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Environmental education as epistemological imperialism: How Swedish exceptionalism is constructed through the Otherness Machinery
Faculty of Education and Society, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science, Centrum för lärande, kultur och samhälle (CLKS), Lärande, Profession och Samhällsutveckling.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7643-1355
2015 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Introduction: Sustainable development is often described as a global project, including everyone everywhere in the fight for a better ‘common future’. Theaim of this paper is to problematize this inclusive project through an analysis of how good intentions in Environmental and Sustainability Education (ESE)construct and maintain differences between ‘Us’ and ‘Them’. We are interested in exposing social constructions of normality and otherness in the taken-for- granted good intentions within ESE.Objectives: The analysis focuses textbooks used in Swedish schools, how texts and pictures operate as cogwheels in what we call Otherness machinery,discursively constructing who is ‘normal’ and who is ‘the Other’. We examine how representations of race and nationality construct (un)desirable subjects inside the discourse of ESE. The theoretical framework builds on 1) critical race theory and whiteness studies and 2) theories on double gestures of inclusion and exclusion in education. When trying to help or foster the Orher, we are, at the same time, in a double gesture, constructing the ones in need asabjects, those who ‘need to be saved’ into a specific norm.Methods: The empirical material consists of teaching material about sustainable development: five textbooks in science, civics and geography for primary and lower secondary school and two thematic fact books for school. From the books, we extracted parts that were concerned with sustainable development and environmental issues for a closer analysis.In the analysis of the material, we studied how normality (in this case Swedishness) and Otherness are constructed and who (in terms of the entanglement ofrace and nationality) is representing what. The question is how Sweden, or ‘We’, is constructed in relation to the Other and what discursive consequences these positions have attached to them.Results: The result is presented through five dichotomies structuring the ESD discourse: Tradition/Civilization, Dirtiness/Purity, Chaos/Order, Ignorance/Morality and Helped/Helping. Through these dichotomies we show how differences between ‘Us’ and ‘Them’ are constructed and maintained inthe textbooks about sustainable development and environment. Sweden, and Swedishness, are with help from different - uncivilized or immoral others - constructed as exceptional. We claim that these representations of race and nationality imply a colonial gaze.Conclusion: The paper addresses the risk that a child who engages in the ESE practice come to meet the world with a colonial gaze and an aim to foster the Other into a specific way of living. It discusses how the global project of sustainable development is transformed through a discourse of “Swedish exceptionalism”. In a double gesture of inclusion and exclusion, the rest of the world appears in need of help, development, or – in some cases – higher moral standards. The including ESE project must thus be understood as a colonial, and excluding practice – a form of epistemological imperialism.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. p. 185-185
Keywords [en]
discourse analysis, Education for sustainable development, Textbook analysis, Inclusion/exclusion
National Category
Didactics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-36895OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hh-36895DiVA, id: diva2:1212754
Conference
8th World Environmental Education Congress: Planet and People - How can they develop together (WEEC2015), June 24 - July 2 2015, Gothenburg, Sweden
Available from: 2018-06-03 Created: 2018-06-03 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved

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Malmberg, Claes

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CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
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Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
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