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Cooperation directed learning in inclusive physical education
Department of Physiotherapy and Sport Medicine, Latvian Academy of Sport Education, Riga, Latvia.
Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Center for Sport and Health Science (CIHF).ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9192-6949
The National Agency for Special Needs Education and Schools, Örebro, Sweden.
University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
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2012 (English)In: EUCAPA 2012, Book of abstracts, 2012Conference paper, Abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Peer tutoring is a type of collaboration directed learning strategy in which students support each other rather than relying only on assistant teacher or paraprofessional assistance. Utilizing peers as a natural support might facilitate interactions between students with and without disabilities. However, the research on cooperation oriented education approaches in Europe is very spare.

PURPOSE:

This study aims the implementation of cooperation oriented learning of peer tutoring in elementary general inclusive physical education (GPE) setting in three city schools in Sweden. The study was utilized within a Nordplus- Horizontal project.

METHODS:

A single subject multiple baseline design across elementary school age students with moderate disabilities (n=4) was used. While peer tutor training program was provided for the whole class target students were included when attending GPE, peer tutors (n=37) were students without disabilities who volunteered for this role. The peer tutor training program incorporating disability awareness, teaching instructions and communication skills served as the independent measure. Dependent measures included physical, instructional and social interactions between students with and without disabilities. Totally 43 observations sessions (á 20 minutes) were collected on videotapes. The obtained data were coded using the Computerized Evaluation Protocol of Interactions in Physical Education (CEPI-PE) (Klavina, 2011).

RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS:

Age appropriate peer tutors were effective at assisting students with moderate disabilities in inclusive GPE in Swedish elementary schools. The percentage of interactions between target students and peer tutors significantly increased (3.2% to 11.8 % respectively, p<.5). These results replicate findings of previous studies done in the United States demonstrating that peer tutor arrangements can contribute the successful collaboration between students with and without disabilities in inclusive GPE (Houston-Wilson et al., 1997; Klavina & Block, 2008; Lieberman et al., 1997; Murata & Jansma, 1997). All four students with disabilities maintained high percentage of activities done independently throughout baseline and intervention phase (50.5% and 57.6%, accordingly). While collected data did not demonstrate significant change in social interactions for students with disabilities across the two study conditions (11.6% in baseline and 13.9% in intervention), anecdotal notes and social validation outcomes indicated that peer tutoring conditions provided them with the sense of being included in the class. For example, the classroom teachers stated that students with disabilities experienced more social interactions and positive attitude from their classmates during other situations during the school day increasing self-esteem of target students. Along this line, Goodwin and Watkinson (2000) found that factors contributing to positive experience for students with physical disabilities in GPE were a sense of belonging and companionship. Also, school principals and teacher assistants at all four research sites indicated positive change regarding social climate and the quality of the social interactions in the whole class after the study, not only between students with and without disabilities. The positive perceived peer culture (Jansson, 2005) reported by the school personal is an essential additional outcome of the peer tutoring training. The importance of using a class wide peer tutoring approach when including students with moderate disabilities in GPE become obvious.

References

Goodwin, D.L., & Watkinson, E.J. (2000). Inclusive physical education from the

perspective of students with physical disabilities. Adapted Physical Activity

Quarterly, 17, 144-160.

Houston-Wilson, C., Dunn, J.M., Van der Mars, H., & McCubbin, J. (1997). The effect          of peer tutors on motor performance in integrated physical education classes. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 14, 298–313.

Jansson, U. (2005). Vad är delaktighet? En diskussion av olika innebörder.

Pedagogiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet. [in Swedish]

Klavina, A. (2011). Development and Initial Validation of the Computerized

Evaluation Protocol of Interactions in Physical Education. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, 15(1), 26-46.

Klavina, A. & Block, M. (2008). The effect of peer tutoring on interaction behaviors in inclusive physical education. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 25, 132-158.

Lieberman, L.J., Newcomer, J., McCubbin, J., & Dalrymple, N. (1997). The effects of cross age tutors on the academic learning time in physical education of children with disabilities in inclusive elementary physical education classes. Brazilian Journal of Adapted Physical Education & Recreation, 4, 15–32.

Murata, N.M., & Jansma, P. (1997). Influence of support personnel on students with and without disabilities in general physical education. Clinical Kinesiology, 51 (2), 37-46.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012.
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-21045OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hh-21045DiVA: diva2:587698
Conference
European Congress of Adapted Physical Activity (EuCapa 2012), Killarney, Ireland, May 6th-8th, 2012
Available from: 2013-01-14 Created: 2013-01-14 Last updated: 2017-04-25Bibliographically approved

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