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On Surface Topography of Cylinder Liners
Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3149-4296
2008 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The frictional losses, oil consumption and emissions in internal combustion engines are in great extent controlled by the cylinder liner surface topography. This emphasises the importance of: investigating the liner’s topography by objectively characterising it, investigating its effects on the tribological function to gain a better understanding and improving its manufacturing. As a first attempt in this study to objectively characterise the liner surface, a traditional combination of Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images and roughness profiles was used. The groove and image parameters characteristic for liner topographies were extracted by applying specially developed algorithms and together with the standard parameters served to study wear on liners of diesel and petrol engines. An experiment was designed to improve the liners’ manufacturing by varying of the honing process parameters and oil flow simulations were run to study the influence of the characteristics of the manufactured surfaces on their function. The results suggested that reducing the base honing pressure and increasing the plateau honing time gave the best surface with smoother plateaux, summits of higher density and milder slopes, more but smaller islands and shallower valleys. The potentials of fast acquiring and containing 3D data of the interference measurements were utilised to overcome the encountered problems in the usage of the combination of profile and SEM measurements and to enable automatic quality control of the cylinder liner surfaces. In the efforts to examine the influence of the surface properties on liner’s function, the extent of blechmantel (cold work material) removal was estimated from 3D measurements of run liners in engine tests. For characterising this feature, algorithms were developed and implemented and it was found that the most of the blechmantel is still left on the liner pointing that it plays a minor role on wear.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Göteborg: Chalmers University of Technology , 2008. , 64 p.
Series
Report / Department of Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, ISSN 1652-8891 ; 37
Keyword [en]
Cylinder liner, Surface Roughness, Characterisation, Honing, Wear, Blechmantel, Groove Parameters, Quality Control, Flow Simulation
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-14648OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hh-14648DiVA: diva2:406509
Presentation
Delta-Gamma, Hörsalsvägen 7 Chalmers, Göteborg
Opponent
Available from: 2011-03-28 Created: 2011-03-25 Last updated: 2014-03-05Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Cylinder Liners and Consequences of Improved Honing
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2006 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The demands on decreased environmental impact from vehicles are resulting in a strong push for decreased engine oil and fuel consumption. Engine oil and fuel consumption are to a great extent controlled by the topography of the cylinder liner surface.

Recent engine tests have shown a promising reduction in oil consumption when using cylinder liners with a smoother finish than the current plateau honing.

One approach to produce smoother liner surfaces is to replace SiC ceramic honing stones with diamond tools. However, event though the diamond honing process results in higher productivity, improved demands of quality control is needed to monitor the degree of cold worked material - “blechmantel” (German), and the resulting risk of increased wear and scuffing.

A number of petrol and diesel engine cylinder liners have been mapped to be able to verify the quality and consequences, in terms of wear and function, of the honing process. A new mapping method, combining SEM images and quantitative image analysis with traditional 2D profilometry has been developed and tested in this study. The liners where tested in a reciprocating rig of 8 mm stroke and with a frequency of 10 Hz, simulating the top-dead center conditions in a running engine.

The tests where carried out in high- and low pressure conditions with smooth respectively rough liner roughnesses against PVD coated piston rings. The developed surface mapping method was employed before and after the test to study effect of running-in wear on the surface, features characterized with the SEM- and the 2D profilometer.

The results show that combining SEM- and profilometric methods gives a good picture of the effects of varying the cylinder liner pressure and roughness. The core roughness decrease more for diesel liners than for petrol liners. In average (rough and smooth liners) the diesel core roughness decrease 265% while the petrol liners average on a 60% decrease. Blechmantel- and Irregularities ratio show a high sensitivity to varying conditions and decrease 1180% to 100% for the diesel liners while the parameters increase between 106% to 18% for all the petrol liners. A probable cause is the more severe diesel high pressure run-in conditions are able to effectively “truncate” the plateaux and remove residing plastically deformed un-cut honing residues while the less severe petrol liner conditions not manage to remove the blechmantel and irregularities in an important extent.

Keyword
cylinder liner, surface topography, quality control, wear, honing
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-1888 (URN)2082/2283 (Local ID)2082/2283 (Archive number)2082/2283 (OAI)
Note

The 12th Nordic Symposium on Tribology, NORDTRIB'06.

Available from: 2008-09-11 Created: 2008-09-11 Last updated: 2015-02-18Bibliographically approved
2. Cylinder Liner Honed Surface Optimisation-a Manufacture-Characterisation-Function Study
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2007 (English)In: Proceedings of the 1st Swedish Production Symposium, 2007, 9- p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Proceedings on CD-ROM

Keyword
Cylinder Liner, Surface Characterisation, Slide Honing, Flow Simulation, Oil Consumption, Friction
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-2213 (URN)2082/2610 (Local ID)2082/2610 (Archive number)2082/2610 (OAI)
Conference
1st Swedish Production Symposium, 28-30 August, Gothenburg, Sweden
Available from: 2008-12-17 Created: 2008-12-17 Last updated: 2014-03-05Bibliographically approved
3. Towards 3D Characterisation of Cylinder Liner Surfaces
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2008 (English)In: Proceedings / XII. International Colloquium on Surfaces January 28th and 29th, 2008, Chemnitz, Germany = XII. Internationales Oberflächenkolloquium / [ed] Michael Dietzsch, Aachen: Shaker Verlag, 2008, 15-24 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Cylinder liner surface has a direct impact on the oil consumption and frictional losses in the internal combustion engines which are in common interest to be as lower as possible. Thus, the optimisation of the liner surface, its function and manufacture is often on the agenda of the automotive industry. Since the liner surface finish is a subject of improving, there is a need of improving and facilitating of its 3D characterisation preliminary when the parameter control limits are unknown, as well as later when it is experimentally verified and the limits are better determined. For that purpose a method for quality control in 3D of cylinder liners is proposed here. A tool was developed and implemented for rating of cylinder liner surfaces, computing of 3D groove parameters (groove width, height and distance between grooves) and determination of a needed number of measurements.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Aachen: Shaker Verlag, 2008
Keyword
Cylinder Liner, Surface Characterisation, Roughness Parameters, Quality Control
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-2190 (URN)2082/2587 (Local ID)978-3-8322-6912-8 (ISBN)3-8322-6912-8 (ISBN)2082/2587 (Archive number)2082/2587 (OAI)
Conference
XII. International Colloquium on Surfaces: XII. Internationales Oberflachenkolloquium, January 28th and 29th, 2008, Chemnitz, Germany
Available from: 2008-12-09 Created: 2008-12-09 Last updated: 2014-03-05Bibliographically approved
4. Quantification of Blechmantel Effect on Wear of Cylinder Bore Microtopography
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quantification of Blechmantel Effect on Wear of Cylinder Bore Microtopography
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2008 (English)In: Proceedings of the 13th Nordic Symposium on Tribology, Nordtrib 2008, Tampere: Tampere University Press, 2008, 13- p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The presence of cold work material (blechmantel) smeared out on cylinder liners by faulty honing is undesirable as it seals the oil-bearing honing grooves. It is also believed to correlate with increased bore wear, presumably due to its loosening and together with the carbon build-up from the piston’s top land form an increased quantity of abrasive particles. An attempt has been made to estimate the extent of removal of blechmantel for different wear regimes present at the middle and top region (near the top dead centre) of the liner surface using the unworn bottom region as a reference for comparison. A number of truck cylinder liners were axially sectioned after varying periods of engine running under similar conditions of load, engine speed and lubrication. 3D surface measurements were taken at the three regions and a range of standard parameters was extracted. Combining the profile and image analysis, an algorithm was developed to identify and quantify the blechmantel covering the grooves that is most likely to break and act as abrasive wear particles and at the same time it represents the part of blechmantel which covers the most of the surface. It was found out that a mere portion of the blechmantel from the middle and bottom section was removed, while the blechmantel from the top section was greatly removed and thereby it represents one of the possible causes for wear. Axial wear scratches more emphasized on the thrust side of the liner were observed not only through the whole stroke area, but also in the bottom region. The fact that the most of the blechmantel is not removed from the running surface of the liner (except for the very small portion of the polished areas at the dead centres), points out that the blechmantel plays only a minor role on wear of the cylinder liner surfaces.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Tampere: Tampere University Press, 2008
Keyword
Blechmantel, Quantification, Cylinder Liner Wear, Surface Topography
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-2148 (URN)2082/2543 (Local ID)978-952-15-1961-1 (ISBN)2082/2543 (Archive number)2082/2543 (OAI)
Conference
13th Nordic Symposium on Tribology, Nordtrib 2008, Tampere, Finland, 10-13 June 2008
Available from: 2008-11-18 Created: 2008-11-18 Last updated: 2014-03-05Bibliographically approved

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