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Performance evaluation of a platooning application using the IEEE 802.11p MAC on a control channel vs. a centralized real-time MAC on a service channel
Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för Informationsvetenskap, Data– och Elektroteknik (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centrum för forskning om inbyggda system (CERES).
Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för Informationsvetenskap, Data– och Elektroteknik (IDE). (nbyggda system (CERES), Embedded Systems (CERES))ORCID-id: 0000-0002-6526-3931
Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för Informationsvetenskap, Data– och Elektroteknik (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centrum för forskning om inbyggda system (CERES).ORCID-id: 0000-0001-6497-4099
(Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

Recent advances in cooperative driving hold the potential to significantly improve safety, comfort and efficiency on our roads. An application of particular interest is platooning of trucks, where it has been shown that keeping a minimum inter-vehicle distance results in considerably reduced fuel consumptions. This, however, puts high requirements on timeliness and reliability of the underlying exchange of control messages between platoon members. The European profile of IEEE 802.11p, recently adopted by ETSI, defines two message types to this end, periodic beacons for basic cooperative awareness (CAM) and event-triggered decentralized environmental notification messages (DENM), both using the common control channel. The IEEE 802.11p employs a random medium access protocol, with excessive delays that may prevent proper functionality of a platooning application. To mitigate the effects of this, ETSI standardizes a decentralized congestion control algorithm to, e.g., lower the CAM frequency when needed. Some service channels with less strict requirements on send rates, data traffic types or medium access methods are available. In this paper we compare the performance of decentralized, standard-compliant inter-platoon communication using IEEE 802.11p on the control channel with a solution based on a service channel, which combines a random access phase for DENM with a centralized, scheduled access phase for CAM. A dedicated service channel for platooning applications enables us to always guarantee timely channel access of CAM packets before a specified deadline and our simulations show that this is achieved at very small sacrifices in DENM dissemination delay.

Nationell ämneskategori
Kommunikationssystem
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-22163OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hh-22163DiVA, id: diva2:621755
Tillgänglig från: 2013-05-17 Skapad: 2013-05-17 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-03-22Bibliografiskt granskad
Ingår i avhandling
1. Delay-sensitive wireless communication for cooperative driving applications
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Delay-sensitive wireless communication for cooperative driving applications
2013 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

Cooperative driving holds the potential to considerably improve the level of safety and efficiency on our roads. Recent advances in in-vehicle sensing and wireless communication technology have paved the way for the development of cooperative traffic safety applications based on the exchange of data between vehicles (or between vehicles and road side units) over a wireless link. The access to up-to-date status information from surrounding vehicles is vital to most cooperative driving applications. Other applications rely on the fast dissemination of warning messages in case a hazardous event or certain situation is detected. Both message types put high requirements on timeliness and reliability of the underlying communication protocols.

The recently adopted European profile of IEEE 802.11p defines two message types,periodic beacons for basic status exchange and event-triggered hazard warnings, both operating at pre-defined send rates and sharing a common control channel. The IEEE 802.11p Medium Access Control (MAC) scheme is a random access protocol that doesnot offer deterministic real-time support, i.e. no guarantee that a packet is granted access to the channel before its deadline can be given. It has been shown that a high number of channel access requests, either due to a high number of communicating vehicles or highdata volumes produced by these vehicles, cannot be supported by the IEEE 802.11p MAC protocol, as it may result in dropped packets and unbounded delays.

The goal of the work presented in this thesis has therefore been to enhance IEEE 802.11p without altering the standard such that it better supports the timing and reliability requirements of traffic safety applications and provides context-aware andefficient use of the available communication resources in a vehicular network. The proposed solutions are mapped to the specific demands of a set of cooperative driving scenarios (featuring infrastructure-based and infrastructure-free use cases, densely and sparsely trafficked roads, very high and more relaxed timing requirements) and evaluated either analytically, by computer simulation or by measurements and compared to the results produced by the unaltered IEEE 802.11p standard.

As an alternative to the random MAC method of IEEE 802.11p, a centralized solution isproposed for application scenarios where either a road side unit or a suitable dedicated vehicle is present long enough to take the coordinating role. A random access phase forevent-driven data traffic is interleaved with a collision-free phase where timely channel access of periodic delay-sensitive data is scheduled. The ratio of the two phases isdynamically adapted to the current data traffic load and specific application requirements. This centralized MAC solution is mapped on two cooperative driving applications: merge assistance at highway entrances and platooning of trucks. Further,the effect of a context-aware choice of parameters like send rate or priority settings based on a vehicle’s position or role in the safety application is studied with the goal to reduce the overall number of packets in the network or, alternatively, use the available resources more efficiently. Examples include position-based priorities for the merge assistance use case, context-aware send rate adaptation of status updates in anovertaking warning application targeting sparsely-trafficked rural roads and an efficient dissemination strategy for warning messages within a platoon.

It can be concluded that IEEE 802.11p as is does not provide sufficient support for the specific timing and reliability requirements imposed by the exchange of safety-criticalreal-time data for cooperative driving applications. While the proper, context-awarechoice of parameters, concerning send rate or priority level, within the limits of the standard, can lead to improved packet inter-arrival rates and reduced end-to-end delays,the added benefits from integrating MAC solutions with real-time support into the standard are obvious and needs to be investigated further.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Halmstad: Halmstad University Press, 2013. s. 47
Serie
Halmstad University Dissertations ; 4
Nyckelord
Cooperative driving applications, wireless communication
Nationell ämneskategori
Kommunikationssystem
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-22164 (URN)978-91-87045-04-2 (ISBN)978-91-87045-03-5 (ISBN)
Disputation
2013-06-07, R 1107, Halmstad University, Halmstad, 10:15 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Tillgänglig från: 2013-05-17 Skapad: 2013-05-17 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-03-22Bibliografiskt granskad

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Performance evaluation of a platooning application using the IEEE 802.11p MAC on a control channel vs. a centralized real-time MAC on a service channel(210 kB)457 nedladdningar
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