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System analysis of kitesurfing: Understanding performance and injury risk for on-water board sports
Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS). (Idrottsfysiologi, biomekanik och hälsa)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2513-3040
2011 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Board sports are examples of sports where the interaction of the task, environment and the athlete are essential. As for other sports, there are injuries and other issues associated with these sports, which affect performance and that can be avoided by proper preparation and well- designed equipment. By focusing on kitesurfing as a system structure the complex interactions between factors can help reveal which variables that are of interest to study to increase the level of performance and safety. Lack of research on the board sport kitesurfing makes this area interesting to study regarding performance and musculoskeletal problems. The purpose of this licentiate thesis was to further the understanding of on-water board sports, and specifically study kitesurfing by using a system analysis to structure factors that influence performance and injury risk for this board sport. The specific aims were:

To reveal the most common self-reported injuries related to kitesurfing and their causes (Paper I).

To evaluate in which body parts participants perceive musculoskeletal stress, pain and discomfort related to the performance of kitesurfing (Paper II).

To identify usability problems related to the preparation of kitesurfing equipment (Paper III).

To provide a system analysis to describe the relations between and identify characteristics that influence performance and injury risk of kitesurfing.

Methods used for these studies were hierarchical task analysis, observations (n=8), web- questionnaires (n=206), interviews (n=17) and a focus group (n=7). The system analysis was executed in six steps and based on ideas adopted from general systems theory, dynamical systems and ecological task analysis. Tasks performed in freestyle kitesurfing consist of riding a board and performing jumps and tricks, whereof the latter have sub-tasks involving take-off, acrobatic air movements and landings. Within the system of kitesurfing, there are the sub-systems athlete, kite system, board system and harness/protection. There are also external factors acting upon the system. All sub- systems have characteristics that are less changeable during execution of the task and which effect on the athlete can be represented by identified output measures, i.e. harness line force, board reaction force, steering force, pressure distribution, movement patterns, body temperature, fatigue level, comfort and pain, choice of sub-task, mood, stress level, concentration, motivation, experience and usability. The results show that the most frequent locations for injury are in the lower extremities, i.e. knee and ankle, and that about 50% of the injuries reported were associated with jumps and tricks. Equipment and environmental factors also contribute to injuries, as well as to musculoskeletal stress, pain and discomfort. The abdominal muscles were most frequently reported as exposed to high musculoskeletal stress, but also thighs and lower back were perceived as highly stressed throughout the tasks. Knees and feet were areas described as sometimes painful, especially in combination with landings from tricks or strong winds.

Furthermore, the lower back was reported painful when kitesurfing in strong winds. When hooking out from the harness for performing tricks, the shoulders were perceived as highly stressed. Before the execution of on-water kitesurfing starts, the preparation of the kite system must be accomplished. The results from Study III showed that there are usability problems related to this kitesurfing task, meaning risk for use error to arise. If use errors occur, serious consequences can follow later in the process. The results emphasize improvement of the products from a usability perspective. Some of the identified output measures were partly answered from the results of Papers I-III, where numbers of injuries, perceived musculoskeletal stress, pain and discomfort, and usability issues were evaluated for kitesurfing. The structure motives the need for further research within the area of on-water board sports and reveals variables that are affecting the system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Göteborg: Chalmers University of Technology , 2011. , 51 p.
Series
Research series from Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Product and Production Development, ISSN 1652-9243 ; 56
Keyword [en]
sport performance, sport injury, musculoskeletal stress, system analysis, usability problems, human movement
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-15773OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hh-15773DiVA: diva2:429770
Presentation
2011-06-14, Sal TD-SEm, vån 4, hus A, uppgång A2, CTH, Chalmers tekniska högskola, Göteborg, 13:00 (Swedish)
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-09-07 Created: 2011-07-05 Last updated: 2016-08-01Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Sport performance and perceived musculoskeletal stress, pain and discomfort in kitesurfing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sport performance and perceived musculoskeletal stress, pain and discomfort in kitesurfing
2011 (English)In: International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, ISSN 1474-8185, E-ISSN 1474-8185, Vol. 11, no 1, 142-158 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this study was to obtain an overview of the specific movement patterns in kitesurfing, and the participants' perceptions of musculoskeletal stress, pain and discomfort. Task analysis and survey studies were used to provide an overview of the sport, and to identify problematic issues associated with the performance of the tasks. Three different methods were complimentary used for data collection: observations (n=8), a web questionnaire (n=206) and interviews (n=17). Participants were contacted through kitesurfing events and online forums. Their ages ranged from 16-62 years. The results showed that participants experienced high musculoskeletal stress for short times during a session (jumps, tricks and strong winds), and lower, static musculoskeletal stress over a longer time (crossing). High stress was most frequently perceived in abdominal muscles. Knees and feet were the sites most frequently experienced as painful, followed by the shoulders and elbows. This study provides additional information on the performance of kitesurfing and perceived musculoskeletal stress, pain and discomfort. The results can be used as input data to develop training methods and equipment for safe and comfortable performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cardiff, UK: Centre for Performance Analysis, University of Wales Institute, 2011
Keyword
sport performance, movement pattern, survey
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-15293 (URN)000304195200014 ()
Projects
Brädsport & Biomekanik
Available from: 2011-06-08 Created: 2011-06-08 Last updated: 2016-08-01Bibliographically approved
2. Injuries related to kitesurfing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Injuries related to kitesurfing
2011 (English)In: World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, ISSN 2010-3778, no 77, 1132-1136 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Participation in sporting activities can lead to injury. Sport injuries have been widely studied in many sports including the more extreme categories of aquatic board sports. Kitesurfing is a relatively new water surface action sport, and has not yet been widely studied in terms of injuries and stress on the body. The aim of this study was to get information about which injuries that are most common among kitesurfing practitioners, where they occur, and their causes. Injuries were studied using an international open web questionnaire (n=206). The results showed that many respondents reported injuries, in total 251 injuries to knee (24%), ankle (17%), trunk (16%) and shoulders (10%), often sustained while doing jumps and tricks (40%). Among the reported injuries were joint injuries (n=101), muscle/tendon damages (n=47), wounds and cuts (n=36) and bone fractures (n=28). Also environmental factors and equipment can influence the risk of injury, or the extent of injury in a hazardous situation. Conclusively, the information from this retrospective study supports earlier studies in terms of prevalence and site of injuries. Suggestively, this information should be used for to build a foundation of knowledge about the sport for development of applications for physical training and product development.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Istanbul, Turkey: World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, WASET, 2011
Keyword
kitesurfing, injuries, injury cause, questionnaire
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-15296 (URN)
Conference
ICSMSS 2011 : International Conference on Sport Medicine and Sport Science, Paris, France November 14-16, 2011
Projects
Brädsport & Biomekanik
Available from: 2011-09-21 Created: 2011-06-08 Last updated: 2016-08-01Bibliographically approved
3. Implementation of usability analysis to detect problems in the management of kitesurfing equipment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Implementation of usability analysis to detect problems in the management of kitesurfing equipment
2011 (English)In: Procedia Engineering, ISSN 1877-7058, Vol. 13, 525-530 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Equipment used for high-risk sports, such as kitesurfing, needs to be efficient for the intended use and the user, and thus meet the mechanical demands and provide sufficient safety. Accidents related to kitesurfing occur, and the consequences are sometimes catastrophic. One important factor is the equipment design, which can influence the type and number of injuries due to insufficient safety systems. The aim of this study was to investigate how the design of kitesurfing equipment can affect safety issues from a usability perspective in relation to the task of preparation. A focus group of 6 subjects analyzed the task of preparing kitesurfing equipment for riding, using the evaluation methods Enhanced Cognitive Walkthrough (ECW) and Predictive Use Error Analysis (PUEA). From the evaluation, a list of plausible usability problems was identified together with proposed design guidelines. The results showed that usability problems occur during preparation. In total 35 usability problems were found, of which 11 (4 from ECW and 7 from PUEA) have a great impact on safety. These 11 problems were hard to detect for the user and could result in serious consequences for the kitesurfers during rideing. The analysis resulted in some general guidelines that are possible to implement on different types of kites. To conclude, education and improved design of the equipment are essential to increase the safety of the sport.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2011
Keyword
sport, usability, kitesurfing, design, equipment
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-15574 (URN)10.1016/j.proeng.2011.05.125 (DOI)000300214900083 ()2-s2.0-80051634938 (Scopus ID)
Conference
APCST 5th Asia-Pacific Congress on Sports Technology
Note

5th Asia-Pacific Congress on Sports Technology (APCST) Edited by Aleksandar Subic, Franz Konstantin Fuss, Firoz Alam and Patrick Clifton

Available from: 2011-09-21 Created: 2011-06-22 Last updated: 2016-08-01Bibliographically approved

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