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Surfaces of Honed Cylinder Liners
Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3149-4296
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Cylinder liner surfaces are often on the agenda of engine developers because of their large influence on the frictional losses, oil consumption and emissions of internal combustion engines. Improving the liner function involves not only manufacturing new surfaces and checking their function but also characterising them as a necessary intermediate step for better understanding of the changes made. In the manufacturing of the liners, honing is a well adapted and widely used finishing process and along with the characterisation and function has been the subject of studies in this thesis. Regarding the liner’s function, three phenomena were monitored: wear, friction and oil passage rate (correlated with engine’s oil consumption). The first one was studied experimentally while the other two were simulated. Only the interactions with the twin land oil control ring were simulated as it has the greatest influence on the control of friction and oil consumption of all other rings. In the mid-stroke region of truck engine liners, the presence of axial wear scratches was observed and their relation with the removal of the cold worked material (“Blechmantel”) folded inside the deep honing grooves was investigated. Algorithms were developed for estimating the extent of Blechmantel, revealing that most of it remained on the surface whereas the engines still performed well. Other algorithms for characterising honing angle, balance of honing texture, width, height, distance between honing grooves/axial wear scratches, etc were developed for quicker and more objective inspection of unworn and worn surfaces from 3D interference measurements. Based on such 3D measurements, the algorithms were incorporated in a characterisation tool enabling rating of the surfaces and determining the number of measurements necessary to achieve stable roughness parameter values. In addition, it was found that interference measurements are more suitable for quantification of the deposits on the worn truck liner surfaces compared with scanning electron microscope measurements. The lubrication and friction of flat oil control ring lands and differently slide honed surfaces of truck liners were simulated. Friction mean effective pressure and oil passage rate were calculated for each surface showing in each case a reduction for the surfaces with smoother plateaus and smaller valleys. Such a liner surface was finished by using a low base honing pressure and a longer plateau honing time. In a car engine, the influence of different liner surfaces, ring land widths and tensions was examined by running simulations. The results suggest that a considerably improved function can be achieved if the ring land width and tension are reduced whereby the differences between the liner surfaces would reduce.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Göteborg: Chalmers University of Technology , 2011. , 75 p.
Series
Doktorsavhandlingar vid Chalmers tekniska högskola. Ny serie, ISSN 0346-718X ; 3186
Keyword [en]
Honing, Characterisation, Blechmantel, Groove Parameters, Quality Control, Oil Consumption, Wear, Friction, Mixed Lubrication Simulation
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-14649ISBN: 978-91-7385-505-1 OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hh-14649DiVA: diva2:406512
Public defence
2011-03-18, EA, Hörsalsv. 11, Göteborg, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-03-28 Created: 2011-03-25 Last updated: 2014-03-05Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Quantification of the cold worked material inside the deep honing grooves on cylinder liner surfaces and its effect on wear
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quantification of the cold worked material inside the deep honing grooves on cylinder liner surfaces and its effect on wear
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2009 (English)In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 267, no 12, 2235-2242 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The increased presence of cold work material on cylinder liners due to the introduction of the diamond honing is undesirable as it seals the oil-bearing honing grooves. The most of it is a smeared metal inside the deep honing grooves (blechmantel) that may break and act as abrasive wear particles increasing the bore wear. An attempt has been made to estimate the extent of removal of blechmantel for different wear regimes present at the middle and top region (near the top dead centre) of the liner surface using the least worn bottom region as a reference for comparison. A number of truck grey iron cylinder liners were axially sectioned after varying periods of engine running under similar conditions of load, engine speed and lubrication. 3D surface measurements were taken at the three regions and a range of standard parameters was extracted. Combining the profile and image analysis, an algorithm was developed to identify and quantify the blechmantel. The algorithm has successfully identified/quantified the blechmantel and can be used for automatic surface quality and process control. It was found that the amount of the blechmantel in the middle section was approximately the same (though slightly lower) as that in the bottom section, while there was a considerable dislocation and removal of blechmantel in the top section and thereby it represents one of the possible causes for wear. Axial wear scratches of different size and distribution were observed not only through the whole stroke area, but also in the bottom region. All engines and liners performed well throughout the tests, and the observed quantities of blechmantel and axial scratches are acceptable for the time being.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2009
Keyword
Cold work quantification; Cylinder liner wear; Surface topography; Engine tests; Diamond honing
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-3603 (URN)10.1016/j.wear.2009.06.008 (DOI)000272810200012 ()2-s2.0-71849087389 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2009-12-10 Created: 2009-12-10 Last updated: 2014-03-05Bibliographically approved
2. Complementing 3D Roughness Parameters for Monitoring of Improved Honing of Cylinder Bores
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Complementing 3D Roughness Parameters for Monitoring of Improved Honing of Cylinder Bores
2008 (English)In: Proceedings of the Swedish Production Symposium (SPS) - 2008, 2008Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

It is of common interest to reduce the oil consumption and frictional losses in the internal combustion engines which are in a great deal influenced by the quality of the cylinder liner surface. Its criss-cross patterned topography consists of a communicating system of grooves of different density, width, and depth, somewhere covered by folded metal, and somewhere totally interrupted and unbalanced as a result of the honing process imperfections. These features are crucial for a good liner’s function and are inspected from scanning electron microscope images by experts, which is subjective and time consuming process. Today, a fast automatic quality control is possible by using optical instruments to measure the liner’s topography, and a computer to calculate and check if the standard roughness and groove parameters are in tolerance. Therefore, combining the profile and image analysis, algorithms were developed to compute liner’s groove parameters from 3D interference measurements taken from three different types of cylinder bore surfaces of passenger cars. One of the surface types was a result of a test of an improved honing and the other two being currently in use. Then, the standard and new parameters (groove interruption, number of grooves, holes, etc) were incorporated in a characterisation tool to objectively and quickly evaluate the improvement of the liner’s quality for an updated monitoring in production.

Keyword
Cylinder Bores, Surface Roughness, Automated Quality Control
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-3604 (URN)978-3-939026-95-2 (ISBN)
Conference
2nd Swedish Production Symposium, Stockholm, Sweden, 18-20 November 2008
Available from: 2009-12-10 Created: 2009-12-10 Last updated: 2014-03-05Bibliographically approved
3. Characterisation of worn cylinder liner surfaces by segmentation of honing and wear scratches
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterisation of worn cylinder liner surfaces by segmentation of honing and wear scratches
2011 (English)In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 271, 548-552 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The presence of the honing scratches/grooves in cylinder liner surfaces is intended and desired as they improve the lubrication and retain the debris reducing the piston assembly/liner friction and consequently improve the fuel economy and longevity of the internal combustion (IC) engines. Axial scratches caused by the abrasive wear between the tribological partners and/or entrained wear particles are undesired since they are correlated with increased oil consumption and noxious emissions of the IC engines. Due to the imperfection of the manufacturing process, the honing grooves, especially the deep ones, are smeared and interrupted by folds. A portion of the folds would eventually detach during the running process and act as abrasive particles increasing the wear in the cylinder. To closely examine the influence of all these features on the liner's function, it emerges a need to objectively quantify the axial wear scratches, plateau honing grooves, deep honing grooves and their interrupts. The existing techniques fail to segment a groove containing interrupts as they usually appear as summits at several locations in the course of the groove. Combining the profile and image analyses, the deep grooves and their interrupts were successfully identified and quantified in earlier works of the authors. In this paper those algorithms are extended, so that the deep honing grooves, plateau honing grooves and axial scratches crossing different depth levels are sequentially segmented in three levels/steps in an immersing way. A number of parameters derived from this method were utilised to compare 3D interference measurements from the top dead centre, middle and bottom region of a liner run in a truck engine test whereas the three regions represent different wear regimes due to the different running conditions. The results show that: (i) the axial scratches are densest in the top dead centre and about the same size as the plateau grooves in all three regions, while in the bottom region there are only few scratches; (ii) the presence of plateau grooves in the top region clearly decreases, (iii) the deep groove interrupt and coverage are lowest in the top region, and (iv) the groove height and distance between grooves spread mostly.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2011
Keyword
Honing, Abrasives, Automobile testing, Debris, Fuel economy, Image analysis
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-14247 (URN)10.1016/j.wear.2010.04.024 (DOI)000292678600011 ()2-s2.0-77952190501 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Linersurf2
Available from: 2011-01-27 Created: 2011-01-27 Last updated: 2014-03-05Bibliographically approved
4. Interference Measurements of Deposits on Cylinder Liner Surfaces
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interference Measurements of Deposits on Cylinder Liner Surfaces
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2011 (English)In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 270, no 3-4, 247-251 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The accumulation of deposits in the honing grooves of the cylinder liner surfaces of internal combustion engines is undesirable as they seal the grooves (reducing their oil retention capability) and increase engine's oil consumption. As part of a long-term programme of truck engine development, after different running times and under similar conditions of load, engine speed and lubrication, a number of grey iron cylinder liners were axially sectioned, measured, inspected and a presence of deposits was discovered. These deposits were characterised in order to gain knowledge about their origin and quantities. The X-ray energy dispersive analysis revealed elements stemming from the oil/fuel (C, O and S), from the detergent (Ca and Mg), from the anti-wear additive (Zn and P), and from some contaminants (K and Si). Higher concentration of S and Ca were mostly found in the honing grooves covered with deposits suggesting a domination of the detergent additive. Deposit thickness measurements obtained by a white light interferometer revealed patchy deposit topographies concentrated at the top region reducing towards the bottom of the liner which was also confirmed by scanning electron microscope measurements. Despite the limitations of the interferometer, it has been shown that the interference measurements are sufficiently reliable for a quick and objective quantification of the overall deposit accumulation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2011
Keyword
Cylinder liner deposits, Engine tests, Run-in, Surface characterisation
National Category
Physical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-14643 (URN)10.1016/j.wear.2010.10.066 (DOI)000286718500014 ()2-s2.0-78650677589 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2011-03-25 Created: 2011-03-25 Last updated: 2014-03-05Bibliographically approved
5. Optimisation of Cylinder Liner Surface Finish by Slide Honing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimisation of Cylinder Liner Surface Finish by Slide Honing
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2012 (English)In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part B, journal of engineering manufacture, ISSN 0954-4054, Vol. 226, no 4, 575-584 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cylinder liner surface finish controls the frictional losses, oil consumption, and emissions of internal combustion engines to a large extent. In order to minimize such losses, it is important to optimize the liner surface topography by a consistent and more productive finishing process such as slide honing. This process employs diamond abrasives and has been recently introduced in the automotive industry. In this study, its potentials are explored, especially the winning combination of its key process parameters: the base honing pressure and plateau honing time that would yield an optimal liner surface finish. A number of truck engine liners were slide-honed by using different process parameters, samples of the liners were cut, and three-dimensional (3D) surface measurements were taken on a white light interferometer. Then, among others, the (deep honing) groove parameters, specific for liner surfaces, were computed from the measurements for building a large database for comparison and correlation. By simulating the contact and fluid mechanics between the measured liner topographies and a twin land oil control ring under mixed lubrication conditions, the friction mean effective pressure and oil passage rate for a range of engine speeds were calculated. These two parameters represent the liner's function associated with the engine's friction and oil consumption respectively. The results show that the lowest friction and oil flow are highly correlated with surfaces having smoother plateaus and smaller valleys, finished by using lower base honing pressure and longer plateau honing time. High correlations between the 3D roughness parameters were also found, enabling the selection and use of more stable and robust parameters in the quality control of the liner's surface finish. © IMechE 2012.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Mechanical Engineering Publ., 2012
Keyword
3D characterization, diamond honing, liner surface finish, mixed lubrication simulation
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-14645 (URN)10.1177/0954405410396154 (DOI)000305481600001 ()2-s2.0-84860231449 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2011-03-25 Created: 2011-03-25 Last updated: 2016-08-15Bibliographically approved
6. Influence of Different Cylinder Liner Surfaces on Their Performance with the Twin Land Oil Control Ring in a Car Engine
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of Different Cylinder Liner Surfaces on Their Performance with the Twin Land Oil Control Ring in a Car Engine
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2011 (English)In: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces, 2011Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-14647 (URN)
Conference
The 13th International Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces, Met & Props 2011, 12-15 April 2011, Twickenham Stadium, London, UK
Available from: 2011-03-25 Created: 2011-03-25 Last updated: 2016-08-15Bibliographically approved

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Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
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  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
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  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
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  • Other locale
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Output format
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  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf