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Fate and Effects of Azinphos-Methyl in a Flow-Through Wetland in South Africa
Department of Zoology, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, South Africa; Syngenta Crop Protection AG, Ecological Sciences, Jealott's Hill Intl. Research Centre, Bracknell, Berkshire, United Kingdom.
Department of Zoology, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, South Africa.
Department of Zoology, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, South Africa.
Department of Zoology, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, South Africa.
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2003 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 37, no 10, p. 2139-2144Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Our knowledge about the effectiveness of constructed wetlands in retaining agricultural nonpoint-source pesticide pollution is limited. A 0.44-ha vegetated wetland built along a tributary of the Lourens River, Western Cape, South Africa, was studied to ascertain the retention, fate, and effects of spray drift-borne azinphos-methyl (AZP). Composite water samples taken at the inlet and outlet during five spray drift trials in summer 2000 and 2001 revealed an overall reduction of AZP levels by 90 ± 1% and a retention of AZP mass by 61 ± 5%. Samples were collected at the inlet, outlet, and four platforms within the wetland to determine the fate and effect of AZP in the wetland after direct spray drift deposition in the tributary 200 m upstream of the inlet. Peak concentrations of AZP decreased, and the duration of exposure increased from inlet (0.73 µg/L; 9 h) via platforms 1 and 4 to outlet (0.08 µg/L; 16 h). AZP sorbed to plants or plant surfaces, leading to a peak concentration of 6.8 µg/kg dw. The living plant biomass accounted for 10.5% of the AZP mass initially retained in the wetland, indicating processes such as volatilization, photolysis, hydrolysis, or metabolic degradation as being very important. AZP was not detected in sediments. Water samples taken along two 10-m transects situated perpendicular to the shore indicated a homogeneous horizontal distribution of the pesticide: 0.23±0.02 and 0.14±0.04 µg/L (n = 5), respectively. Both Copepoda (p = 0.019) and Cladocera (p = 0.027) decreased significantly 6 h postdeposition and remained at reduced densities for at least 7 d. In parallel, the chlorophyll a concentration showed an increase, although not significant, within 6 h of spray deposition. The study highlights the potential of constructed wetlands as a risk-mitigation strategy for spray drift-related pesticide pollution.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Washington: American Chemical Society , 2003. Vol. 37, no 10, p. 2139-2144
Keywords [en]
Constructed wetlands, Water pollution
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-310DOI: 10.1021/es026029fISI: 000182866000016PubMedID: 12785519Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-0037617869Local ID: 2082/612OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hh-310DiVA, id: diva2:237489
Available from: 2006-12-13 Created: 2006-12-13 Last updated: 2018-03-23Bibliographically approved

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Thiere, Geraldine

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