hh.sePublications
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Regulations of catabolic and anabolic mechanisms; the interactions between exercise, carbohydrates and an excessive intake of amino acids: A review of some of the metabolic pathways that affects the homeostasis of the body, as well as β-oxidation and protein synthesis
Halmstad University. Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
Halmstad University. Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
2010 (English)Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

Insulin as well as glucagon are important hormones in maintaining glucose homeostasis and regulating the metabolism in the body. Insulin receptors (IR) are transmembrane receptors that promote a signal transduction when activated by insulin. This can for example cause an increased influx of glucose into the cell performed by so called glucose transporters (GLUTs). These membrane proteins facilitate the transport of glucose from the blood into the cells, so the cell always has a constant supply of energy. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are nuclear fatty acid receptors. They are activated by lipids and regulate fatty acid transcription. PPARδ/β is located in skeletal muscle and can promote fatty acid catabolism as well as cause a switch in fuel preference from glucose to fatty acids. It has been suggested that ligands for PPARδ could act as insulin sensitizers. The PPARγ coactivator-1α can increase mitochondrial content in skeletal muscle if over expressed. The same is true for endurance exercise.

Hormones released from adipose tissue can cause hyperphagia and obesity if over- or under expressed. They can also work in the opposite way by decreasing appetite with weight loss as an effect. Impaired signalling or dysfunctional receptor can cause insulin resistance, obesity and diabetes. Lipolysis occurs in adipose tissues and is conducted by three enzymes, namely adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and monoglyceride lipase (MGL). There are some factors that can increase lipolysis such as caffeine, a low glycemic index, high protein intake and training.

The enzyme PEPCK is involved in the gluconeogensis in the liver and kidney cortex, and also in the glyceroneogenesis in the liver, as well as in brown and white adipose tissue. When overexpressed in skeletal muscle the enzyme increases the muscle activity. The overexpression of the enzyme did promote the β-oxidation as energy source for the muscles during exercise, instead of muscle glycogen as fuel.

The processes of protein synthesis and breakdown are together called protein turnover. Muscle grows when synthesis is greater than breakdown, and withers if breakdown exceeds the level of synthesis. Acute effects of training is catabolic, but long time exercise causes however an increased protein synthesis. Leucine, an essential amino acid, has an important role in the initiation phase of translation. Glutamine is probably important in the regulation of muscle protein synthesis and breakdown. Together with glutamate, aspartate and asparagine, these are responsible for the amino acid metabolism that occurs in the muscles. Protein synthesis reaches its maximum in the recovery phase after intense training.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. , 60 p.
Keyword [en]
catabolism, anabolism, exercise, lipolysis, protein synthesis, carbohydrates
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-4933OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hh-4933DiVA: diva2:326027
Uppsok
Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2010-06-22 Created: 2010-06-21 Last updated: 2010-06-22Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(466 kB)1780 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 466 kBChecksum SHA-512
3f87ac3b61ebf5561dca386a62e91f5e82653bf76ccc8c3dd6180ab3ea0c6701ee4ebe3ed6266a0da539823ae7d2b5d70edfd90820367a10fa09e073f6e5ed6b
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

By organisation
Halmstad UniversitySchool of Business and Engineering (SET)
Chemical Sciences

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 1780 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

Total: 581 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf