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Gear tribology: friction and surface topography
Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK).
2005 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The quest for energy efficiency leads to the development of highly efficient power transmissions for vehicles. Gears are some of the most rugged and durable torque transmitters among machine elements. Friction between sliding surfaces at gear teeth is one major source of power loss. To increase efficiency and reduce damage accumulation in gears has always been a background motivation to this thesis. It focuses on the frictional performance of manufactured gear surfaces with emphasis on the effect of surface topography and the orientation of its lay.

To achieve the goal of this work, a test rig was designed and constructed. The rig makes it possible to examine gear tooth friction on double crowned rollers. Five alternative gear-finishing processes are implemented in roller surface preparation. They comprise grinding, shotpeening, phosphating, chemical deburring and DLC coating. Theoretically, a friction model is suggested which helps to explain some of the testing results. Advanced surface metrology techniques and statistical tools are implemented in identifying surface features that influence friction.

The result demonstrates that surface topography is a significant factor affecting the lubricated frictional behaviour. For ground-finishing, the smoother the surfaces are finished, the lower friction coefficient they show. Chemical deburring and DLC coating as well as certain degrees of phosphating provide minimum friction coefficient and improved load carrying capacity, which are competitive to fine-ground finishing. Properly designed lay combinations of meshing gear surfaces can minimise friction and improve gear transmission efficiency. Theoretically, the friction coefficient can be explained by means of a combination of the slide-to-roll ratio and the real mean contact pressure within the range of loads considered in this thesis. Finally, features that correlate surface topography to friction are identified.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Göteborg: Chalmers university of technology , 2005. , p. 46
Series
Doktorsavhandlingar vid Chalmers tekniska högskola. Ny serie, ISSN 0346-718X ; 2263
Keywords [en]
Friction, Surface topography, Toughness, Lay, Gears, Power transmission
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-721Local ID: 2082/1070ISBN: 91-7291-581-1 OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hh-721DiVA, id: diva2:237939
Public defence
2005-04-08, KB Salen, K-huset, Chalmers Tekniska Högskola, Göteborg, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2007-06-11 Created: 2007-06-11 Last updated: 2018-03-23Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. A study on the effect of surface topography on rough friction in roller contact
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A study on the effect of surface topography on rough friction in roller contact
2003 (English)In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 254, no 11, p. 1162-1169Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The friction behaviour of gear teeth in the context of tribology can have a strong effect on housing vibration, noise and efficiency. One of the parameters that greatly influences the friction under certain running conditions is surface roughness. In this work, rough friction was studied in lubricated sliding of roller surfaces, which were manufactured to simulate the real gear surfaces. By examining 3D surface topography of two mating bodies, both surface roughness and its effect on friction behaviour can be studied. In a previous study, a rough-friction test rig has been designed, constructed and initially verified. The types of surfaces involved in this study are ground, shot-peened, phosphated and electrochemically deburred. These rollers were subjected to the same friction testing procedures. Roller surfaces were then examined, and correlation between the topography and the frictional behaviour was analysed. Friction behaviour was interpreted in terms of Stribeck curves (friction coefficient as the function of Hersey parameter (ην/p)). The results showed that electrochemically deburred and certain phosphated surfaces provide lower friction coefficient values which are competitive to fine-ground surfaces in lubricated rolling/sliding contact. © 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2003
Keywords
Surface Topography, Wear of materials, Friction, Rolling, Sliding mode control, Surface roughness, Tribology, Gears
National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-3560 (URN)10.1016/S0043-1648(03)00329-6 (DOI)000185448900016 ()2-s2.0-0042856282 (Scopus ID)
Conference
10th Nordic Conference on Tribology, NORDTRIB 2002, 9-12th June, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden, 2002
Note

Funding: Volvo Car Corporation (VCC), Volvo Technological Development Corporation (VTDC) & the Swedish Board for Vehicular Research

Available from: 2010-01-08 Created: 2009-12-01 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
2. Surface lay effect on rough friction in roller contact
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Surface lay effect on rough friction in roller contact
2004 (English)In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 257, no 12, p. 1301-1307Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Surface lay describes the direction of the predominant surface pattern. A properly designed surface texture configuration has been recognised as a vital issue affecting lubrication and sliding in machinery applications in the literature. Gaining understanding of this tribological phenomenon is no doubt beneficial in facilitating the production of more efficient machine parts and thus reduces production cost. This paper describes an experimental method to investigate the effect of surface lay on lubricated rolling/sliding of ground roller surfaces. By using the rough friction test rig, different surface lay contacts can be simulated and the friction can be measured. Friction behaviour was interpreted in terms of Stribeck curves (friction coefficient as the function of Hersey parameter [ηv/p]). Results show that an optimal contact lay angle that provides a minimum friction value is achievable through rig testing. The relative sliding speed direction has a symmetrical effect on friction at the same lay orientation; for sliding speed angles less than about 80, the larger the angle, the lower the friction, and vice versa. © 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2004
Keywords
Surface lay, Surface topography, Contact angle, Friction, Lubrication, Rollers (machine components), Rolling, Roughness, Sliding, Textures, Tribology
National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-3559 (URN)10.1016/j.wear.2003.09.006 (DOI)000225750700018 ()2-s2.0-10044251960 (Scopus ID)
Conference
9th International Conference on Metrology & Properties of Engineering Surfaces, Halmstad, Sweden, Sept. 10-11, 2003
Note

Funding: The Swedish Board for Vehicular Research & Volvo

Available from: 2010-01-08 Created: 2009-12-01 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
3. The influence of surface roughness and the contact pressure distribution on friction in rolling/sliding contacts
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The influence of surface roughness and the contact pressure distribution on friction in rolling/sliding contacts
2007 (English)In: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 694-698Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A numerical contact model is used to study the influence of surface roughness and the pressure distribution on the frictional behaviour in rolling/sliding contacts. Double-crowned roller surfaces are measured and used as input for the contact analysis. The contact pressure distribution is calculated for dry static contacts and the results are compared with friction measurements in a lubricated rolling/sliding contact made with a rough friction test rig. The mean pressure is suggested as a parameter that can be used to predict the influence of surface roughness on the friction coefficient in such contacts. The results show two important properties of the friction coefficient for the friction regime studied in this paper: (1) there is a linear decrease in friction coefficient as a function of the slide-to-roll ratio, and (2) the friction coefficient increases linearly with increasing mean contact pressure up to a maximum limit above which the friction coefficient is constant. The absolute deviation of experimental results from the derived theory is for most cases within 0.005.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2007
Keywords
Friction, Surface roughness, Contact pressure distribution, Rolling/sliding contacts
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-1362 (URN)10.1016/j.triboint.2005.11.021 (DOI)000243576700020 ()2-s2.0-33845203604 (Scopus ID)2082/1741 (Local ID)2082/1741 (Archive number)2082/1741 (OAI)
Available from: 2008-04-25 Created: 2008-04-25 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
4. Rolling and rolling-to-sliding contact behaviour of DLC coatings
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rolling and rolling-to-sliding contact behaviour of DLC coatings
Show others...
2005 (English)In: Life cycle tribology: proceeding of the 31st Leeds-Lyon symposium on tribology held at Trinity and All Saints College, Horsforth, Leeds, UK, 7th-10th September 2004 / [ed] Dowson, D., Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2005, p. 213-220Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2005
Series
Tribology and interface engineering series ; 48
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-3328 (URN)10.1016/S0167-8922(05)80023-9 (DOI)2-s2.0-33745061742 (Scopus ID)9780444516879 (ISBN)
Conference
Leeds-Lyon Symposium on Tribology (31 : 2005 : Leeds)
Available from: 2010-02-25 Created: 2009-12-01 Last updated: 2014-03-05Bibliographically approved

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Citation style
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