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Grundvattenskydd och markanvändning i tre olika länder- effekter för miljö och samhälle
Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
2007 (Swedish)Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
Abstract [sv]

Abstract

Drinking water is an important resource on Earth both for humans and animals. Although most of the surface is covered by water only a small quantity is available as drinking water. Our manner of living creates a lot of pollution which has an environmental impact. Groundwater has a protracted turnover time in the soil and it can take many years before the effects of human impact are detected.

The Swedish environmental object is “Good groundwater quality” which aims to provide a safe and sustainable supply of drinking water today and in the future. In Sweden and in other member states of EU the Water Framework Direktive 2000/60 is implemented. According to this act groundwater intended for drinking water supply has to comply with the quality standards of nitrate and pesticides. The purpose of this exam project is to describe how Denmark, England and Sweden are working with groundwater protection and land use. The examination paper is delimited to groundwater sources used for public drinking water supply.

The method comprises a literature study and a case study from each country. The information has been supplemented by interviews. The effects of groundwater protection is described in a consequential analysis of each country.

The natural conditions to keep the nitrate levels low in groundwater differ in Denmark, England and Sweden. These are of considerable importance to the choice of protection methods. In Denmark the natural ground conditions combined with intense agriculture result in high nitrate levels. The whole area of Denmark has been designated as nitrate sensitive area according to The Nitrate Directive. Conformed groundwater protection plans and agreements of appropriate land use are examples of measures applied.

In England increasing nitrate concentrations have been confirmed in a majority of controlled groundwater sources. A great part of the land area has been designated as Nitrate Vulnerable Zones. Many voluntary environmental programmes for best agricultural practice intend to decrease the leakage of nitrate to ground water. In Sweden mainly the coastal areas have been designated as nitrate sensitive areas. Water protection areas are established around the groundwater sources with restrictions for hazardous activities. The Swedish legislation Miljöbalken with regulations, directions and demands is governing the groundwater protection.

The possibilities to improve groundwater quality depend on the efficiency of the measures as well as the engagement and participation in environmental control. Information about the importance of groundwater protection is crucial to enhance the general awareness. Laws and regulations need to be sufficiently efficient to protect groundwater. Local commitment and responsibility are important in all kinds of environmental work. Land use must be adjusted appropriately in order to allow a sustainable development to occur.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Högskolan i Halmstad/Sektionen för Ekonomi och Teknik (SET) , 2007.
Keywords [sv]
grundvatten, nitrat, Danmark, England, Sverige, miljömål
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-785Local ID: 2082/1137OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hh-785DiVA, id: diva2:238003
Uppsok
Life Earth Science
Available from: 2007-06-20 Created: 2007-06-20 Last updated: 2007-06-20

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