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Evaluating CALM M5-based vehicle-to-vehicle communication in various road settings through field trials
Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6526-3931
Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
2010 (English)In: Proceedings - Conference on Local Computer Networks, LCN, (2010 12 01): 613-620, Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE Press, 2010, p. 613-620Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Future cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) applications aimed to improve safety, efficiency and comfort on our roads put high demands on the underlying wireless communication system. To gain better understanding of the limitations of the 5.9 GHz frequency band and the set of communication protocols for medium range vehicle to vehicle (V2V) communication, a set of field trials with CALM M5 enabled prototypes has been conducted. This paper describes five different real vehicle traffic scenarios covering both urban and rural settings at varying vehicle speeds and under varying line-of-sight (LOS) conditions and discusses the connectivity (measured as Packet Reception Ratio) that could be achieved between the two test vehicles. Our measurements indicate a quite problematic LOS sensitivity that strongly influences the performance of V2V-based applications. We further discuss how the awareness of these context-based connectivity problems can be used to improve the design of possible future cooperative ITS safety applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE Press, 2010. p. 613-620
Series
Conference on Local Computer Networks, ISSN 0742-1303
Keywords [en]
empirical study, field measurements, IEEE 802.11p, V2V communication, VANET
National Category
Vehicle Engineering Communication Systems Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified Infrastructure Engineering Telecommunications
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-6004DOI: 10.1109/LCN.2010.5735781ISI: 000409980700105Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-79955007492ISBN: 9781424483877 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hh-6004DiVA, id: diva2:353240
Conference
35th Annual IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks, LCN 2010, Denver, CO, USA, 10 - 14 October, 2010
Note

Article number 5735781; Code 84547

Available from: 2010-09-24 Created: 2010-09-24 Last updated: 2018-03-23Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Delay-sensitive wireless communication for cooperative driving applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Delay-sensitive wireless communication for cooperative driving applications
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Cooperative driving holds the potential to considerably improve the level of safety and efficiency on our roads. Recent advances in in-vehicle sensing and wireless communication technology have paved the way for the development of cooperative traffic safety applications based on the exchange of data between vehicles (or between vehicles and road side units) over a wireless link. The access to up-to-date status information from surrounding vehicles is vital to most cooperative driving applications. Other applications rely on the fast dissemination of warning messages in case a hazardous event or certain situation is detected. Both message types put high requirements on timeliness and reliability of the underlying communication protocols.

The recently adopted European profile of IEEE 802.11p defines two message types,periodic beacons for basic status exchange and event-triggered hazard warnings, both operating at pre-defined send rates and sharing a common control channel. The IEEE 802.11p Medium Access Control (MAC) scheme is a random access protocol that doesnot offer deterministic real-time support, i.e. no guarantee that a packet is granted access to the channel before its deadline can be given. It has been shown that a high number of channel access requests, either due to a high number of communicating vehicles or highdata volumes produced by these vehicles, cannot be supported by the IEEE 802.11p MAC protocol, as it may result in dropped packets and unbounded delays.

The goal of the work presented in this thesis has therefore been to enhance IEEE 802.11p without altering the standard such that it better supports the timing and reliability requirements of traffic safety applications and provides context-aware andefficient use of the available communication resources in a vehicular network. The proposed solutions are mapped to the specific demands of a set of cooperative driving scenarios (featuring infrastructure-based and infrastructure-free use cases, densely and sparsely trafficked roads, very high and more relaxed timing requirements) and evaluated either analytically, by computer simulation or by measurements and compared to the results produced by the unaltered IEEE 802.11p standard.

As an alternative to the random MAC method of IEEE 802.11p, a centralized solution isproposed for application scenarios where either a road side unit or a suitable dedicated vehicle is present long enough to take the coordinating role. A random access phase forevent-driven data traffic is interleaved with a collision-free phase where timely channel access of periodic delay-sensitive data is scheduled. The ratio of the two phases isdynamically adapted to the current data traffic load and specific application requirements. This centralized MAC solution is mapped on two cooperative driving applications: merge assistance at highway entrances and platooning of trucks. Further,the effect of a context-aware choice of parameters like send rate or priority settings based on a vehicle’s position or role in the safety application is studied with the goal to reduce the overall number of packets in the network or, alternatively, use the available resources more efficiently. Examples include position-based priorities for the merge assistance use case, context-aware send rate adaptation of status updates in anovertaking warning application targeting sparsely-trafficked rural roads and an efficient dissemination strategy for warning messages within a platoon.

It can be concluded that IEEE 802.11p as is does not provide sufficient support for the specific timing and reliability requirements imposed by the exchange of safety-criticalreal-time data for cooperative driving applications. While the proper, context-awarechoice of parameters, concerning send rate or priority level, within the limits of the standard, can lead to improved packet inter-arrival rates and reduced end-to-end delays,the added benefits from integrating MAC solutions with real-time support into the standard are obvious and needs to be investigated further.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Halmstad: Halmstad University Press, 2013. p. 47
Series
Halmstad University Dissertations ; 4
Keywords
Cooperative driving applications, wireless communication
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-22164 (URN)978-91-87045-04-2 (ISBN)978-91-87045-03-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-06-07, R 1107, Halmstad University, Halmstad, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2013-05-17 Created: 2013-05-17 Last updated: 2018-03-22Bibliographically approved

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Böhm, AnnetteLidström, KristofferJonsson, MagnusLarsson, Tony

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