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Factors influencing the surface quality of polished tool steels
Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9084-819X
Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8058-1252
2014 (English)In: Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties, ISSN 2051-672X, Vol. 2, no 3, 035004Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Today’s demands on surface quality of moulds for injection moulding of plastic components involve no/low defect contents and roughness levels in the nm-range for high gloss applications. Material properties as well as operating conditions influence the mould finish, and thus the final surface of moulded products. This paper focuses on how particle content and different polishing strategies influence final surface qualities of moulds. Visual estimations of polished tool steel samples were combined with non-contact 3D-surface texture analysis in order to correlate traditional assessments to more quantitative methods, and to be able to analyse the surfaces at nanometer-level.

It was found that steels with a lower proportion of particles, like carbides and oxides, gave rise to smoother polished surfaces. In a comparative study of polishers from different polishing shops, it was found that while different surface preparation strategies can lead to similar final roughness, similar preparation techniques can produce high-quality surfaces from different steel grades. However, the non-contact 3D-surface texture analysis showed that not all smooth polished surfaces have desirable functional topographies for injection moulding of glossy plastic components.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bristol: Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2014. Vol. 2, no 3, 035004
Keyword [en]
Polishing strategy, tool steels, surface quality, high gloss appearance
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-22174Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84979198888OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hh-22174DiVA: diva2:621844
Available from: 2013-05-17 Created: 2013-05-17 Last updated: 2017-03-20Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. On Polishability of Tool Steels
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On Polishability of Tool Steels
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

One of the world’s fastest growing industries is the plastic industry. Today’s ever increasing demands of high quality products, shorter lead times and reduced costs push development and research forwards. Moulds for plastic injection moulding need to have a functional surface to meet demands on demoulding and wear properties, but also to produce the required final surface quality, which for ‘standard mould qualities’ of high gloss applications means nearly defect free, shiny and smooth mould surfaces with roughness levels in the nm-range.

The aim of this thesis was to develop a metrology framework to quantitatively characterise these mould surfaces in order to gain better understanding of which defect structures are critical at injection moulding, and how these are correlated to material properties and operating conditions in surface preparation of tool steels. In practice this means to capture surface features of some few nm in height/depth up to some hundreds of microns in lateral dimension within insert areas of cm2 and larger. Experiments combining polishers’ experience with steel producers’ as well as non-contact areal texture examinations of surface topography were performed to overcome and link practical skills to academic ones.

Based on areal surface metrology, defect classification and image analysis based surface characterisation, an evaluation procedure for polished tool steel surfaces was developed, initially tested and verified. The suggested method involves descriptions of relevant defect structures and acceptance levels for high gloss polished tool steels in the form of numerical parameter values based on interferometric measurements. It was also concluded that the cleanness of the steels was less important as long as it was kept within reasonable levels; the surface preparation strategy is a major factor influencing the mould surface quality e.g. it was found that a ‘several-step-strategy’ was favourable to avoid defect structures; not all ‘mirror-like’ mould surfaces had desirable topographies for injection moulding, therefore a well-defined mould surface assessment with numerical values describing mould surface quality is necessary to secure effective mould surfaces.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Göteborg: Chalmers University of Technology, 2013. 50 p.
Series
Doktorsavhandlingar vid Chalmers tekniska högskola. Ny Serie, ISSN 0346-718X ; 3509
Keyword
tool steels, polishability, surface characterisation, surface texture parameters, high gloss polishing, injection moulding
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-22175 (URN)978-91-7385-828-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-04-05, Virtual development laboratory, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

Includes pamphlet in Appendix I.

Available from: 2013-11-08 Created: 2013-05-17 Last updated: 2015-01-26Bibliographically approved

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