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Tool steel polishing and topography characterization
Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9084-819X
Uddeholms AB, Hagfors, Sweden.
Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8058-1252
2007 (English)In: The Swedish Production Symposium in Göteborg 28-30 August 2007, 2007Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Manual polishing is a common method to accomplish a mirror-like mould surface, although it is a cumbersome and time-consuming process. It is, thus, of great interest within the industry to find faster and better polishing techniques to decrease the costs and lead times. A key factor towards improved polishing techniques is to find ways to characterize polished surfaces; which parameters and instruments can be used and what is the definition of polishability? This paper summarises a study where three steel grades were analysed with five different measuring devices. The results showed that mechanical stylus instrumentations are not enough to describe very smooth surfaces, but measurement devices with better resolution are needed, such as interferometers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2007.
Keyword [en]
tool steel, polishing, 2D and 3D parameters, surface characterisation
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-2711Local ID: 2082/3113OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hh-2711DiVA: diva2:239929
Conference
The Swedish Production Symposium 2007, 28-30 August 2007, Göteborg, Sweden
Available from: 2009-07-06 Created: 2009-07-06 Last updated: 2015-01-26Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Polishability of tool steels: Characterisation of high gloss polished tool steels
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Polishability of tool steels: Characterisation of high gloss polished tool steels
2009 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The manufacturing of plastic components, like a majority of other mass produced discrete parts, require well designed dies and moulds. Complex geometries and increasing demands on final surface appearance, which is strongly connected to the quality impression, are pushing for high demands on mould-makers and polishers as well as steel producers. Moulds for production of shiny plastic components require tool steels with low defect levels to achieve highly gloss and very smooth mould surfaces (roughness levels in the nm-range).

It is the ability to achieve those mirror-like surfaces, the polishability of tool steels, that is the central part in this study. To increase the understanding of how material properties and different surface preparation techniques impact the polishability, a selection of high gloss polished tool steel qualities were characterised using non-contact 3D-surface texture analysis.

A first step towards a grading system of the polishablility was made based on a classification of surface defects detected on included steel samples. 3D surface parameters based on interferometer measurements seemed to be useful for a characterisation, even though further studies (involving different filters and segmentation methods) are needed to find less and more precise parameter values to grade tool steel qualities.

Future work will include analysis of surface measurements of test moulds and plastic parts, as well as studies of how quantitative parameters can be linked to qualitative estimations in order to better understand how surface features on the mould are transferred into the surface of plastic components.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Göteborg: Chalmers University of Technology, 2009. 50 p.
Series
[Technical report] / Department of Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, ISSN 1652-8891 ; 45
Keyword
tool steels, surface characterisation, polishability, 3D parameters, high gloss polishing
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-6179 (URN)
Presentation
2009-03-04, Seminar room Delta-Gamma, Hörsalsvägen 7, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Available from: 2010-11-09 Created: 2010-10-20 Last updated: 2013-11-19Bibliographically approved
2. On Polishability of Tool Steels
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On Polishability of Tool Steels
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

One of the world’s fastest growing industries is the plastic industry. Today’s ever increasing demands of high quality products, shorter lead times and reduced costs push development and research forwards. Moulds for plastic injection moulding need to have a functional surface to meet demands on demoulding and wear properties, but also to produce the required final surface quality, which for ‘standard mould qualities’ of high gloss applications means nearly defect free, shiny and smooth mould surfaces with roughness levels in the nm-range.

The aim of this thesis was to develop a metrology framework to quantitatively characterise these mould surfaces in order to gain better understanding of which defect structures are critical at injection moulding, and how these are correlated to material properties and operating conditions in surface preparation of tool steels. In practice this means to capture surface features of some few nm in height/depth up to some hundreds of microns in lateral dimension within insert areas of cm2 and larger. Experiments combining polishers’ experience with steel producers’ as well as non-contact areal texture examinations of surface topography were performed to overcome and link practical skills to academic ones.

Based on areal surface metrology, defect classification and image analysis based surface characterisation, an evaluation procedure for polished tool steel surfaces was developed, initially tested and verified. The suggested method involves descriptions of relevant defect structures and acceptance levels for high gloss polished tool steels in the form of numerical parameter values based on interferometric measurements. It was also concluded that the cleanness of the steels was less important as long as it was kept within reasonable levels; the surface preparation strategy is a major factor influencing the mould surface quality e.g. it was found that a ‘several-step-strategy’ was favourable to avoid defect structures; not all ‘mirror-like’ mould surfaces had desirable topographies for injection moulding, therefore a well-defined mould surface assessment with numerical values describing mould surface quality is necessary to secure effective mould surfaces.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Göteborg: Chalmers University of Technology, 2013. 50 p.
Series
Doktorsavhandlingar vid Chalmers tekniska högskola. Ny Serie, ISSN 0346-718X ; 3509
Keyword
tool steels, polishability, surface characterisation, surface texture parameters, high gloss polishing, injection moulding
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-22175 (URN)978-91-7385-828-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-04-05, Virtual development laboratory, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

Includes pamphlet in Appendix I.

Available from: 2013-11-08 Created: 2013-05-17 Last updated: 2015-01-26Bibliographically approved

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