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Towards energy efficient protocols for active RFID
Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS). Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
2007 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The absence of a global standard is a bottleneck when using Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology. This thesis explores data communication protocols for Active-RFID regarding their energy efficiency and how they can be suited to fit a large variety of applications.

The use of Radio Frequency Identification systems (RFID) is growing rapidly. Today mostly "passive" RFID systems are used because no onboard energy source is needed on the transponders. However, "active" RFID technology, with onboard power sources in the transponders, gives a range of opportunities not possible with passive systems. Besides that Active RFID offers longer working distance between RFID-reader and tag than passive RFID, this also enables the tags to do sensor measurements, calculations and storage even when no RFID-reader is in the vicinity of the tags.

To obtain energy efficiency in an Active RFID system the data communication protocol to be used should be carefully designed with energy optimization in mind. This thesis describes how energy consumption can be calculated, to be used in protocol definition, and how evaluation of protocols in this respect can be made. The performance of such a new protocol, in terms of energy efficiency, aggregated throughput, delay, and number of air collisions is evaluated and compared to an existing, commercially available protocol for Active RFID, as well as the IEEE standard 802.15.4 (used e.g. in the Zigbee medium-access layer). Simulations show that, by acknowledging the payload and using deep sleep mode on the tag, the lifetime of a tag is increased.

For all types of protocols using an air channel for transmitting and receiving information it is obvious that the utilization of the channel is maximized when no collisions occur. To avoid and minimize collisions in the air interface it is possible to listen to the channel (carrier sense) and know its status. Knowing that the channel is occupied should result in a back-off and a later retry, instead of persistently listening to the channel which would require constant energy consumption. We further study the effect on tag energy cost and packet delay incurred by some typical back-off algorithms (constant, linear, and exponential) used in a contention based CSMA/CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance) protocols for Active RFID communication. The study shows that by selecting the proper back-off algorithm coefficients (based on the number of tags), i.e. the initial contention window size and back-off interval coefficient, the tag energy consumption and read-out delays can be significantly lowered.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Göteborg: Chalmers University of Technology , 2007. , p. 20
Series
Technical report. L, ISSN 1652-876X ; 42
Keywords [en]
RFID, active RFID, protocol, back-off, carrier sense, energy efficient, wireless networks, active tag, energy consumption
National Category
Computer Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-1983Libris ID: 10596738Local ID: 2082/2378OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hh-1983DiVA, id: diva2:239201
Presentation
(English)
Available from: 2008-09-29 Created: 2008-09-29 Last updated: 2018-02-28Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Towards an Energy Efficient Protocol for Active RFID
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards an Energy Efficient Protocol for Active RFID
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2006 (English)In: International Symposium on Industrial Embedded Systems, 2006. IES '06, Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE Press, 2006, p. 1-4Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The use of radio frequency identification systems (RFID) is growing rapidly. Today, mostly "passive" RFID systems are used because no onboard energy source is needed on the transponders. However, "active " RFID with onboard power source gives a new range of opportunities not possible with passive systems. To obtain energy efficiency in an active RFID system a protocol should be designed that is optimized with energy in mind. This paper describes the on-going work of defining and evaluating such a protocol. The protocol's performance in terms of energy efficiency, aggregated throughput, delay, and number of air collisions is evaluated and compared to that of the medium-access layer in 802.15.4 Zigbee, and also to a commercially available protocol from Free2move.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE Press, 2006
Keywords
Protocols, Radiofrequency identification, Transponders
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-2060 (URN)10.1109/IES.2006.357477 (DOI)2-s2.0-46149127374 (Scopus ID)2082/2455 (Local ID)1-4244-0777-X (ISBN)2082/2455 (Archive number)2082/2455 (OAI)
Conference
Industrial Embedded Systems, IES '2006, October 18-20, 2006 Antibes Juan-Les-Pins, France
Note

©2006 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. However, permission to reprint/republish this material for advertising or promotional purposes or for creating new collective works for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or to reuse any copyrighted component of this work in other works must be obtained from the IEEE.

Available from: 2008-10-17 Created: 2008-10-17 Last updated: 2018-03-23Bibliographically approved
2. Protocols for active RFID - the energy consumption aspect
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Protocols for active RFID - the energy consumption aspect
2007 (English)In: 2007 Symposium on Industrial Embedded Systems Proceedings, Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE Press, 2007, p. 41-48Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The use of Radio Frequency Identification systems (RFID) is growing rapidly. Today, mostly “passive” RFID systems are used because no onboard energy source is needed on the transponders. However, “active” RFID technology, with onboard power sources in the transponders, gives a range of opportunities not possible with passive systems. To obtain energy efficiency in an Active RFID system the protocol to be used should be carefully designed with energy optimization in mind. This paper describes how energy consumption can be calculated, to be used in protocol definition, and how evaluation of protocol in this respect can be made. The performance of such a new protocol, in terms of energy efficiency, aggregated throughput, delay, and number of air collisions is evaluated and compared to an existing, commercially available protocol for Active RFID, as well as to the IEEE standard 802.15.4 (used e.g. in the Zigbee mediumaccess layer).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE Press, 2007
Keywords
Active RFID, Energy efficiency, Protocol, energy consumption, nergy optimization, radio frequency identification system, transponders
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-1963 (URN)10.1109/SIES.2007.4297315 (DOI)000253868200008 ()2-s2.0-46749158780 (Scopus ID)2082/2358 (Local ID)1-4244-0840-7 (ISBN)2082/2358 (Archive number)2082/2358 (OAI)
Conference
2007 International Symposium on Industrial Embedded Systems, 2007. Hotel Costa da Caparica, Lisbon, Portugal, 4 - 6 July 2007
Note

©2007 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. However, permission to reprint/republish this material for advertising or promotional purposes or for creating new collective works for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or to reuse any copyrighted component of this work in other works must be obtained from the IEEE.

Available from: 2008-09-26 Created: 2008-09-26 Last updated: 2018-03-23Bibliographically approved
3. The Effect of Introducing Carrier Sense in an Active RFID Protocol
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Effect of Introducing Carrier Sense in an Active RFID Protocol
2007 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Active Radio Frequency Identification (A-RFID) extends the functionality from the predecessor passive RFID trough adding a power source to the transponder device (device used on a product to identify it). This power source enables more advanced functions in the radio interface such as listening (doing a carrier sense) to the radio channel (carrier of data information) finding out if it is unengaged, and free to use. In this paper we study the carrier sense functionality and its effects in lowering the tag energy consumption. Simulation results show that the life time of a tag, in an A-RFID system, using carrier sense is more than doubled compared to one not using carrier sense. The increased lifetime of the tag is due to the lowered energy consumption caused by the improved throughput and the decreased payload delay, which in turn is thanks to using carrier sense and naturally then give a better utilization of the radio channel.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Halmstad: Halmstad University, 2007. p. 10
Series
Technical Report IDE ; 766
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-30697 (URN)
Available from: 2016-04-06 Created: 2016-04-06 Last updated: 2018-03-22Bibliographically approved
4. Selecting back-off algorithm in active RFID Csma/ Ca based medium-access protocols
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Selecting back-off algorithm in active RFID Csma/ Ca based medium-access protocols
2007 (English)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Halmstad: Halmstad University, 2007. p. 16
Series
Technical Report IDE ; 767
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-30698 (URN)
Available from: 2016-04-06 Created: 2016-04-06 Last updated: 2018-03-22Bibliographically approved

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Citation style
  • apa
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  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
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