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Innovative Contact Free Sensors for Metallurgical Process Control
Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
2003 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The steel- and metal industry has an extensive production processing comprising many different process steps of solid, gaseous and liquid nature. Thus it is obvious that a number of different measurement technologies must be used to collect and evaluate key physical parameters which are necessary to control the production processes. In this respect, the software to monitor the processes have, during the past decade, undergone extensive improvement whilst the sensors reading off the instantaneous process status have not and are still afflicted with severe drawbacks.

This situation, in combination with increased demands on energy savings and rules regarding reduction of green house gas emission (the Kyoto protocol), has created incentives for the development and implementation of new technologies to monitor and control production processes in the steel and metal industry.

The objectives in this thesis are to develop and evaluate sensor technology that can be used for in-situ on line analysis of metallurgical processes.

The work is divided into:

- To test and evaluate microwave technology for on line slag analysis.

- To design, develop and evaluate microwave sensors for off gas analysis.

- To evaluate laser sensors for simultaneous analysis of the process environment in metallurgical processes with emphasis on measuring the oxygen concentration and temperature in a steel reheating furnace

During the work on slag a broad band antenna was used for the microwave investigations on solid and liquid slag. The results show that it is possible to evaluate a refractive index for both solid and liquid slag. The results also show that there is a weak correlation between the refractive index for liquid slag and slag basicity.

Trials on off gases from a pilot process as well as a full scale metallurgical production processes have been performed with microwave technology. The instrument used for the microwave trials has been developed from individual components. The results show that it is possible to use the technology for process analysis however the data collected regarding individual spectral lines still remain to be correlated to known molecular frequencies.

Laser technology for gas analysis is a known technology in many different industrial applications. However, using the technology in steel and metal production processes requires that the technology must be adapted to the environment specific to those processes. Trials on a pilot process has been performed to find a suitable set of O2 absorption line parameters to be used during the forthcoming trials of full scale production processes. The outcome of these trials clearly show that the TDLAS technology can be used successfully on reheating furnaces but have a limited application potential on the LD converter process as well as the EAF.

The benefit of the presented work will on production scale contribute to a lowered emission of green house gases, lowered energy consumption and an improved production yield.

Abstract [sv]

Utveckling av beröringsfri teknik för att styra och kontrollera metallurgiska hög temperatur processer. Befintlig teknik kräver kontakt med mediet av intresse vilket medför att överlevnadstiden för probar och sensorer är kort. I den har avhandlingen beskrivs arbetet med att utveckla och ta i bruk beröringsfri mätteknik för övervakning och kontroll av metallurgiska framställningsprocesser med hjälp av mikrovågsteknik samt laserteknik(TDLAS.)

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lund: Lund University , 2003. , p. 75
Keywords [en]
microwave spectroscopy, laser, TDLAS, high temperature, gas, slag
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-722Local ID: 2082/1071ISBN: 91-628-5891-2 OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hh-722DiVA, id: diva2:237940
Public defence
2003-12-10, Wigforssalen, Halmstad, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Note

Lund report on atomic physics, 311, [Paper A] Slag level detection in EAF’s using microwave technology, [Paper B] Waste Gas Analysis With Microwave Technology, [Paper C] On-Line Gas Analysis Using Microwave Technology, [Paper D] Preliminary microwave measurements on liquid slag, [Paper E] In-Situ Monitoring of Oxygen Concentration and Gas Temperature in a Metallurgical Process by Using Diode Laser Spectroscopy, [Paper F] In-Situ Monitoring of Oxygen Concentration and Gas Temperature in a Metallurgical Process by Using Diode Laser Spectroscopy_revPaper, [Paper G] On-line and in situ monitoring of oxygen and gas temperature in a reheating furnace utilizing tunable diode-laser spectroscopy, [Paper H] Combustion Control Using An IR Diode Laser,

Available from: 2007-06-11 Created: 2007-06-11 Last updated: 2018-03-23Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Slag level detection in EAFs using microwave technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Slag level detection in EAFs using microwave technology
1999 (English)In: Scandinavian journal of metallurgy, ISSN 0371-0459, E-ISSN 1600-0692, Vol. 28, no 6, p. 266-276Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Within the metallurgical industry as well as the underground mine industry, there is a need for on-line level detection in the different production processes and their material feeding systems. Microwave technology is a versatile, non-invasive measurement technique, which has a number of advantages compared with penetrating probes, laser and radar technology, and echo sound technique. In its extension, it could also be used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of waste gases due to the presence of specific molecules. This contribution describes the introduction of microwave technology in different metallurgical as well as underground mine production processes with the emphasis on EAF's.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Blackwell Publishing Ltd., 1999
Keywords
Steelmaking, Electric furnace steel, Molten steel, Molten slag, Iron steel industry, Position measurement, Experimental study
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-1863 (URN)000085419300005 ()2-s2.0-0343962620 (Scopus ID)2082/2258 (Local ID)2082/2258 (Archive number)2082/2258 (OAI)
Available from: 2008-09-09 Created: 2008-09-09 Last updated: 2018-03-23Bibliographically approved
2. On-line Gas Analysis using Microwave Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On-line Gas Analysis using Microwave Technology
2003 (English)In: Proceedings Symposium on steel production, 2003, p. 11-Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Microwave technology has for decades been a tool for astronomers in their work to map and understand the complexities of the universe due to composition and extent. The technology is also frequently used on laboratory scale to examine properties of atomic and molecular compounds. Combining the knowledge gained in those these fields of research and transferring it to the environment of the Steel and metal industry, a project to investigate microwave spectroscopy for on-line process control has been launched. Due to the fact that the dynamic in most metallurgical processes as well as combustion processes is very fast and the response time for conventional extractive gas analysers is long, off-gas analysis for on-line process control is not expedient with this technology. On the other hand, by exploiting microwave technology, its short response time and high sensitivity for gas analysis, disadvantages such as long response time could be eliminated, and thus improve the process efficiency. With this approach a process control on-line in “real time” is possible. On- line gas analysis entails an improved process control, which for metallurgical and combustion processes implies energy savings, reduced emissions of green house gases and improved productivity. In this novel work we will present a series of trials in which a high tempered gas flow is spectroscopically analysed in a frequency band ranging from 110 to 120 GHz. The objective is to stimulate compounds sensitive to radiation in this frequency band to make a transition from one energy level to another and in doing so giving up energy that can be detected by the measuring system. Of interest for the steel and metal industry are molecular compounds such as CO, CO2 (isotope), O2, NO, NO2, H2O, OH and SO2.

Keywords
Microwave technology, Gas Analysis
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-1953 (URN)2082/2348 (Local ID)2082/2348 (Archive number)2082/2348 (OAI)
Conference
Symposium on steel production, Montreal, Canada, 2003
Available from: 2008-09-24 Created: 2008-09-24 Last updated: 2018-03-23Bibliographically approved
3. Preliminary microwave measurements on liquid stags
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Preliminary microwave measurements on liquid stags
2005 (English)In: Ironmaking & steelmaking, ISSN 0301-9233, E-ISSN 1743-2812, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 61-67Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Microwave technology has for decades been a tool for astronomers in their work to map and understand the complexities of the universe in terms of composition and extent but it is also used at laboratory scale by spectroscopists to examine the properties of atomic and molecular compounds. This paper discusses the use of microwave technology for the investigation of liquid slag structures. Preliminary results indicate that alteration of slag composition could be correlated to the measured microwave refractive index. Investigations have been performed on Al2 O3 -CaO-SiO2.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Maney Publishing, 2005
Keywords
Microwave technology, Slag, Structure, Liquids, AL2O3-CAO-SIO2
National Category
Signal Processing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-717 (URN)10.1179/174328105X15887 (DOI)000227331000009 ()2-s2.0-22944492731 (Scopus ID)2082/1066 (Local ID)2082/1066 (Archive number)2082/1066 (OAI)
Available from: 2007-06-04 Created: 2007-06-04 Last updated: 2018-03-23Bibliographically approved
4. In-Situ Monitoring of Oxygen Concentration and Gas Temperature in a Metallurgical Process Using Diode-Laser Spectroscopy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In-Situ Monitoring of Oxygen Concentration and Gas Temperature in a Metallurgical Process Using Diode-Laser Spectroscopy
2000 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

By using a Tunable Diode Laser spectrometer the oxygen concentration and the temperature in the off-gases of an electric arc furnace, EAF, have simultaneously been monitored during operation. The spectrometer operates at a group of absorptoin lines lines in the near infrared wavelength region to measure the oxygen concentration and the temperature. The O2 absotion line parameters used were determined in a controlled pilot experiment using a heated measurement path. The temperature is measured using the relative intensity of the absoption lines and thereafter concentration is calculated from the temperature compensated absorption. The measurements were performed in-situ with a specially designed high temperature sensor mounted on the furnace wall. Optical fibers were used to carry the probing light between the TDL spectrometer and the measurement point. This novel work shows the potential of using TDL spectrometer to measure O2 and temperature in-situ in a steel making process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Tokyo: Iron and Steel Institute of Japan, 2000
Keywords
In-situ, Measurements, Temperature, Oxygen, Diode-laser, Specroscopy, Process Control and Metallurgical Processes
National Category
Chemical Process Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-30595 (URN)
Conference
The 6th Japan-Nordic Countries joint Symposium, The Iron and Steel Institute of Japan, Nagoya, 2000
Available from: 2016-03-30 Created: 2016-03-30 Last updated: 2018-03-22Bibliographically approved
5. In-Situ Monitoring of Oxygen Concentration and Gas Temperature in a Metallurgical Process Using Diode-Laser Spectroscopy:
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In-Situ Monitoring of Oxygen Concentration and Gas Temperature in a Metallurgical Process Using Diode-Laser Spectroscopy:
2001 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Increased demands on quality control, reduced production-time, energy savings and reduction of green-house-gas emission in various metallurgical processes have created an interest for new methods to monitor and control the processes. By using Tunable Diode Laser spectrometers the gas temperature as well as the concentration of 0 2, CO and C02 have been monitored. Laboratory experiments were carried out in a specially designed high-temperature furnace at MEFOS to determine a set of absorption lines suitable for simultaneous 02ffemperature and CO/COz measurements. Field trials were carried out in an Electric Arc Furnace and a reheating furnace. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: IOM Communications, 2001
Keywords
In-situ, Measurements, Temperature, Oxygen, Diode-laser, Specroscopy, Process Control and Metallurgical Processes
National Category
Chemical Process Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-30596 (URN)
Conference
ICS 2001, 2nd International Congress on the Science & Technology of Steelmaking, Swansea 2001
Available from: 2016-03-30 Created: 2016-03-30 Last updated: 2018-03-22Bibliographically approved
6. On-line and in situ monitoring of oxygen concentration and gas temperature in a reheating furnace utilizing tunable diode-laser spectroscopy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On-line and in situ monitoring of oxygen concentration and gas temperature in a reheating furnace utilizing tunable diode-laser spectroscopy
2001 (English)In: Spectrochimica Acta Part A - Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, ISSN 1386-1425, E-ISSN 1873-3557, Vol. 58, no 11, p. 2449-2455Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Increased demands on energy savings and quality control in metallurgical processes have created incentives for new methods to monitor and control the process. In this paper we will present a field trial that shows the potential of tunable diode-laser spectroscopy (TDLS) for simultaneous contact free measuring and monitoring of the oxygen concentration as well as the gas temperature in a reheating furnaceduring production. The field trials were carried out at an oil-fueled reheating furnace during 7 weeks of production. The tunable diode-laserspectrometer was measuring in situ across the preheating zone and the soaking zone in the furnace. During the campaign the oxygenconcentration and the gas temperature in the furnace environment were simultaneously monitored and instantaneous variations in these parameters could easily be recorded and subsequently correlated to actual changes in the process. Furthermore, the much shorter response-time of the TDLS technique compared with conventional measurement methods such as thermocouples and extractive gas analyzers was also demonstrated during the trials. The results show the potential for the TDLS technique to be used for energy savings as well as product quality improvements by controlling the burners in the reheating furnace. The results show that it would be possible to control and optimize the oxygenconcentration with TDLS in the control loop of the reheating furnace. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2001
Keywords
Contact free, Energy savings, Oxygen, Process control, Reheating furnace, Spectrometer, Temperature, Tunable laser
National Category
Chemical Process Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-30599 (URN)10.1016/S1386-1425(02)00061-6 (DOI)000177891300016 ()12353695 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-0036707460 (Scopus ID)
Conference
Third International Conference on Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscopy (TDLS 2001), Zermatt, Switzerland, 8-12 July, 2001
Available from: 2016-03-30 Created: 2016-03-30 Last updated: 2018-03-22Bibliographically approved
7. Combustion Control Using An IR Diode Laser
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Combustion Control Using An IR Diode Laser
2003 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) is a recent development in process instrumentation. A commercial TDLAS instrument has been tested both in an industrial steel reheating furnace and in a pilot furnace at MEFOS for continuous oxygen analysis of the furnace combustion gases. Automatic control of the air-to-fuel ratio (AFR) was proven using a time-averaged oxygen concentration signal with a TDC2000 furnace controller at MEFOS. The oxygen concentrations measured by the TDLAS instrument compared well with local measurements of the oxygen concentration using a conventional zirconia probe in both furnaces. The diode laser has the advantages of high reliability for average gas concentration measurements in the path of the beam, when compared to point gas analysis with conventional zirconia instrumentation. Reliable gas analysis offers the benefits of improved process control, which for steel reheating furnaces include energy savings, reduced emissions and improved productivity.

National Category
Chemical Process Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-30600 (URN)
Conference
Combustion Canada '03, Conference, 21-24 September, 2003, Vancouver, Canada
Available from: 2016-03-30 Created: 2016-03-30 Last updated: 2018-03-22Bibliographically approved

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