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Performance evaluation of safety critical ITS-G5 V2V communications for cooperative driving applications
Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1460-2988
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Description
Abstract [en]

Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) are aiming to provide innovative services related to different modes of transport and traffic management, and enable various users to be better informed and make safer, more coordinated and smarter use of transport networks. Cooperative-ITS (C-ITS) support connectivity between vehicles, vehicles and roadside infrastructure, traffic signals as well as with other road users. In order to enable vehicular communications European Telecommunication Standards Institute (ETSI) delivered ITS-G5 -- a of set of C-ITS standards. Considering the goals of C-ITS, inter-vehicle communications should be reliable and efficient.

The subject of this thesis is evaluation of the performance, efficiency, and dependability of ITS-G5 communications for cooperative driving applications support. This thesis includes eight scientific papers and extends the research area in three directions: evaluation of the performance of ITS-G5 beaconing protocols; studying the performance of ITS-G5 congestion control mechanisms; and studying the radio jamming Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks and their detection methods.

First, an overview of currently available and ongoing standardization targeting communications in C-ACC/platooning cooperative driving applications is provided. Then, as part of the first research direction, we demonstrate via a number of studies, that the adaptive beaconing approach where message generation is coupled to the speed variation of the originating ITS-s may lead to a message synchronization effect in the time domain when vehicles follow mobility scenarios that involve cooperative speed variation. We explain in detail the cause of this phenomenon and test it for a wide range of parameters. In relation to the second problem, we, first, study the influence of different available ITS-G5 legitimate setups on the C-ACC/platooning fuel efficiency and demonstrate that proper communication setup may enhance fuel savings. Then we thoroughly study the standardization of the congestion control mechanism for ITS-G5, which will affect the operation of all cooperative driving C-ITS applications as a mandatory component. We study the influence of congestion control on application performance and give recommendations for improvement to make the congestion control to target at optimizing the applications performance metrics. In the scope of the last research direction, we propose two real-time jamming DoS detection methods. The main advantage of our detection techniques is their short learning phase that not exceed a few seconds and low detection delay of a few hundreds of milliseconds. Under some assumptions, the proposed algorithms demonstrates the ability to detect certain types of attacks with high detection probability.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Halmstad: Halmstad University Press, 2019. , p. 186
Series
Halmstad University Dissertations ; 53
Keywords [en]
C-ITS, VANET, ITS-G5, IEEE 802.11p, ETSI, platooning, C-ACC, jamming Denial-of-Service attack, congestion control, cooperative awareness, security in C-ITS
National Category
Communication Systems Telecommunications
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-38763ISBN: 978-91-88749-15-4 (electronic)ISBN: 978-91-88749-14-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hh-38763DiVA, id: diva2:1279448
Public defence
2019-01-30, Wigforssalen, Visionen, Kristian IV:s väg 3, Halmstad, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-01-17 Created: 2019-01-16 Last updated: 2019-01-17Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Cooperative awareness in VANETs: On ETSI EN 302 637-2 performance
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cooperative awareness in VANETs: On ETSI EN 302 637-2 performance
2018 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, ISSN 0018-9545, E-ISSN 1939-9359, Vol. 67, no 1, p. 17-28Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cooperative Awareness on the road is aiming to support the road users with knowledge about the surroundings relying on the information exchange enabled by vehicular com- munications. To achieve this goal European Telecommunication Standard Institute (ETSI) delivered the standard EN 302 637-2 for Cooperative Awareness Messages (CAM). The CAM trig- gering conditions are based on the dynamics of the originating vehicle, which is checked periodically. In this paper, we show that standardized ETSI protocol may demonstrate a decrease in communication performance under several realistic mobility patterns. The potential influence of the discovered phenomena on two typical mobility scenarios is studied.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2018
Keywords
VANET, Cooperative Awareness, Platooning, ETSI, ITS-G5
National Category
Communication Systems Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-35466 (URN)10.1109/TVT.2017.2754584 (DOI)2-s2.0-85035747459 (Scopus ID)
Projects
ELLIITACDC: Autonomous Cooperative Driving: Communications Issues
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Note

Partially supported by the Excellence Center at Linköping-Lund in Information Technology (ELLIIT) strategic research environment, NFITS - National ITS Postgraduate School (Sweden) and the ”ACDC: Autonomous Cooperative Driving: Communications Issues” project (2014- 2016) funded by the Knowledge Foundation (Sweden) in cooperation with Volvo GTT, Volvo Cars, Scania, Kapsch TrafficCom and Qamcom Research & Technology.

Available from: 2017-11-24 Created: 2017-11-24 Last updated: 2019-01-16Bibliographically approved
2. Vehicle-to-vehicle communication in C-ACC/platooning scenarios
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vehicle-to-vehicle communication in C-ACC/platooning scenarios
2015 (English)In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 53, no 8, p. 192-197, article id 7180527Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cooperative adaptive cruise control (C-ACC) and platooning are two emerging automotive intelligent transportation systems (ITS) applications. In this tutorial article we explain their principles, describe related ongoing standardization activities, and conduct performance evaluation of the underlying communication technology. © Copyright 2015 IEEE

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2015
Keywords
Computer aided manufacturing, Intelligent vehicles, Kinematics, Roads, Telecommunication standards
National Category
Communication Systems Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-29906 (URN)10.1109/MCOM.2015.7180527 (DOI)000359262600024 ()2-s2.0-84939235846 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Note

This study is supported by NFITS— the National ITS Postgraduate School (Sweden), and is a part of the “ACDC: Autonomous Cooperative Driving: Communications Issues” project (2014–2016) funded by the Knowledge Foundation (Sweden) in cooperation with Volvo GTT, Volvo Cars, Scania, Kapsch TrafficCom, and Qamcom Research & Technology.

Available from: 2015-12-07 Created: 2015-12-07 Last updated: 2019-01-16Bibliographically approved
3. Does ETSI beaconing frequency control provide cooperative awareness?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Does ETSI beaconing frequency control provide cooperative awareness?
2015 (English)In: 2015 IEEE International Conference on Communication Workshop (ICCW), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2015, p. 2393-2398Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Platooning is an emergent vehicular application aiming at increasing road safety, efficiency and driving comfort. The cooperation between the vehicles in a platoon is achieved by the frequent exchange of periodic broadcast Cooperative Awareness Messages (CAMs) also known as beacons. CAM triggering conditions are drafted in the standard ETSI EN 302 637–2 and are based on the dynamics of an originating vehicle. These conditions are checked repeatedly with a certain sampling rate. We have discovered that the improper choice of the sampling rate value may increase the number of collisions between CAMs at the IEEE 802.11p medium access control layer and, therefore, diminish the efficiency of beaconing in a platoon. © 2015 IEEE

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2015
Keywords
VANET, cooperative awareness, beaconing, congestion control, platooning, ETSI
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-29202 (URN)10.1109/ICCW.2015.7247539 (DOI)000380459900393 ()2-s2.0-84947803973 (Scopus ID)978-1-4673-6305-1 (ISBN)
Conference
1st IEEE ICC Workshop on Dependable Vehicular Communications (DVC 2015), London, United Kingdom, June 12, 2015
Projects
ACDC: Autonomous Cooperative Driving: Communications Issues
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Note

This study is supported by NFITS - National ITS Postgraduate School (Sweden) and is a part of the ”ACDC: Autonomous Cooperative Driving: Communications Issues” project (2014-2016) funded by the Knowledge Foundation (Sweden) in cooperation with Volvo GTT, Volvo Cars, Scania, Kapsch TrafficCom and Qamcom Research & Technology.

Available from: 2015-08-15 Created: 2015-08-15 Last updated: 2019-01-16Bibliographically approved
4. ETSI DCC: Decentralized Congestion Control in C-ITS
Open this publication in new window or tab >>ETSI DCC: Decentralized Congestion Control in C-ITS
2018 (English)In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 56, no 12, p. 112-118Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

ETSI DCC: Decentralized Congestion Control in C-ITS is a mandatory component of the 5.9 GHz ITS-G5 vehicular communication protocol stack that reduces radio channel overload, range degradation, and self interference. In this tutorial article we explain its principle, describe related ongoing standardization activities, evaluate its performance for emerging cooperative driving applications, and identify ways for improvement. We show that failure to use a proper DCC parameterization can impact negatively on the performance of cooperative vehicular applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway: IEEE, 2018
Keywords
Standards, Probes, Switches, Protocols, Degradation, Roads
National Category
Telecommunications Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-38342 (URN)10.1109/MCOM.2017.1700173 (DOI)2-s2.0-85056588784 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge FoundationELLIIT - The Linköping‐Lund Initiative on IT and Mobile Communications
Available from: 2018-11-15 Created: 2018-11-15 Last updated: 2019-01-16Bibliographically approved
5. Study of the Platooning Fuel Efficiency under ETSI ITS-G5 Communications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Study of the Platooning Fuel Efficiency under ETSI ITS-G5 Communications
2016 (English)In: 2016 IEEE 19th International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2016, p. 551-556Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper we evaluate the performance of platoon enabled by contemporary ITS-G5 vehicular communications through a number of simulation experiments. We assess platooning fuel consumption performance under two communication setups and estimate the potential influence of the communication system on the efficiency of the platooning. We also make an attempt to transform our results on platoon fuel efficiency into potential cost reduction gain. Our study shows that platooning fuel-efficiency may vary depending on the communication setup.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2016
Keywords
Automobiles, Fuel economy, Road transportation, Acceleration, Resistance
National Category
Communication Systems Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-32119 (URN)10.1109/ITSC.2016.7795608 (DOI)000392215500087 ()2-s2.0-85010032082 (Scopus ID)978-1-5090-1889-5 (ISBN)978-1-5090-1888-8 (ISBN)978-1-5090-1890-1 (ISBN)
Conference
2016 IEEE 19th International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC 2016), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1-4 Nov., 2016
Projects
ACDC: Autonomous Cooperative Driving: Communications Issues
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Note

Funding: the Knowledge Foundation, Sweden in cooperation with Volvo GTT, Volvo Cars, Scania, Kapsch TrafficCom and Qamcom Research & Technology. It is also supported by the National ITS Postgraduate School (NFITS), Sweden.

Available from: 2016-10-01 Created: 2016-10-01 Last updated: 2019-01-16Bibliographically approved
6. Configuring the Decentralized Congestion Control for ETSI ITS-G5 C-ITS Applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Configuring the Decentralized Congestion Control for ETSI ITS-G5 C-ITS Applications
2019 (English)In: IEEE Communications Letters, ISSN 1089-7798, E-ISSN 1558-2558Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

Decentralized Congestion Control (DCC) is one the central components of inter-vehicular communications protocol stack enabling Cooperative Intelligent Transportation System (C-ITS). In this letter we first present an analytical framework that allows to tune parameters of the DCC algorithm specified by ETSI. Then we suggest two approaches to optimize the DCC configuration using our framework. Finally, we evaluate the performance of the proposed approaches using detailed simulation experiments. We demonstrate that proposed approaches are able to control channel busy ratio stably, while proposed analytical model precisely estimates application level metrics.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2019
Keywords
C-ITS, VANET, V2X, DCC, ETSI, platooning, congestion control
National Category
Communication Systems Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-38761 (URN)
Available from: 2019-01-16 Created: 2019-01-16 Last updated: 2019-01-16
7. Real-time Detection of Denial-of-Service Attacks in IEEE 802.11p Vehicular Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Real-time Detection of Denial-of-Service Attacks in IEEE 802.11p Vehicular Networks
2014 (English)In: IEEE Communications Letters, ISSN 1089-7798, E-ISSN 1558-2558, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 110-113Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A method for real-time detection of Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks in IEEE 802.11p vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs) is proposed. The study is focused on the "jamming" of periodic position messages (beacons) exchanged by vehicles in a platoon. Probabilities of attack detection and false alarm are estimated for two different attacker models. © 2014 IEEE

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2014
Keywords
DoS attack, IEEE 802.11p, jamming, platooning, VANET
National Category
Communication Systems Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-24257 (URN)10.1109/LCOMM.2013.102213.132056 (DOI)000332184700028 ()2-s2.0-84893799219 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2014-01-01 Created: 2014-01-01 Last updated: 2019-01-16Bibliographically approved
8. AI-Based Malicious Network Traffic Detection in VANETs
Open this publication in new window or tab >>AI-Based Malicious Network Traffic Detection in VANETs
2018 (English)In: IEEE Network, ISSN 0890-8044, E-ISSN 1558-156X, Vol. 32, no 6, p. 15-21Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Inherent unreliability of wireless communications may have crucial consequences when safety-critical C-ITS applications enabled by VANETs are concerned. Although natural sources of packet losses in VANETs such as network traffic congestion are handled by decentralized congestion control (DCC), losses caused by malicious interference need to be controlled too. For example, jamming DoS attacks on CAMs may endanger vehicular safety, and first and foremost are to be detected in real time. Our first goal is to discuss key literature on jamming modeling in VANETs and revisit some existing detection methods. Our second goal is to present and evaluate our own recent results on how to address the real-time jamming detection problem in V2X safety-critical scenarios with the use of AI. We conclude that our hybrid jamming detector, which combines statistical network traffic analysis with data mining methods, allows the achievement of acceptable performance even when random jitter accompanies the generation of CAMs, which complicates the analysis of the reasons for their losses in VANETs. The use case of the study is a challenging platooning C-ITS application, where V2X-enabled vehicles move together at highway speeds with short inter-vehicle gaps.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2018
Keywords
Vehicle safety, Telecommunication traffic, Road traffic, Wireless communication, Networked control systems, Real-time systems, Vehicular ad hoc networks, Intelligent vehicles, Artificial intelligence, Cams, Jamming
National Category
Communication Systems Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-38456 (URN)10.1109/MNET.2018.1800074 (DOI)
Projects
AstaMoCA “Model-Based Communication Architecture for the AstaZero Automotive Safety”
Funder
Knowledge FoundationELLIIT - The Linköping‐Lund Initiative on IT and Mobile Communications
Available from: 2018-11-30 Created: 2018-11-30 Last updated: 2019-01-16Bibliographically approved
9. Real-time jamming DoS detection in safety-critical V2V C-ITS using data mining
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Real-time jamming DoS detection in safety-critical V2V C-ITS using data mining
2019 (English)In: IEEE Communications Letters, ISSN 1089-7798, E-ISSN 1558-2558, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 442-445Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A data mining-based method for real-time detection of radio jamming Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks in IEEE 802.11p vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications is proposed. The method aims at understanding the reasons for losses of periodic cooperative awareness messages (CAM) exchanged by vehicles in a platoon. Detection relies on a knowledge of IEEE 802.11p protocols rules as well as on historical observation of events in the V2V channel. In comparison to the state-of-the-art method, the proposed method allows operating under the realistic assumption of random jitter accompanying every CAM transmission. The method is evaluated for two jamming models: random and ON-OFF. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2019
Keywords
C-ITS, VANET, jamming, Denial-of-Service attack, security, platooning, data mining
National Category
Communication Systems Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-38762 (URN)10.1109/LCOMM.2019.2894767 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-01-16 Created: 2019-01-16 Last updated: 2019-03-20Bibliographically approved

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Lyamin, Nikita

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Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
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  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
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