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Hunger indikerar inte akut energistatus hos friska människor: En måltidsintervention
Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
2012 (Swedish)Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesisAlternative title
Hunger does not indicate dietary energy availability in healthy humans : A meal intervention study (English)
Abstract [sv]

Bakgrund

En mer stillasittande livsstil med ett högre kaloriintag ökar riskerna för övervikt och andra metabola sjukdomar. För att förebygga och behandla dessa sjukdomar behöver vi bland annat förstå hur hungerkänslor regleras hos människan. Hur stor inverkan blodglukosnivåer har på hungerregleringen är dock omdiskuterat.

Syfte

Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka hur hungerkänslor och blodglukosnivåer förändras efter en måltid, jämfört med fasta. Kan den upplevda hungern påverkas genom periodisk fas-ta? Hur påverkar en invand måltidsrytm hungern? Hur påverkas hunger och blodglukos i för-väntan på en måltid?

Metod

Tolv friska testpersoner (7 män, 5 kvinnor) där sju stycken var vana vid periodisk fasta och fem inte var det, randomiserades in i två grupper där ena gruppen (Pi) fick äta en 600 kcal pizza medan den andra gruppen fick fasta (F). Blodglukosvärden och hungeruppskattningar registrerades var 30:e minut, förutom första värdet som registrerades 15 minuter innan pizzor-na serverades. Testpersonerna visste inte vilken grupp de skulle hamna i förrän 10 minuter innan pizzorna serverades.

Resultat

Fem timmar efter måltiden kunde ingen signifikant skillnad i blodglukossänkning observeras mellan grupperna. Hungern skiljde sig inte heller signifikant mellan grupperna. Endast Pi ökade dock signifikant i hunger (P = 0,05) jämfört med sina startvärden. Fastevana bidrog inte till en förbättrad hungerkontroll. Beskedet om vilken grupp testpersonerna skulle hamna i resulterade i att blodglukosnivåerna skiljde sig signifikant mellan grupperna (P = 0,05) när pizzorna serverades. Då sänktes blodglukosnivåerna hos Pi samtidigt som de höjdes hos F. Fyra av fem testpersoner i F och en testperson i Pi blev tydligt hungrigare vid tidpunkter då de vanligtvis brukade äta på.

Slutsats

Samband mellan absoluta blodglukosnivåer och hunger kunde inte hittas. Stark hunger kunde uppstå fastän dietär energi sannolikt fortfarande absorberades i tarmarna.Våra resultat indikerade därför att akut energitillgänglighet utgör en relativt liten del i den totala hungersignaleringen. En invand måltidsrytm såg ut att påverka hungern mer än vad måltiden i den här studien gjorde. Större fokus vid hungerreglering bör därför ligga på en re-gelbunden måltidsrytm.

Abstract [en]

Background

The increasingly sedentary lifestyle of our society combined with a constantly rising caloric intake has elevated the risk of developing obesity and other metabolic diseases. There is a need to understand the underlying mechanisms of hunger regulation to effectively prevent and treat these diseases. The magnitude of which an active regulation of blood glucose has an influence on hunger regulation is rather controversial.

Objective

The objective of this study was to investigate how the changes in hunger and blood glucose levels may differ after a mixed meal compared to the fasting state. Research questions include: Does intermittent fasting reduce general hunger? How does an entrenched meal-pattern affect hunger? How does hunger and blood glucose change in anticipation of a meal?

Method

Twelve healthy subjects (7 men, 5 women), of which seven subjects regularly practiced intermittent fasting and the remaining five did not, were randomized into two groups, one group was eating pizza (Pi), and the other group was fasting (F). Blood glucose levels and hunger ratings were collected every 30 minutes, with exception of initial values that were collected 15 minutes prior to the serving of the pizzas. The subjects were unaware of which group they would be designated to until 10 minutes prior to the serving of the pizzas.

Results

Decline in blood glucose did not significantly differ between groups during the 5 hour window following the meal ingestion. Hunger ratings differed significantly between individuals but not between groups. However, only Pi had significantly elevated hunger ratings in the end of the test period compared to their initial ratings. In anticipation of the meal a significant change in blood glucose was observed between the groups (P = 0.05), where values dropped for Pi and rose for F. Four out of five subjects in F and one subject in Pi were considerably hungrier during time periods they reported as habitual eating occasion.

Conclusion

Correlations between absolute blood glucose levels and hunger could not be found. An equal rise in hunger appear regardless if subjects were fed or fasting, meaning significant hunger can appear although dietary energy still is absorbed into the blood stream. Thus our results indicate that the acute availability of dietary energy is only a relatively small part of the total hunger signaling process. A disrupted meal pattern seemed to affect hunger feelings more than the ingestion of the served meal. Thus we conclude that more research should focus on meal-pattern regulation to enable better hunger control.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. , p. 18
Keywords [en]
hunger, fasting, blood glucose, ghrelin, blood sugar, meal frequency
Keywords [sv]
hunger, fasta, blodglukos, blodsocker, ghrelin, matsmältning, matspjälkning, substratupptag, måltidsrytm, energistatus
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-18915OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hh-18915DiVA, id: diva2:536998
Subject / course
Biomedicine Targeting Physical Education
Uppsok
Medicine
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2012-06-26 Created: 2012-06-25 Last updated: 2012-06-26Bibliographically approved

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