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Sensor Data Sharing in V2X Communications: Protocol Design and Performance Optimization of Collective Perception
Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6238-1628
2023 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Sensor data sharing involves exchanging sensor data among multiple devices, systems, or platforms through various means, such as wired or wireless communication, cloud storage, and distributed computing. In Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) communication, sensor data sharing is known as Collective Perception (CP). V2X Collective Perception is the principle of exchanging sensor data among V2X-capable stations, such as vehicles, vulnerable road users, or roadside units, by exchanging lists of perceived objects in the allocated 5.9 GHz frequency band for road safety and traffic efficiency. An object can be anything relevant to traffic safety and is described using its characteristics such as position, heading, and velocity. Objects are detected thanks to sensors such as cameras, LiDARs, and radars mounted on V2X stations. This thesis investigates the message generation rule for CP, specifically how often and with which objects a Collective Perception Message (CPM) should be generated for transmission. The contained studies focus on the challenges posed by the limited bandwidth available in the 5.9 GHz channel against the object selection for inclusion in CPMs. In the first part of the realized studies, the protocol design and the requirements of CP are comprehended from the network and application-related aspects, concluding that the process of filtering objects is necessary to control the channel usage of CP. Moreover, results show that object filtering is only beneficial in high-traffic density scenarios and should not be applied when channel resources are plenty available. In the second part, methods are developed and assessed to adapt the object filtering mechanism to the available channel resources and control information redundancy, i.e., controlling the number of vehicles transmitting updates about the same objects. Through a combination of theoretical analysis, large-scale simulations, and experimental evaluation, this thesis provides a better understanding of the requirements of CP for object filtering and shows the benefits of a developed novel algorithm to adapt object filtering to the available channel resources. Additionally, it elaborates on new metrics and provides a requirements analysis and performance assessment of selected information redundancy reduction techniques. Finally, the results show that combining both approaches enables efficient control of information redundancy while allowing efficient channel resource usage.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Halmstad: Halmstad University Press, 2023. , p. 43
Series
Halmstad University Dissertations ; 97
Keywords [en]
V2X, sensor data sharing, vehicular communications, Collective Perception, data congestion, Decentralized Congestion Control
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-50463ISBN: 978-91-89587-06-9 (electronic)ISBN: 978-91-89587-07-6 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hh-50463DiVA, id: diva2:1757867
Public defence
2023-06-09, Wigforssalen, Kristian IV:s väg 3, Halmstad, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
KOALA2 under number 273374642 within the priority program Cooperatively Interacting Automobiles (CoIn-Car, SPP 1835).Available from: 2023-05-23 Created: 2023-05-18 Last updated: 2023-05-23Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Revisiting Message Generation Strategies for Collective Perception in Connected and Automated Driving
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Revisiting Message Generation Strategies for Collective Perception in Connected and Automated Driving
2020 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Collective perception enables vehicles to exchange pre-processed sensor data and is being standardized as a 2nd generation V2X communication service. The European standardization in ETSI foresees the exchange of detected objects and defined a dedicated message type (Collective Perception Message, CPM) with rules to decide when and with which objects the message should be generated, referred to as generation rules. The choice of these rules is not straightforward and influences both channel load and perception quality. For the object inclusion, ETSI currently follows a similar policy as for the generation of Cooperative Awareness Messages (CAM): The objects are filtered based on their dynamics. We regard this approach as conservative. The present paper revisits the generation rules for the CPM and applies two approaches for object inclusion to the CPM -- the conservative strategy of ETSI and a more 'greedy' strategy. We assess the performance by discrete-event simulations in a scenario representing a city with realistic vehicle densities and mobility patterns. The simulations take into account the effects imposed by decentralized congestion control. Considering that ETSI currently follows the conservative strategy, we conclude that the application of a greedy strategy improves the perception quality in low-density scenarios.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
International Academy, Research and Industry Association (IARIA), 2020
Series
International Conference on Advances in Vehicular Systems, Technologies and Applications, E-ISSN 2327-2058 ; 2020
Keywords
V2X, vehicular communications, collective perception, message generation
National Category
Communication Systems Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-43470 (URN)978-1-61208-795-5 (ISBN)
Conference
VEHICULAR 2020: The Ninth International Conference on Advances in Vehicular Systems, Technologies and Applications, Porto, Portugal, 18 - 22 April, 2020
Available from: 2020-11-18 Created: 2020-11-18 Last updated: 2023-05-22Bibliographically approved
2. Network Load Adaptation for Collective Perception in V2X Communications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Network Load Adaptation for Collective Perception in V2X Communications
2019 (English)In: 2019 Conference Proceedings: 8th IEEE International Conference on Connected Vehicles and Expo, ICCVE, Piscataway: IEEE, 2019, article id 8964988Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Collective perception uses V2X communications to increase the perception capabilities of vehicles. Relying on the perceived data from their local sensors, nodes exchange information about the objects they detect in their surroundings. An object can be anything significant for the nodes' safety, e.g., obstacles on the road, other vehicles or pedestrians. The amount of data generated by each node is determined by the number of perceived objects and the generation frequency of the messages carrying the detected objects. Considering the limited bandwidth of the wireless channel, the data load generated by collective perception can easily exceed the channel capacity. In this paper, we investigate three schemes that filter the number of objects in the messages and thereby adjust the network load in order to optimize the transmission of perceived objects. Our simulation-based performance evaluation indicates that the use of filtering is an effective approach to improve network-related performance metrics, whereas the expected impairment of the perception quality is rather small. The comparison of the filtering algorithms provide insights into the tradeoff between network-related metrics and perception quality. ©2019 by IEEE

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway: IEEE, 2019
Keywords
V2X communications, collective perception, object filtering
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-50442 (URN)10.1109/ICCVE45908.2019.8964988 (DOI)000539640300018 ()2-s2.0-85079332451 (Scopus ID)978-1-7281-0075-3 (ISBN)
Conference
The 8th International Conference on Connected Vehicles and Expo (ICCVE), Graz, Austria, 4-8 November 2019
Note

Funding Agency: German Research Foundation (DFG)

Available from: 2023-05-15 Created: 2023-05-15 Last updated: 2023-05-22Bibliographically approved
3. Design and Performance of Congestion-Aware Collective Perception
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design and Performance of Congestion-Aware Collective Perception
2021 (English)In: 2020 IEEE Vehicular Networking Conference (VNC) / [ed] Frank Kargl, Onur Altintas, Ana Aguiar, André Weimerskirch & Takamasa Higuchi, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2021, article id 9318335Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In vehicular ad hoc networks, congestion control prevents the overloading of the wireless channel and ensures a fair distribution of the transmission resources. For ITS-G5-based vehicular networks, the European standardization by ETSI has specified a Decentralized Congestion Control (DCC) function at the access layer. This function controls the medium occupancy of a network node by enforcing maximum values of message transmission parameters. In the present paper, we study the impact of DCC on the performance of the collective perception service. This communication service enables vehicles and roadside stations to exchange messages with pre-processed sensor data. Since collective perception can considerably contribute to the network load, the transmission restrictions imposed by DCC affect the performance of the information exchange and the quality of the perception. The current design of collective perception in ETSI does not adapt the messages to the actual DCC constraints. We propose a novel approach for DCC-aware collective perception, which enhances the object filtering process of collective perception by dynamically adapting the message size to the DCC constraints and implicitly the message generation rate. Compared to the current ETSI design, the obtained results show a better quality of perception and channel usage, with a reduced message generation rate. © IEEE 2020

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2021
Series
IEEE Vehicular Networking Conference, ISSN 2157-9857, E-ISSN 2157-9865
Keywords
V2X, Decentralized Congestion Control, Collective Perception
National Category
Communication Systems Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-43783 (URN)10.1109/VNC51378.2020.9318335 (DOI)000755473900008 ()2-s2.0-85100024443 (Scopus ID)978-1-7281-9221-5 (ISBN)978-1-7281-9222-2 (ISBN)
Conference
2020 IEEE Vehicular Networking Conference (VNC), Virtual Conference, December 16–18, 2020
Note

Funding: The German Science Foundation (DFG) within the priority program Cooperatively Interacting Automobiles (CoInCar) (SPP 1835).

Available from: 2021-01-21 Created: 2021-01-21 Last updated: 2023-10-05Bibliographically approved
4. Congestion Aware Objects Filtering for Collective Perception
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Congestion Aware Objects Filtering for Collective Perception
2021 (English)In: Electronic Communications of the EASST, E-ISSN 1863-2122, Vol. 80Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper addresses collective perception for connected and automateddriving. It proposes the adaptation of filtering rules based on the currently availablechannel resources, referred to as Enhanced DCC-Aware Filtering (EDAF). © 2021. All Rights Reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Berlin: European Association of Software Science and Technology (E A S S T), 2021
Keywords
V2X, Decentralized Congestion Control, Collective Perception
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-46117 (URN)10.14279/tuj.eceasst.80.1160 (DOI)2-s2.0-85120353788 (Scopus ID)
Conference
International Conference on Networked Systems 2021 (NetSys 2021), Lübeck, Germany, September 13-16, 2021
Available from: 2021-12-15 Created: 2021-12-15 Last updated: 2023-10-23Bibliographically approved
5. Analysis and Evaluation of Information Redundancy Mitigation for V2X Collective Perception
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis and Evaluation of Information Redundancy Mitigation for V2X Collective Perception
Show others...
2022 (English)In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 10, p. 47076-47093Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sensor data sharing enables vehicles to exchange locally perceived sensor data among each other and with the roadside infrastructure to increase their environmental awareness. It is commonly regarded as a next-generation vehicular communication service beyond the exchange of highly aggregated messages in the first generation. The approach is being considered in the European standardization process, where it relies on the exchange of locally detected objects representing anything safety-relevant, such as other vehicles or pedestrians, in periodically broadcasted messages to vehicles in direct communication range. Objects filtering methods for inclusion in a message are necessary to avoid overloading a channel and provoking unnecessary data processing. Initial studies provided in a pre-standardization report about sensor data sharing elaborated a first set of rules to filter objects based on their characteristics, such as their dynamics or type. However, these rules still lack the consideration of information received by other stations to operate. Specifically, to address the problem of information redundancy, several rules have been proposed, but their performance has not been evaluated yet comprehensively. In the present work, the rules are further analyzed, assessed, and compared. Functional and operational requirements are investigated. A performance evaluation is realized by discrete-event simulations in a scenario for a representative city with realistic vehicle densities and mobility patterns. A score and other redundancy-level metrics are elaborated to ease the evaluation and comparison of the filtering rules. Finally, improvements and future works to the filtering methods are proposed. Author

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE, 2022
Keywords
collective perception, information redundancy mitigation, road safety, sensor data sharing, V2X communications
National Category
Other Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-48471 (URN)10.1109/ACCESS.2022.3170029 (DOI)000793781800001 ()2-s2.0-85129644244 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-10-13 Created: 2022-10-13 Last updated: 2023-08-21Bibliographically approved
6. Optimizing the channel resource usage for sensor data sharing with V2X communications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimizing the channel resource usage for sensor data sharing with V2X communications
2023 (English)In: at – Automatisierungstechnik, ISSN 0178-2312, Vol. 71, no 4, p. 311-317Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sensor data sharing in V2X communication enables vehicles to exchange locally perceived sensor data with each other to increase their environmental awareness. It relies on the periodic exchange of selected, safety-relevant objects. Object selection is used to reduce channel resource usage. Additionally, vehicles use congestion control mechanisms to avoid overloading the channel. Currently, both object selection and congestion control mechanisms operate independently. We study a congestion-aware object filtering approach combining both and improving the performance of sensor data sharing. © 2023 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
München: Walter de Gruyter, 2023
Keywords
collective perception, data congestion, V2X, vehicular communications
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-50447 (URN)10.1515/auto-2022-0162 (DOI)000964957200009 ()2-s2.0-85153334893 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funing: The German Science Foundation (DFG) by project KOALA 2 under number 273374642 within the priority program Cooperatively Interacting Automobiles (CoIn-Car, SPP 1835). Karlsruhe Institute of Technology also acknowledges the support from Helmholtz Program “Engineering Digital Futures”.

Available from: 2023-05-15 Created: 2023-05-15 Last updated: 2023-05-22Bibliographically approved
7. Simulation-based Performance Optimization of V2X Collective Perception by Adaptive Object Filtering
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simulation-based Performance Optimization of V2X Collective Perception by Adaptive Object Filtering
2023 (English)In: 2023 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2023Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

V2X Collective Perception is the principle of exchanging sensor data among V2X-capable stations, such as vehicles or roadside units, by exchanging lists of perceived objects in the 5.9 GHz frequency band for road safety and traffic efficiency. An object can be anything relevant to traffic safety, e.g.,vehicles or pedestrians. The current standardization of Collective Perception in Europe considers filtering objects for transmission based on their locally perceived dynamics and freshness to preserve channel resources. However, two remaining problems of object filtering are: information redundancy and adapting object filtering to the available channel resources. In this paper, we combine redundancy mitigation and congestion control-aware filtering. We evaluate the performance of the resulting object filtering techniques by realizing realistic, large-scale simulations of a mid-size city in Germany. We assess the performance using ascoring metric. The results show better information redundancy control and adjustable channel usage for object filtering. © Copyright 2023 IEEE

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2023
Keywords
V2X, sensor data sharing, vehicular communications, Collective Perception, message generation
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-50448 (URN)10.1109/IV55152.2023.10186788 (DOI)001042247300237 ()2-s2.0-85167986317 (Scopus ID)979-8-3503-4691-6 (ISBN)979-8-3503-4692-3 (ISBN)
Conference
The 35th IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV 2023), Anchorage, Alaska, USA, 4-7 June, 2023
Note

As manuscript in thesis.

Funding text: This work was gratefully supported by the German Science Foundation (DFG) in project KOALA2 under number 273374642 within the priority program Cooperatively Interacting Automobiles (CoIn-Car, SPP 1835). Karlsruhe Institute of Technology also acknowledges the support from Helmholtz Program “Engineering Digital Futures”.

Available from: 2023-05-15 Created: 2023-05-15 Last updated: 2023-11-22Bibliographically approved

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