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Protocols for active RFID - the energy consumption aspect
Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6625-6533
Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
2007 (English)In: 2007 Symposium on Industrial Embedded Systems Proceedings, Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE Press, 2007, p. 41-48Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The use of Radio Frequency Identification systems (RFID) is growing rapidly. Today, mostly “passive” RFID systems are used because no onboard energy source is needed on the transponders. However, “active” RFID technology, with onboard power sources in the transponders, gives a range of opportunities not possible with passive systems. To obtain energy efficiency in an Active RFID system the protocol to be used should be carefully designed with energy optimization in mind. This paper describes how energy consumption can be calculated, to be used in protocol definition, and how evaluation of protocol in this respect can be made. The performance of such a new protocol, in terms of energy efficiency, aggregated throughput, delay, and number of air collisions is evaluated and compared to an existing, commercially available protocol for Active RFID, as well as to the IEEE standard 802.15.4 (used e.g. in the Zigbee mediumaccess layer).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE Press, 2007. p. 41-48
Keywords [en]
Active RFID, Energy efficiency, Protocol, energy consumption, nergy optimization, radio frequency identification system, transponders
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-1963DOI: 10.1109/SIES.2007.4297315ISI: 000253868200008Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-46749158780Local ID: 2082/2358ISBN: 1-4244-0840-7 OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hh-1963DiVA, id: diva2:239181
Conference
2007 International Symposium on Industrial Embedded Systems, 2007. Hotel Costa da Caparica, Lisbon, Portugal, 4 - 6 July 2007
Note

©2007 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. However, permission to reprint/republish this material for advertising or promotional purposes or for creating new collective works for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or to reuse any copyrighted component of this work in other works must be obtained from the IEEE.

Available from: 2008-09-26 Created: 2008-09-26 Last updated: 2018-03-23Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Towards energy efficient protocols for active RFID
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards energy efficient protocols for active RFID
2007 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The absence of a global standard is a bottleneck when using Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology. This thesis explores data communication protocols for Active-RFID regarding their energy efficiency and how they can be suited to fit a large variety of applications.

The use of Radio Frequency Identification systems (RFID) is growing rapidly. Today mostly "passive" RFID systems are used because no onboard energy source is needed on the transponders. However, "active" RFID technology, with onboard power sources in the transponders, gives a range of opportunities not possible with passive systems. Besides that Active RFID offers longer working distance between RFID-reader and tag than passive RFID, this also enables the tags to do sensor measurements, calculations and storage even when no RFID-reader is in the vicinity of the tags.

To obtain energy efficiency in an Active RFID system the data communication protocol to be used should be carefully designed with energy optimization in mind. This thesis describes how energy consumption can be calculated, to be used in protocol definition, and how evaluation of protocols in this respect can be made. The performance of such a new protocol, in terms of energy efficiency, aggregated throughput, delay, and number of air collisions is evaluated and compared to an existing, commercially available protocol for Active RFID, as well as the IEEE standard 802.15.4 (used e.g. in the Zigbee medium-access layer). Simulations show that, by acknowledging the payload and using deep sleep mode on the tag, the lifetime of a tag is increased.

For all types of protocols using an air channel for transmitting and receiving information it is obvious that the utilization of the channel is maximized when no collisions occur. To avoid and minimize collisions in the air interface it is possible to listen to the channel (carrier sense) and know its status. Knowing that the channel is occupied should result in a back-off and a later retry, instead of persistently listening to the channel which would require constant energy consumption. We further study the effect on tag energy cost and packet delay incurred by some typical back-off algorithms (constant, linear, and exponential) used in a contention based CSMA/CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance) protocols for Active RFID communication. The study shows that by selecting the proper back-off algorithm coefficients (based on the number of tags), i.e. the initial contention window size and back-off interval coefficient, the tag energy consumption and read-out delays can be significantly lowered.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Göteborg: Chalmers University of Technology, 2007. p. 20
Series
Technical report. L, ISSN 1652-876X ; 42
Keywords
RFID, active RFID, protocol, back-off, carrier sense, energy efficient, wireless networks, active tag, energy consumption
National Category
Computer Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-1983 (URN)2082/2378 (Local ID)2082/2378 (Archive number)2082/2378 (OAI)
Presentation
(English)
Available from: 2008-09-29 Created: 2008-09-29 Last updated: 2018-02-28Bibliographically approved

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Nilsson, BjörnBengtsson, LarsSvensson, BertilWiberg, Per-Arne

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