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Exposure to physical and psychosocial stressors in relation to symptoms of common mental disorders among European professional football referees: A prospective cohort study
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam Movement Sciences, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0990-4842
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam Movement Sciences, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
Royal Belgian Football Association, Brussels, Belgium.
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2018 (English)In: BMJ Open Sport and Exercise Medicine, E-ISSN 2055-7647, Vol. 4, no 1, article id e000306Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives The study aim was to explore the association of physical and psychosocial stressors (severe injuries, surgeries, recent life events, social support) with one-season onset of symptoms of common mental disorders (CMDs) among European professional football referees. Methods An observational prospective cohort study over a follow-up period of one season (2015-2016) was conducted among professional football referees from Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Norway, Russia, Scotland and Sweden. Based on physical and psychosocial stressors as well as symptoms of CMD, an electronic questionnaire in English and French was set up and distributed by eight football federations involved. Results The prevalence of symptoms of CMD ranged from 5.9% for distress to 19.2% for eating disorders. A higher number of severe injuries and a lower degree of satisfaction about social support were significantly related to the occurrence of symptoms of CMD with an OR of 2.63 and an OR of 1.10, respectively. Conclusion A higher number of severe injuries and a lower degree on satisfaction about social support were found to be significantly associated with the onset of symptoms of CMD among European professional football referees. Referees suffering from severe injuries were nearly three times more likely to report symptoms of anxiety and depression. Referees who reported a low satisfaction of social support were significantly more likely to report symptoms of eating disorder. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: BMJ Publishing Group Ltd, 2018. Vol. 4, no 1, article id e000306
Keywords [en]
Epidemiology, Football, Mental disorders, Referees, Substance-related disorders
National Category
Psychiatry Other Medical Sciences not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-38705DOI: 10.1136/bmjsem-2017-000306Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85050392869OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hh-38705DiVA, id: diva2:1276453
Available from: 2019-01-08 Created: 2019-01-08 Last updated: 2019-01-08Bibliographically approved

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CiteExportLink to record
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Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
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