 1, p. 49-56Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Green mesophyll protoplasts of the dihaploid potato line 198∶2 (Solanum tuberosum L.) were fused with herbicide-bleached mesophyll protoplasts of the dihaploid potato line 67∶9 using a polyethylene glycol protocol. Heterokaryons were identified under a fluorescence microscope using the dual fluorescence of carboxyfluorescein-stained, herbicide-bleached protoplasts and the autofluorescence of green mesophyll protoplasts. About 20% of the protoplasts survived the fusion treatment, and the fusion frequency was 3%-4%. Unfused and fused protoplasts were mass cultured for 6 weeks after which vigorously growing calli were selected and transferred to shoot regeneration medium. Somatic hybrids were identified by a combination of five isozyme markers, and the ploidy level was determined by flow cytometry. Out of 15 calli that regenerated shoots, 6 plants derived from 2 different calli were identified as hexaploid somatic hybrids, while one morphologically deviant plant from a third callus was identified as a mixoploid that had lost some enzyme markers after 4 months of culturing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 1989
Keywords
Isozymes, Ploidy level, Protoplast fusion, Solanum tuberosum, Somatic hybrids
National Category
Plant Biotechnology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-30779 (URN)10.1007/BF00292315 (DOI)24232473 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-0001907681 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-04-20 Created: 2016-04-20 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
3. Production and analysis of intraspecific somatic hybrids of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Production and analysis of intraspecific somatic hybrids of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)
1991 (English)In: Plant Science, ISSN 0168-9452, Vol. 75, no 1, p. 107-115Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Photoplasts of two dihaploid lines of potato were fused to produce a large number of intraspecific somatic hybrid plants among which plants of the expected tetraploid level might be found. Fusion frequencies up to 12% (mean 7%) were observed using a revised polyethylene glycol fusion protocol. Fusion products were identified by the dual fluorescence emission from the chloroplasts in mesophyll protoplasts (red) and from the fluorescein diacetate stain in light and norflurazon bleached protoplasts (yellow-green). Hybrid cells were isolated 2–3 days after fusion and cultured at a cell density of 2000 cells/ml. From a total of 1363 isolated putative hybrid cells, 258 divided to form calli. Plants were regenerated from 166 of these. Isozyme analysis confirmed the hybrid nature in 57 of 58 analysed plants. Ploidy was determined in 51 plants; 12% were tetraploid, 41% hexaploid, 12% octoploid and 35% were mixoploid. Expression of isocitrate dehydrogenase isozymes indicated that the majority of the hexaploid hybrids contained 2 genomes of the bleached parent and one genome of the mesophyll parent. This study shows that tetraploid somatic hybrid potato plants can be obtained by the fusion and selection method presented.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Shannon: Elsevier, 1991
Keywords
Solanum tuberosum; protoplast fusion, micro manipulation, somatic hybrids, isozyme analysis, DNA analysis by flow cytometry
National Category
Botany
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-30827 (URN)10.1016/0168-9452(91)90014-Y (DOI)A1991FM35300013 ()2-s2.0-0347727759 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-05-03 Created: 2016-05-03 Last updated: 2016-05-03Bibliographically approved
4. A cytogenetic and phenotypic characterization of somatic hybrid plants obtained after fusion of two different dihaploid clones of potato (Solatium tuberosum L.)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A cytogenetic and phenotypic characterization of somatic hybrid plants obtained after fusion of two different dihaploid clones of potato (Solatium tuberosum L.)
Show others...
1992 (English)In: Theoretical and Applied Genetics, ISSN 0040-5752, E-ISSN 1432-2242, Vol. 85, no 4, p. 470-479Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Somatic hybrid plants of various ploidy levels obtained after chemical fusion between two dihaploid clones of potato Solanum tuberosum L. have been analysed by cytological, morphological and molecular methods. The hybrid nature of tetraploid and hexaploid plants and the genome dosage in hexaploid hybrids were confirmed by Giemsa C-banding. Tetraploid and hexaploid hybrids showed numerical as well as structural chromosome mutations. The latter occurred mainly in the nuclear organizing chromosome. The tetraploid hybrids were more vigorous than the dihaploid parents as demonstrated by an increase in height, enlargement of leaves, increase in the number of internodes, restored potential for flowering and increased tuber yield. The grouping of tetraploid somatic hybrids into various classes on the basis of leaf morphology revealed that plants with a full chromosome complement were more uniform than aneuploids. Many hexaploid somatic hybrids were also more vigorous than the dihaploidparents and could be grouped into two different classes on the basis of floral colour and tuber characteristics, the differences being due to their different dosage of parental genomes. Most of the tetraploid somatic hybrids showed pollen development halted at the tetrad stage as one of the parental clones contained a S. Stoloniferum cytoplasm. However, one tetraploid plant produced pollen grains with high viability. The chloroplast genome in the hybrid plants was determined by RFLP analysis. All of the hybrids had a cpDNA pattern identical to one parent, which contained either S. Tuberosum or S. Stoloniferum cpDNA. A slight preference for S. Tuberosum plastids were observed in hybrid plants. No correlation between pollen development and plastid type could be detected. © 1992 Springer-Verlag.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: Springer-Verlag New York, 1992
Keywords
cpDNA, Cytology, Morphology, Solanum tuberosum, Somatic hybrids
National Category
Botany
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-30828 (URN)10.1007/BF00222329 (DOI)A1992KE52200013 ()24197462 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-0000323620 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-05-03 Created: 2016-05-03 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved

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