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Tribology of stamping: the influence of designed steel sheet surface topography on friction
Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK).
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Tribology is the science of friction, wear, and lubrication; the interaction of surfaces in relative motion. The tribological conditions in sheet metal forming influences the flow of material in forming operations, the strain distributions of sheet material, extent of wear, and thereby the quality of products. The purpose of the thesis is to increase the knowledge of why and how sheet surface topography influence the frictional response in stamping, to characterise the geometrical properties, and make results applicable for industry. The frictional response of different surface topographies have been measured in a Bending Under Tension test under mixed lubricated conditions. The studied materials have been stainless steel sheets and uncoated and coated carbon steel sheets. The results did show the influence of roughness, skewness, and anisotropy of surface topography. The findings could be explained by the theory of pad bearings. A new functional 3D parameter (Sq>0) was developed for pressing performance that is sensitive to the effects of roughness and skewness. The texture-aspect ratio parameter (Str) was found to be correlated to the anisotropical behaviour of the frictional response. The results are very tangible and mean increased control of stamping operations. An initial step was taken to introduce more advanced tribological models in FE simulation of sheet metal forming operations. The aim is to decrease the trial-and-error time in the design process of dies and tools. A friction model considering surface topography (Sq>0), sliding velocity, lubricant viscosity, and apparent pressure, was successfully implemented. Simulations of a part were evaluated with real stamping tryouts. The results did show the potential of improving the precision in forming simulations with more advanced tribological models. Finally, theory and characterisation methods of active micro-oil pockets in the contact zone of tool and sheet were investigated. The real contact area was shown to be the critical feature to determine. Therefore, two topographical methods and one microscope-imaging processing technique were studied, but no method was found to be viable. However, the experimental results did not confirm the importance of microoil pockets in mixed lubricated regime.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Göteborg: Chalmers tekniska högskola , 2006. , p. 72
Series
Doktorsavhandlingar vid Chalmers tekniska högskola. Ny serie, ISSN 0346-718X ; 2526
Keywords [en]
steel sheet, tribology, surface topography
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-2010Local ID: 2082/2405ISBN: 91-7291-844-6 OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hh-2010DiVA, id: diva2:239228
Public defence
(English)
Available from: 2008-10-06 Created: 2008-10-06 Last updated: 2018-03-23Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. The Influence of Lubricants Kinematic Viscosity and Steel Sheet Surface-Topography in a Bending Under Tension Friction Test
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Influence of Lubricants Kinematic Viscosity and Steel Sheet Surface-Topography in a Bending Under Tension Friction Test
2001 (English)In: Tribology 2001 - scientific achievements, industrial applications, future challenges: plenary and session key papers from the 2nd World Tribology Congress ; Vienna, Austria, 3-7 September 2001 / [ed] F. Franek, W.J. Bartz, A. Pauschitz, Wien: Österreichische Tribologische Gesellschaft , 2001Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wien: Österreichische Tribologische Gesellschaft, 2001
National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-16318 (URN)390165707X (ISBN)
Conference
The 2nd World Tribology Congress, Vienna, Austria, 3-7 September, 2001
Available from: 2011-09-23 Created: 2011-09-23 Last updated: 2018-03-22Bibliographically approved
2. Surface indentation test (SIT) for friction prediction in mixed lubrication of coated sheets
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Surface indentation test (SIT) for friction prediction in mixed lubrication of coated sheets
2002 (English)In: Boundary and mixed lubrication: science and application. Proceedings of the 28th Leeds-Lyon symposium on tribology / [ed] D. Dowson, M. Priest, G Dalmaz, A.A. Lubrecht, Amsterdam: Elsevier , 2002, p. 461-466Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2002
Series
Tribology series0167-8922, ISSN 0167-8922 ; 40
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-3327 (URN)10.1016/S0167-8922(02)80050-5 (DOI)2-s2.0-0036882466 (Scopus ID)
Conference
28th Leeds-Lyon symposium on tribology
Available from: 2010-02-25 Created: 2009-12-01 Last updated: 2018-03-23Bibliographically approved
3. A Comparative Surface Topography Study of FEM Simulation and Surface Indentation Tests (SIT) on Friction Prediction in Steel Sheet Forming
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Comparative Surface Topography Study of FEM Simulation and Surface Indentation Tests (SIT) on Friction Prediction in Steel Sheet Forming
2003 (English)In: 10th Nordic Symposium on Tribology: NORDTRIB 2002, Stockholm: Kungliga Tekniska högskolan, 2003, p. 54-54Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Kungliga Tekniska högskolan, 2003
Series
Trita-MMK, ISSN 1400-1179 ; 2002:03
National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-16317 (URN)
Conference
The 10th Nordic Symposium on Tribology, Stockholm, Sweden, 9-12 June, 2002
Note

Funding: Swedish Programme for Production Engineering Education and Research (PROPER)

Available from: 2011-09-23 Created: 2011-09-23 Last updated: 2018-03-22Bibliographically approved
4. Evaluation of surface topography parameters for friction prediction in stamping
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of surface topography parameters for friction prediction in stamping
2004 (English)In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 257, no 12, p. 1296-1300Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The continued globalisation of the automotive industry, leading to increasing demands for competitiveness and escalating legislative requirements, is the main driving force of research activities of steel sheet surfaces. Recent studies on the stamping process have been carried out among others within AUTOsurf, a project funded by the European Community, and by Wihlborg and Crafoord. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the viability of the proposed parameters for friction prediction. Seventeen different surface topographies were investigated. The sheet materials were either, hot-dip galvanised, electrogalvanised or galvannealed, and electron beam or electric discharged textures. The frictional response was measured in a bending under tension (BUT) test under mixed lubricated conditions. This BUT test simulates the conditions of the die radius in a stamping tool. The laboratory test differs from the experimental work performed in AUTOsurf which simulated the conditions of the holding-down plate. In spite of the differences in test equipments in AUTOsurf, e.g. the rotational friction tester (RTF), on a comparison the correlation of frictional response was significant. But neither of the proposed parameters could predict the frictional response with sufficient accuracy in this study. In addition, the friction model in AUTOsurf describes peak lubrication as a dragging phenomenon on sliding surfaces. The movement eased friction in inverse proportion to the average peak area. However, the trend in this study showed the opposite, movement eased friction proportionally to the average peak area. The result indicates a switch of dominant friction mechanism when the sliding velocity is increased, i.e. from a dragging phenomenon at low velocities to micro-hydrodynamic wedge effects at high velocities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2004
Keywords
Surface topography, Automotive industry, Bending (deformation), Friction, Galvanized metal, Metal stamping, Steel sheet, Tensile strength
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-3551 (URN)10.1016/j.wear.2004.05.026 (DOI)000225750700017 ()2-s2.0-10044298311 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2010-01-08 Created: 2009-12-01 Last updated: 2018-03-23Bibliographically approved
5. Frictional mechanisms in mixed lubricated regime in steel sheet metal forming
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Frictional mechanisms in mixed lubricated regime in steel sheet metal forming
2008 (English)In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 264, no 5-6, p. 474-479Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The friction is of critical importance to sheet metal forming operations. It affects the flow of material in the tool and thereby the scrap rate and final quality of products. In the experimental work the frictional response was measured in a bending under tension (BUT) test under mixed lubricated conditions. The study includes stainless steel, but previous research on carbon steels, coated and uncoated, are discussed also. The experimental results could be explained by the theory of pad bearings. The frictional response showed a correlation to the surface topography, e.g. the amplitude parameter (Sq) and texture aspect ratio parameter (Str). When predicting the frictional response of surfaces with multi-component distributions, the standard deviation of the distribution above the mean line could be used.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2008
Keywords
Surface roughness, Steel sheets, Bending under tension, Mixed lubrication, Pad bearings, WC-index
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-1326 (URN)10.1016/j.wear.2006.08.032 (DOI)000253174800018 ()2-s2.0-37449013634 (Scopus ID)2082/1705 (Local ID)2082/1705 (Archive number)2082/1705 (OAI)
Available from: 2008-04-16 Created: 2008-04-16 Last updated: 2018-03-23Bibliographically approved
6. On the Implementation and Evaluation of a Roughness Based Friction Model in FE Simulations of Sheet Metal Forming
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the Implementation and Evaluation of a Roughness Based Friction Model in FE Simulations of Sheet Metal Forming
Show others...
2006 (English)In: Proceedings of The 12th Nordic Symposium on Tribology, Lyngby: DTU Mechanical Engineering , 2006Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lyngby: DTU Mechanical Engineering, 2006
National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-16316 (URN)87-90416-19-8 (ISBN)
Conference
Nordtrib 2006 - 12th Nordic symposium on Tribology,Helsingör, Denmark, June 7-9, 2006
Available from: 2011-09-23 Created: 2011-09-23 Last updated: 2018-03-22Bibliographically approved
7. Frictional properties of different austenitic stainless sheet surface topographies: Industrial trials at Alfa Laval
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Frictional properties of different austenitic stainless sheet surface topographies: Industrial trials at Alfa Laval
2006 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Engineering and Technology Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-20300 (URN)
Conference
IDDRG 2006, Porto, Portugal, 19-21 June 2006
Available from: 2013-01-07 Created: 2013-01-07 Last updated: 2018-03-22Bibliographically approved

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