hh.sePublications
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Modelling District Heating Network Costs
Lund University, Lund, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6369-2222
2023 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The solution of the undergoing climate and energy crises requires a radical transformation of the energy system, in which sustainability, no carbon emissions and energy efficiency ought to play a paramount role. 

This revolution should extend to all areas of the energy system, including the space heating and cooling sector, which accounts for a third of the European final energy demand and, in the European continent, it is still mostly supplied by fossil fuels.

District heating is a simple but powerful technology that can contribute to tackle this challenge. As a network infrastructure, it is characterised by the flexibility of the heat production, allowing the incorporation of a wide range of heat sources over time. Furthermore, it enables the recycling of heat that would otherwise be wasted and the use of local heat sources in a more cost-effective manner. Moreover, its coupling with the electricity sector can facilitate the increase of intermittent electric renewable energy sources. 

Nevertheless, at the moment, district heating only covers a tenth of the European space heating and cooling needs, albeit with significant differences among countries. In addition, the development of new district heating networks is capital intensive and can only be justified in those areas where the concentration of the heat demand is sufficiently high to deliver a lower cost to society than an individual alternative. 

Therefore, it is crucial to assess the potential of district heating and to identify the target areas for in-depth investigations. This necessity demands easy and straightforward tools, which can provide a first order approximation of the construction cost of new networks. 

One of these tools is the capital cost model developed by Persson & Werner, which is based on, among others, the effective width parameter. This is an indicator of the required trench length in an area supplied by district heating and has been related to the building density. 

This work has contributed to the understanding of the effective width parameter in a wide range of building densities, taking advantage of one of the largest district heating networks in Denmark, and provided new equations that relate it to various indicators of building density. 

Furthermore, the average pipe diameter of district heating pipes has been linked to another crucial parameter in district heating technology, the linear heat density, extending prior work conducted by Persson and Werner. 

In addition, Persson and Werner's model and the newly found empirical expressions have been validated in various Danish district heating networks, showing that the model provides relatively accurate results on an aggregate level and large areas but dismally fails in low-extension areas. 

Finally, the model has been applied to the European Union showing that district heating networks could potentially supply a third of the heat demand in 2050.

Abstract [sv]

Lösningen av de pågående klimat- och energikriserna kräver en radikal omvandling av energisystemet, där hållbarhet, inga koldioxidutsläpp och energieffektivitet bör spela en avgörande roll.

Denna revolution bör sträcka sig till alla delar av energisystemet, inklusive sektorn för uppvärmning och kylning av byggnader, som står för en tredjedel av Europas slutliga energibehov och på den europeiska kontinenten fortfarande till största delen försörjs av fossila bränslen.

Fjärrvärme är en enkel men kraftfull teknik som kan bidra till denna utmaning. Som nätverksinfrastruktur kännetecknas den av flexibilitet i värmeproduktionen, vilket möjliggör inkorporering av ett brett utbud av värmekällor över tid. Dessutom möjliggör det återvinning av värme som annars skulle gå till spillo och användning av lokala värmekällor på ett mer kostnadseffektivt sätt. Dessutom kan dess koppling till elsektorn underlätta ökningen av intermittenta elektriska förnybara energikällor.

Detta till trots täcker fjärrvärme för närvarande bara en tiondel av det europeiska behovet av uppvärmning och kylning av byggnader, om än med betydande skillnader mellan länderna. Utbyggnaden av nya fjärrvärmenät är dessutom kapitalkrävande och kan endast motiveras i de områden där koncentrationen av värmebehovet är tillräckligt hög för att ge en lägre kostnad för samhället än ett individuellt alternativ.

Därför är det avgörande att bedöma potentialen för fjärrvärme och att identifiera målområdena för fördjupade utredningar. Denna nödvändighet kräver enkla och okomplicerade verktyg, som kan ge en första ordningens uppskattning av investeringskostnader för nya nätverk.

Ett av dessa verktyg är kapitalkostnadsmodellen utvecklad av Persson & Werner, som bygger på bland annat parametern effektiv bredd. Detta är en indikator på den erforderliga dikeslängden i ett område som försörjs av fjärrvärme och har relaterats till byggnadstätheten.

Detta arbete har bidragit till förståelsen av effektiv bredd-parametern i ett vitt spektrum av byggnadstätheter, vars studium drar fördel av ett av de största fjärrvärmenäten i Danmark, och har gett nya ekvationer som relaterar den till olika indikatorer på byggnadstäthet.

Vidare har den genomsnittliga rördiametern för fjärrvärmerör kopplats till en annan avgörande parameter inom fjärrvärmetekniken, den linjära värmedensiteten, vilket utökar tidigare arbete utfört av Persson och Werner.

Dessutom har Persson och Werners modell och de nyfunna empiriska uttrycken validerats i olika danska fjärrvärmenät, vilket visar att modellen ger relativt exakta resultat på aggregerad nivå och stora ytor men mindre så i lågutbyggnadsområden.

Slutligen har modellen tillämpats på EU som visar att fjärrvärmenät potentiellt kan tillgodose en tredjedel av värmebehovet år 2050.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lund: Lund University Open Access, 2023. , p. 48
Keywords [en]
District Heating, Pipe network, Cost analysis, Distribution Capital Cost, Effective Width, Plot Ratio, Heat Density, GIS
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Smart Cities and Communities
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-50916ISBN: 978-91-8039-702-5 (print)ISBN: 978-91-8039-703-2 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hh-50916DiVA, id: diva2:1772661
Presentation
2023-05-31, E-huset, E:1406, Ole Römers väg 3, Lund, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
Quantification of synergies between Energy Efficiency first principle and renewable energy systems
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 846463Available from: 2023-08-04 Created: 2023-06-21 Last updated: 2023-09-29Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Further investigations on the Effective Width for district heating systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Further investigations on the Effective Width for district heating systems
2021 (English)In: Energy Reports, E-ISSN 2352-4847, Vol. 7, no Suppl. 4, p. 351-358Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

District Heating is a cornerstone for the decarbonisation of the heating and cooling sector in Europe. Nonetheless, this technology is currently absent in a majority of the continent’s urban areas, and hence the need for appropriate methods by which to estimate the cost, as well as underlying cost parameters, to assess the feasibility of developing district heating networks is of general interest. One key underlying cost parameter, the concept of Effective Width, which is the ratio between a land area and the trench length within that land area, is the focus quantity of this work. Effective Width enables a first order assessment of the total route length of pipes in a given urban area and, together with the average diameter of the pipes, allows an estimation of the investment cost of installing district heating pipes. However, initial implementations of the Effective Width have been based on rather limited empirical evidence, such as a small set of cases and often disregarding service pipes due to lack of data. Another shortcoming of previous studies is the extrapolation of established relations into more sparsely populated areas. By assembly of a richer database, which contains building data, heat consumption data in the supplied areas, as well as actual network information (numerical and geographical), provided by several district heating companies in Denmark and Sweden, the objectives of this study are twofold: first, to improve the general understanding of Effective Width and its relation to building density, and secondly, to study the particular case of sparse areas. The results of this study provide new insight to enhance our understanding of the Effective Width concept which may facilitate better assessments of future district heating systems. © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2021
Keywords
Effective Width, Plot ratio, Distribution capital cost, Heat density, District heating, GIS
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-45808 (URN)10.1016/j.egyr.2021.08.096 (DOI)000727834400040 ()2-s2.0-85122681756 (Scopus ID)
Conference
The 17th International Symposium on District Heating and Cooling, Nottingham Trent University, 17th DHC Symposium, Nottingham, United Kingdom, 6–9 September, 2021
Projects
sEEnergies
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 846463
Available from: 2021-10-29 Created: 2021-10-29 Last updated: 2023-06-21Bibliographically approved
2. Understanding effective width for district heating
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Understanding effective width for district heating
2023 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 277, article id 127427Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

District heating is one of the technologies that can contribute to the decarbonisation of the European heat sector. Nonetheless, these infrastructures only deliver about a tenth of the heat demands in the continent. Therefore, it is essential to assess the expansion potential of these systems and to identify which areas should be target for further investigations, which calls for easy-to-use and straightforward methods such as Persson & Werner's network capital cost model. Pivotal parameters of the model are the effective width, a metric of trench length by land area, alongside the average pipe diameter and the linear heat density. This study has carried out an in-depth analysis of these crucial parameters with respect to both distribution and service pipes in a large Danish district heating network, which has allowed to explore the behaviour of effective width in a broad range of building densities and derive new equations for both effective width and average pipe diameter. The model has subsequently been validated in another large network in Denmark and several minor districts in the same country, showing the accuracy of the model on an aggregated level. © 2023 Elsevier Ltd.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
District heating, GIS, Pipe network, Cost analysis, Effective width, Plot ratio
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Smart Cities and Communities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-50424 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2023.127427 (DOI)000992994200001 ()2-s2.0-85154565584 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 846463
Available from: 2023-05-07 Created: 2023-05-07 Last updated: 2023-06-21Bibliographically approved
3. District heating potential in the EU-27: Evaluating the impacts of heat demand reduction and market share growth
Open this publication in new window or tab >>District heating potential in the EU-27: Evaluating the impacts of heat demand reduction and market share growth
Show others...
2024 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 353, no Part B, article id 122154Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a novel approach to modeling the gradual reduction in heat demand and the evolving expansion of district heating (DH) grids for assessing the DH potential in EU member states (MS). It introduces new methodological elements for modeling the impact of connection rates below 100% on heat distribution costs in both dense and sparse areas. The projected heat demand in 2050 is derived from a decarbonization scenario published by the EU, which would lead to a reduction in demand from 3128 TWh in 2020 to 1709 TWh by 2050. The proposed approach yields information on economic DH areas, DH potential, and average heat distribution costs. The results confirm the need to expand DH grids to maintain supply levels in view of decreasing heat demand. The proportion of DH potential from the total demand in the EU-27 rises from 15% in 2020 to 31% in 2050. The analysis of DH areas shows that 39% of the DH potential is in areas with heat distribution costs above 35 EUR/MWh, but most MS have average heat distribution costs between 28 and 32 EUR/MWh. The study reveals that over 40% of the EU's heat demand is in regions with high potential for implementing DH.  © 2023 The Author(s)

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford: Elsevier, 2024
Keywords
District heating potential, EU-27, District heating grid investment, GIS
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-51333 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2023.122154 (DOI)001109288600001 ()2-s2.0-85175477205 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding: TU Wien Bibliothek for financial support for proofreading and through its Open Access Funding Program

Earlier title: Overview of district heating potentials in EU-27 countries under evolving DH market shares and ambitious heat demand reduction scenario

Available from: 2023-08-03 Created: 2023-08-03 Last updated: 2024-01-16Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

Modelling District Heating Network Costs - Luis Sánchez-García(10819 kB)199 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 10819 kBChecksum SHA-512
ba4be4e97476f4cc1d730fc6d1e262f951128a966aeceecf99ba341399862bffadaf20b931b2f2ae99a718704c991e89528956687a947b777b67b5faad651756
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf
Errata to printed version(910 kB)12 downloads
File information
File name ATTACHMENT01.pdfFile size 910 kBChecksum SHA-512
60823ae6f55302500eff8985cf312f6a12b168b5bed7ec7764770f750fdbf8651743c791e80f72bbe7225b92f4ddacfc21d8038e19760eb2aa315137c41810b1
Type attachmentMimetype application/pdf
Defence Presentation(17189 kB)20 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT02.pdfFile size 17189 kBChecksum SHA-512
d89552ce680a6b3eae382284fd87e5cba3d2fc61b338f29b36420c84da1d272ba1cdf82f810e5837ad18a0a3017117c092bf22ce64a92148f9ea778da6966c18
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Authority records

Sánchez-García, Luis

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Sánchez-García, Luis
Energy Engineering

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 225 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

isbn
urn-nbn
Total: 394 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf