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Cooperative Automated Driving for Enhanced Safety and Ethical Decision-Making
Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8587-2251
2024 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Advances in technologies for vehicular communication enable new applications for Cooperative Intelligent Transportation Systems (C-ITS). Communicating vehicles share information and cooperate, which allows for improved safety, fuel economy, and traffic efficiency. Platooning – a coordinated string of vehicles with small Inter-Vehicle Distances (IVDs) – comprises one such C-ITS application. Any C-ITS application must comply with high safety requirements to pass standardization and be commercially deployed. Moreover, trusted solutions should be guaranteed even for critical scenarios or rare edge cases. This thesis presents two sets of contributions related to cooperative automated driving. Firstly, it provides conditions ensuring safe platooning or vehicle following. Secondly, it introduces an ethical framework to guide autonomous decision-making in scenarios involving imminent collisions. In the first set of contributions, we consider emergency braking scenarios for vehicles driving in a platoon or following each other. In such scenarios, the lead vehicle suddenly brakes. This requires swift responses from followers to prevent rear-end collisions. Here, Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) communication has the potential to significantly reduce reaction times by allowing the lead vehicle to notify followers of the emergency braking. The presented safety analysis yields computationally efficient methods and algorithms for calculating minimum IVDs for rear-end collision avoidance. The IVDs are computed for closed-loop and open-loop configurations. The open-loop configuration implies followers drive with a constant velocity until the onset of braking, whereas in the closed-loop configuration, a controller is used under some restrictions. In addition, a centralized approach for optimization of IVDs in platoon formations is carried out. Such an approach allows for improved fuel consumption and road utilization. An analytical comparison shows that our proposed Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communication-based solution is superior to classic automated systems, such as automatic emergency braking system, which utilizes only onboard sensors. Wireless communication provides intentions to vehicles almost immediately, which allows for smaller IVDs while guaranteeing the same level of safety.

In the second set of contributions, an ethical framework to guide autonomous decision-making is presented. Even though collisions resulting from edge cases are unlikely, it is essential to address them in motion planning logic for autonomous vehicles. Decisions made in such situations should always prioritize ethical considerations, such as saving human lives. Adhering to ethical principles in the development and deployment of autonomous vehicles is essential for fostering public understanding and acceptance. The thesis presents a framework of ethical V2X communication, where V2X is acknowledged as an essential means for enabling autonomous vehicles to perform coordinated actions to meet certain ethical criteria. The presented framework demonstrates how the risk or harm resulting from unavoidable collisions can be mitigated or redistributed under ethical considerations through cooperation between vehicles. Overall, the presented thesis highlights the importance of C-ITS and, specifically, V2X communication in managing emergency scenarios. V2X communication enables faster response times and facilitates cooperative maneuvers, which helps preventing rear-end collisions or mitigating their consequences under ethical considerations. Future work directions include an extension of the obtained results by considering more advanced models of vehicles, environment, and communication settings; and applying the proposed frameworks to more complicated traffic scenarios.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Halmstad: Halmstad University Press, 2024. , p. 163
Series
Halmstad University Dissertations ; 110
Keywords [en]
Cooperative Intelligent Transportation System (C-ITS), cooperative vehicles, Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communication, V2X communications, automated driving, platooning, emergency braking, road safety, vehicular safety, ITS-G5, IEEE 802.11p, ethical dilemmas, ethical decision-making, autonomous driving ethics
National Category
Communication Systems Telecommunications Control Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-52837ISBN: 978-91-89587-34-2 (print)ISBN: 978-91-89587-33-5 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hh-52837DiVA, id: diva2:1842503
Public defence
2024-03-28, Wigforss, Kristian IV:s väg 3, Halmstad, Halmstad, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2024-03-07 Created: 2024-03-05 Last updated: 2024-03-08Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Towards a Complete Safety Framework for Longitudinal Driving
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards a Complete Safety Framework for Longitudinal Driving
2022 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Vehicles, ISSN 2379-8858, E-ISSN 2379-8904, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 809-814Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Formal models for the safety validation of autonomous vehicles have become increasingly important. To this end, we present a safety framework for longitudinal automated driving. This framework allows calculating minimum safe inter-vehicular distances for arbitrary ego vehicle control policies. We use this framework to enhance the Responsibility-Sensitive Safety (RSS) model and models based on it, which fail to cover situations where the ego vehicle has a higher decelerating capacity than its preceding vehicle. For arbitrary ego vehicle control policies, we show how our framework can be applied by substituting real (possibly computationally intractable) controllers with upper bounding functions. This comprises a general approach for longitudinal safety, where safety guarantees for the upper-bounded system are equivalent to those for the original system but come at the expense of larger inter-vehicular distances. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2022
Keywords
Automated Driving, Brakes, Collision Avoidance, Responsibility-Sensitive Safety, Roads, Safety, Safety Validation, Switches, Time factors, Trajectory, Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communications, Vehicular ad hoc networks
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-48532 (URN)10.1109/TIV.2022.3209910 (DOI)000906805200003 ()2-s2.0-85139526718 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-10-28 Created: 2022-10-28 Last updated: 2024-03-05Bibliographically approved
2. Emergency braking with ACC: how much does V2V communication help
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Emergency braking with ACC: how much does V2V communication help
2022 (English)In: IEEE Networking Letters, E-ISSN 2576-3156, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 157-161Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper provides a safety analysis for emergency braking scenarios involving consecutive vehicles which utilize adaptive cruise control (ACC) with a constant-distance policy together with vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication. We identify analytically, how the minimum safe inter-vehicle distance(IVD) that allows avoiding rear-end collision can be shortened with the use of electronic emergency brake lights and derive the explicit dependency of such IVDs on V2V communication time delay. We further show how these results can be used to compute probabilities of safe braking in the presence of packet losses.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2022
Keywords
Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC), Cooperative Intelligent Transportation System (C-ITS), Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communication, emergency braking, road safety, ITS-G5, IEEE 802.11p
National Category
Control Engineering Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-46299 (URN)10.1109/LNET.2022.3190244 (DOI)
Projects
Safety of Connected Intelligent Vehicles in Smart Cities – SafeSmartEmergency Vehicle Traffic Light Preemption in Cities – EPIC
Funder
Knowledge FoundationVinnovaELLIIT - The Linköping‐Lund Initiative on IT and Mobile Communications
Note

Som manuskript i avhandling / As manuscript in thesis

Available from: 2022-02-08 Created: 2022-02-08 Last updated: 2024-03-05Bibliographically approved
3. Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communication for Safe and Fuel-Efficient Platooning
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communication for Safe and Fuel-Efficient Platooning
2020 (English)In: 2020 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV), Piscataway: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2020, p. 795-802, article id 9304719Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A platoon consists of a string of vehicles traveling close together. Such tight formation allows for increased road throughput and reduced fuel consumption due to decreased air resistance. Furthermore, sensors and control algorithms can be used to provide a high level of automation. In this context, safety – in terms of no rear-end collisions – is a key property that needs to be assured. We investigate how vehicle-to-vehicle communication can be used to reduce inter-vehicle distances while guaranteeing safety in emergency braking scenarios. An optimization-based modeling scheme is presented that, under certain restrictions, provides an analytical calculation of inter-vehicle distances for safe braking. In contrast to earlier simulation-based approaches, the framework allows for computationally efficient solutions with explicit guarantees. Two approaches for computing braking strategies in emergency scenarios are proposed. The first assumes centralized coordination by the leading vehicle and exploits necessary optimal conditions of a constrained optimization problem, whereas the second – the more conservative solution – assumes only local information and is distributed in nature. We illustrate the usefulness of the approaches through several computational simulations. © 2020 IEEE.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2020
Series
IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, E-ISSN 2642-7214
Keywords
Collision Avoidance, V2X Communication, Automated Vehicles
National Category
Communication Systems Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-43764 (URN)10.1109/IV47402.2020.9304719 (DOI)2-s2.0-85094146908 (Scopus ID)978-1-7281-6673-5 (ISBN)
Conference
31st IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV), October 19 - November 13, 2020, (Virtual), Las Vegas, NV, United States
Available from: 2021-01-11 Created: 2021-01-11 Last updated: 2024-03-05Bibliographically approved
4. Safety of Automatic Emergency Braking in Platooning
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Safety of Automatic Emergency Braking in Platooning
Show others...
2022 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, ISSN 0018-9545, E-ISSN 1939-9359, Vol. 71, no 3, p. 2319-2332Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A platoon comprises a string of consecutive highly automated vehicles traveling together. Platooning allows for increased road utilization and reduced fuel consumption due to short inter-vehicular distances. Safety in terms of guaranteeing no rear-end collisions is of utmost importance for platooning systems to be deployed in practice. We compare how safely emergency braking can be handled by emerging V2V communications on the one hand and by radar-based measurements of existing AEBS on the other. We show that even under conservative assumptions on the V2V communications, such an approach significantly outperforms AEBS with an ideal radar sensor in terms of allowed inter-vehicle distances and response times. Furthermore, we design two emergency braking strategies for platooning based on V2V communications. The first braking strategy assumes centralized coordination by the leading vehicle and exploits necessary optimal conditions of a constrained optimization problem, whereas the second -- the more conservative solution -- assumes only local information and is distributed in nature. Both strategies are also compared with the AEBS.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2022
Keywords
platooning, safety, vehicle-to-vehicle communication (V2V), radar, automatic emergency braking systems
National Category
Communication Systems Telecommunications Control Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-46175 (URN)10.1109/tvt.2021.3138939 (DOI)000769985100012 ()2-s2.0-85122316213 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Safety of Connected Intelligent Vehicles in Smart Cities – SafeSmart
Funder
Knowledge FoundationVinnovaELLIIT - The Linköping‐Lund Initiative on IT and Mobile Communications
Available from: 2022-01-05 Created: 2022-01-05 Last updated: 2024-03-05Bibliographically approved
5. Ethical V2X: Cooperative Driving as the only Ethical Path to Multi-Vehicle Safety
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ethical V2X: Cooperative Driving as the only Ethical Path to Multi-Vehicle Safety
2023 (English)In: 2023 IEEE 98th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC2023-Fall), IEEE, 2023Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We argue that an information exchange between vehicles via the vehicular communications is the foundation for ethical driving. In other words - autonomous vehicles must be cooperative to be able to resolve ethical dilemmas in a multi-vehicle scenario. We show this by exploring the minimal setting of a longitudinal driving in a formation of three vehicles. © 2023 IEEE.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2023
Series
IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, ISSN 1090-3038, E-ISSN 2577-2465
Keywords
automated driving, Cooperative vehicles, ethical dilemmas, V2X communications, vehicular safety
National Category
Embedded Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-52407 (URN)10.1109/VTC2023-Fall60731.2023.10333432 (DOI)2-s2.0-85181174004 (Scopus ID)9798350329285 (ISBN)9798350329292 (ISBN)
Conference
98th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, VTC 2023-Fall, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, 10-13 October, 2023
Projects
SafeSmart
Funder
Knowledge FoundationELLIIT - The Linköping‐Lund Initiative on IT and Mobile Communications
Note

Fuding: The Knowledge Foundation Project ”SafeSmart”, ELLIIT Strategic Research Net- work and Helmholtz Program “Engineering Digital Futures”

Available from: 2024-01-15 Created: 2024-01-15 Last updated: 2024-03-05Bibliographically approved
6. Cooperation for Ethical Autonomous Driving
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cooperation for Ethical Autonomous Driving
(English)In: Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

The success in the adoption of autonomous vehicles is dependent on their ability to solve rarely occurring safety-critical corner cases. Vehicular communications (V2X) aim at improving safety and efficiency of autonomous driving by adding the capability of explicit inter-vehicular information exchange. We argue that V2X enables another important function, namely the support of ethical driving decisions. In this article, we explain our envisioned methodology of an ethical cooperative driving interaction protocol design (including what to communicate and how to act based on the received information). Cooperative manoeuvring empowered by the ethical V2X is a new research direction we promote in the autonomous driving research agenda.

Keywords
V2X, safety, ethics, cooperative driving
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
Smart Cities and Communities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-52829 (URN)
Note

As manuscript in thesis

Available from: 2024-03-04 Created: 2024-03-04 Last updated: 2024-03-07Bibliographically approved

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Sidorenko, Galina

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Citation style
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  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
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  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
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  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
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  • asciidoc
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