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Safety of Cooperative Automated Driving: Analysis and Optimization
Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8587-2251
2022 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

New cooperative intelligent transportation system (C-ITS) applications become enabled thanks to advances in communication technologies between vehicles(V2V) and with the infrastructure (V2I). Communicating vehicles share information with each other and cooperate, which results in improved safety, fuel economy, and traffic efficiency. An example of a C-ITS application is platooning, which comprises a string of vehicles that travel together with short inter-vehicle distances (IVDs).

Any solution related to C-ITS must comply with high safety requirements in order to pass standardization and be commercially deployed. Furthermore, trusted safety levels should be assured even for critical scenarios.

This thesis studies the conditions that guarantee safety in emergency braking scenarios for heterogeneous platooning, or string-like, formations of vehicles. In such scenarios, the vehicle at the head of the string emergency brakes and all following vehicles have to automatically react in time to avoid rear-end collisions. The reaction time can be significantly decreased with vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication usage since the leader can explicitly inform other platooning members about the critical braking.

The safety analysis conducted in the thesis yields computationally efficient methods and algorithms for calculating minimum inter-vehicle distances that allow avoiding rear-end collisions with a predefined high guarantee. These IVDs are theoretically obtained for an open-loop and a closed-loop configurations. The former implies that follower drives with a constant velocity until braking starts, whereas in the latter, an adaptive cruise control (ACC) with a constant-distance policy serves as a controller. In addition, further optimization of inter-vehicle distances in the platoon is carried out under an assumption of centralized control. Such an approach allows achieving better fuel consumption and road utilization.

The performed analytical comparison suggests that our proposed V2V communication based solution is superior to classical automated systems, such as automatic emergency braking system (AEBS), which utilizes only onboard sensors and no communication. Wireless communication, enabling to know the intentions of other vehicles almost immediately, allows for smaller IVDs whilst guaranteeing the same level of safety.

Overall, the presented thesis highlights the importance of C-ITS and, specifically, V2V in the prevention of rear-end collisions in emergency scenarios. Future work directions include an extension of the obtained results by considering more advanced models of vehicles, environment, and communication settings; and applying the proposed algorithms of safety guaranteeing to other controllers, such as ACC with a constant time headway policy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Halmstad: Halmstad University Press, 2022. , p. 33
Series
Halmstad University Dissertations ; 83
Keywords [en]
platooning, Cooperative Intelligent Transportation System (C-ITS), Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communication, emergency braking, road safety, ITS-G5, IEEE 802.11p, automated driving
National Category
Control Engineering Communication Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-46288ISBN: 978-91-88749-76-5 (electronic)ISBN: 978-91-88749-75-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hh-46288DiVA, id: diva2:1635935
Presentation
2022-03-03, Wigforss, Kristian IV:s väg 3, Halmstad, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2022-02-09 Created: 2022-02-08 Last updated: 2022-02-09Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communication for Safe and Fuel-Efficient Platooning
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communication for Safe and Fuel-Efficient Platooning
2020 (English)In: 2020 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV), Piscataway: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2020, p. 795-802, article id 9304719Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A platoon consists of a string of vehicles traveling close together. Such tight formation allows for increased road throughput and reduced fuel consumption due to decreased air resistance. Furthermore, sensors and control algorithms can be used to provide a high level of automation. In this context, safety – in terms of no rear-end collisions – is a key property that needs to be assured. We investigate how vehicle-to-vehicle communication can be used to reduce inter-vehicle distances while guaranteeing safety in emergency braking scenarios. An optimization-based modeling scheme is presented that, under certain restrictions, provides an analytical calculation of inter-vehicle distances for safe braking. In contrast to earlier simulation-based approaches, the framework allows for computationally efficient solutions with explicit guarantees. Two approaches for computing braking strategies in emergency scenarios are proposed. The first assumes centralized coordination by the leading vehicle and exploits necessary optimal conditions of a constrained optimization problem, whereas the second – the more conservative solution – assumes only local information and is distributed in nature. We illustrate the usefulness of the approaches through several computational simulations. © 2020 IEEE.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2020
Series
IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, E-ISSN 2642-7214
Keywords
Collision Avoidance, V2X Communication, Automated Vehicles
National Category
Communication Systems Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-43764 (URN)10.1109/IV47402.2020.9304719 (DOI)2-s2.0-85094146908 (Scopus ID)978-1-7281-6673-5 (ISBN)
Conference
31st IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV), October 19 - November 13, 2020, (Virtual), Las Vegas, NV, United States
Available from: 2021-01-11 Created: 2021-01-11 Last updated: 2024-03-05Bibliographically approved
2. Safety of Automatic Emergency Braking in Platooning
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Safety of Automatic Emergency Braking in Platooning
Show others...
2022 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, ISSN 0018-9545, E-ISSN 1939-9359, Vol. 71, no 3, p. 2319-2332Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A platoon comprises a string of consecutive highly automated vehicles traveling together. Platooning allows for increased road utilization and reduced fuel consumption due to short inter-vehicular distances. Safety in terms of guaranteeing no rear-end collisions is of utmost importance for platooning systems to be deployed in practice. We compare how safely emergency braking can be handled by emerging V2V communications on the one hand and by radar-based measurements of existing AEBS on the other. We show that even under conservative assumptions on the V2V communications, such an approach significantly outperforms AEBS with an ideal radar sensor in terms of allowed inter-vehicle distances and response times. Furthermore, we design two emergency braking strategies for platooning based on V2V communications. The first braking strategy assumes centralized coordination by the leading vehicle and exploits necessary optimal conditions of a constrained optimization problem, whereas the second -- the more conservative solution -- assumes only local information and is distributed in nature. Both strategies are also compared with the AEBS.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2022
Keywords
platooning, safety, vehicle-to-vehicle communication (V2V), radar, automatic emergency braking systems
National Category
Communication Systems Telecommunications Control Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-46175 (URN)10.1109/tvt.2021.3138939 (DOI)000769985100012 ()2-s2.0-85122316213 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Safety of Connected Intelligent Vehicles in Smart Cities – SafeSmart
Funder
Knowledge FoundationVinnovaELLIIT - The Linköping‐Lund Initiative on IT and Mobile Communications
Available from: 2022-01-05 Created: 2022-01-05 Last updated: 2024-03-05Bibliographically approved
3. Emergency braking with ACC: how much does V2V communication help
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Emergency braking with ACC: how much does V2V communication help
2022 (English)In: IEEE Networking Letters, E-ISSN 2576-3156, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 157-161Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper provides a safety analysis for emergency braking scenarios involving consecutive vehicles which utilize adaptive cruise control (ACC) with a constant-distance policy together with vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication. We identify analytically, how the minimum safe inter-vehicle distance(IVD) that allows avoiding rear-end collision can be shortened with the use of electronic emergency brake lights and derive the explicit dependency of such IVDs on V2V communication time delay. We further show how these results can be used to compute probabilities of safe braking in the presence of packet losses.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2022
Keywords
Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC), Cooperative Intelligent Transportation System (C-ITS), Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communication, emergency braking, road safety, ITS-G5, IEEE 802.11p
National Category
Control Engineering Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-46299 (URN)10.1109/LNET.2022.3190244 (DOI)
Projects
Safety of Connected Intelligent Vehicles in Smart Cities – SafeSmartEmergency Vehicle Traffic Light Preemption in Cities – EPIC
Funder
Knowledge FoundationVinnovaELLIIT - The Linköping‐Lund Initiative on IT and Mobile Communications
Note

Som manuskript i avhandling / As manuscript in thesis

Available from: 2022-02-08 Created: 2022-02-08 Last updated: 2024-03-05Bibliographically approved
4. The CAR Approach: Creative Applied Research Experiences for Master’s Students in Autonomous Platooning
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The CAR Approach: Creative Applied Research Experiences for Master’s Students in Autonomous Platooning
Show others...
2021 (English)In: 2021 30th IEEE International Conference on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, RO-MAN 2021, IEEE, 2021, p. 214-221Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Autonomous vehicles (AVs) are crucial robotic systems that promise to improve our lives via safe, efficient, and inclusive transport-while posing some new challenges for the education of future researchers in the area, that our current research and education might not be ready to deal with: In particular, we don't know what the AVs of the future will look like, practical learning is restricted due to cost and safety concerns, and a high degree of multidisciplinary knowledge is required. Here, following the broad outline of Active Student Participation theory, we propose a pedagogical approach targeted toward AVs called CAR that combines Creativity theory, Applied demo-oriented learning, and Real world research context. Furthermore, we report on applying the approach to stimulate learning and engagement in a master's course, in which students freely created a demo with 10 small robots running ROS2 and Ubuntu on Raspberry Pis, in connection to an ongoing research project and a real current problem (SafeSmart and COVID-19). The results suggested the feasibility of the CAR approach for enabling learning, as well as mutual benefits for both the students and researchers involved, and indicated some possibilities for future improvement, toward more effective integration of research experiences into second cycle courses. © 2021 IEEE.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2021
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-46083 (URN)10.1109/RO-MAN50785.2021.9515560 (DOI)000709817200031 ()2-s2.0-85115115499 (Scopus ID)978-1-6654-0492-1 (ISBN)978-1-6654-4637-2 (ISBN)
Conference
30th IEEE International Conference on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, RO-MAN 2021, Virtual, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 08-12/08, 2021
Available from: 2021-12-13 Created: 2021-12-13 Last updated: 2023-10-05Bibliographically approved

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