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On the Design and Testing of Dependable Autonomous Systems
Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS). RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Gothenburg, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1713-3726
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Designing software-intensive embedded systems for dependable autonomous applications is challenging. In addition to fulfilling complex functional requirements, the system must be safe under all operating conditions, even in the presence of faults. The key to achieving this is by simulating and testing the system enough, including possible faults that can be expected, to be confident that it reaches an acceptable level of performance with preserved safety. However, as the complexity of an autonomous system and its application grows, it becomes exponentially more difficult to perform exhaustive testing and explore the full state space, which makes the task a significant challenge.

Property-Based Testing (PBT) is a software testing technique where tests and input stimuli for a system are automatically generated based on specified properties of the system, and it is normally used for testing software libraries. PBT is not a formal proof that the system fulfills the specified properties, but an effective way to find deviations from them. Safety-critical systems that must be able to deal with hardware faults are often tested using Fault Injection (FI) at several abstraction levels. The purpose of FI is to inject faults into a system in order to exercise and evaluate fault handling mechanisms. In this thesis, we utilize techniques from PBT and FI, for automatically testing functional and safety requirements of autonomous system simultaneously. We have done this on both simulations of hardware, and on real-time hardware for autonomous systems. This has been done in the process of developing a quadcopter system with collision avoidance, as well as when developing a self-driving model car. With this work we explore how tests can be auto-generated with techniques from PBT and FI, and how this approach can be used at several abstraction levels during the development of these systems. We also explore which details and design choices have to be considered while developing our simulators and embedded software, to ease testing with our proposed methods.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Halmstad: Halmstad University Press, 2018. , p. 171
Series
Halmstad University Dissertations ; 52
National Category
Computer Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-38403ISBN: 978-91-88749-10-9 (print)ISBN: 978-91-88749-11-6 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hh-38403DiVA, id: diva2:1265089
Public defence
2018-12-19, Wigforssalen, Visionen, Kristian IV:s väg 3, Halmstad, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-11-26 Created: 2018-11-22 Last updated: 2018-11-26
List of papers
1. Combining Fault-Injection with Property-Based Testing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Combining Fault-Injection with Property-Based Testing
2014 (English)In: ES4CPS: Workshop Proceedings of Engineering Simulations for Cyber Physical Systems, New York: ACM Press, 2014Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper we present a methodology and a platform using Fault Injection (FI) and Property-Based Testing (PBT). PBT is a technique in which test cases are automatically generated from a specification of a system property. The generated test cases vary input stimuli as well as the sequence in which commands are executed. FI is used to accelerate the occurrences of faults in a system to exercise and evaluate fault handling mechanisms and e.g. calculate error detection coverage. By combining the two we have achieved a way of randomly injecting different faults at arbitrary moments in the execution sequence while checking whether certain properties still hold. We use the commercially available tool QuickCheck for generating the test cases and developed FaultCheck for FI. FaultCheck enables the user to utilize fault models, commonly used during FI, from PBT tools like QuickCheck. We demonstrate our method and tools on a simplified example of two Airbag systems that should meet safety requirements. We can easily find a safety violation in one of the examples, whereas by using the AUTOSAR E2E-library implementation, exhaustive testing cannot reveal any such safety violation. This demonstrates that our approach on testing can reveal certain safety violations in a cost-effective way. © 2014 ACM.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: ACM Press, 2014
Series
ACM International Conference Proceedings Series
Keywords
Fault model, QuickCheck, FaultCheck, Fault Injection, Property-Based Testing
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-27414 (URN)2-s2.0-84904571627 (Scopus ID)978-1-4503-2614-8 (ISBN)
Conference
Workshop on Engineering Simulations for Cyber Physical Systems, ES4CPS 2014 - Held in Conjunction with the Conference DATE 2014 – Design, Automation and Test in Europe, Dresden, Germany, 28 March, 2014
Available from: 2015-01-06 Created: 2015-01-06 Last updated: 2018-11-22Bibliographically approved
2. Towards Collision Avoidance for Commodity Hardware Quadcopters with Ultrasound Localization
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards Collision Avoidance for Commodity Hardware Quadcopters with Ultrasound Localization
Show others...
2015 (English)In: 2015 International Conference on Unmanned Aircraft Systems (ICUAS), [S.l.]: IEEE, 2015, p. 193-203Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We present a quadcopter platform built with commodity hardware that is able to do localization in GNSS-denied areas and avoid collisions by using a novel easy-to-setup and inexpensive ultrasound-localization system. We address the challenge to accurately estimate the copter's position and not hit any obstacles, including other, moving, quadcopters. The quadcopters avoid collisions by placing contours that represent risk around static and dynamic objects and acting if the risk contours overlap with ones own comfort zone. Position and velocity information is communicated between the copters to make them aware of each other. The shape and size of the risk contours are continuously updated based on the relative speed and distance to the obstacles and the current estimated localization accuracy. Thus, the collision-avoidance system is autonomous and only interferes with human or machine control of the quadcopter if the situation is hazardous. In the development of this platform we used our own simulation system using fault-injection (sensor faults, communication faults) together with automatically-generated tests to identify problematic scenarios for which the localization and risk contour parameters had to be adjusted. In the end, we were able to run thousands of simulations without any collisions, giving us confidence that also many real quadcopters can manoeuvre collision free in space-constrained GNSS-denied areas. ©2015 IEEE.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
[S.l.]: IEEE, 2015
Series
International Conference on Unmanned Aircraft Systems, ISSN 2373-6720
National Category
Robotics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-28169 (URN)10.1109/ICUAS.2015.7152291 (DOI)000388438500024 ()2-s2.0-84941030880 (Scopus ID)978-1-4799-6009-5 (ISBN)978-1-4799-6010-1 (ISBN)
Conference
The 2015 International Conference on Unmanned Aircraft Systems (ICUAS), Denver, Colorado, USA, June 9-12, 2015
Projects
KARYONPROWESS
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework ProgrammeKnowledge Foundation
Note

This research has been funded through the KARYON EU project (Grant agreement no: 288195), the PROWESS EU project (Grant agreement no: 317820) and through EISIGS (grants from the Knowledge Foundation).

Available from: 2015-04-27 Created: 2015-04-27 Last updated: 2018-11-22Bibliographically approved
3. Using Simulation, Fault Injection and Property-Based Testing to Evaluate Collision Avoidance of a Quadcopter System
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using Simulation, Fault Injection and Property-Based Testing to Evaluate Collision Avoidance of a Quadcopter System
2015 (English)In: 2015 IEEE International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks Workshops (DSN-W) / [ed] Juan E. Guerrero, Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society, 2015, p. 104-111Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this work we use our testing platform based on FaultCheck and QuickCheck that we apply on a quadcopter simulator. We have used a hardware platform as the basis for the simulator and for deriving realistic fault models for our simulations. The quadcopters have a collision-avoidance mechanism that shall take over control when the situation becomes hazardous, steer away from the potential danger and then give control back to the pilot, thereby preventing collisions regardless of what the pilot does. We use our testing platform to randomly generate thousands of simulations with different input stimuli (using QuickCheck) for hundreds of quadcopters, while injecting faults simultaneously (using FaultCheck). This way, we can effectively adjust system parameters and enhance the collision-avoidance mechanism. © 2015 IEEE

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society, 2015
Keywords
Fault Injection, FaultCheck, Property-Based Testing, Simulation, QuickCheck, Fault Model, Quadcopter
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-28172 (URN)10.1109/DSN-W.2015.28 (DOI)2-s2.0-84957653792 (Scopus ID)978-1-4673-8044-7 (ISBN)
Conference
1st International Workshop on Safety and Security of Intelligent Vehicles (SSIV), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, June 22, 2015
Projects
PROWESSKARYON
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework ProgrammeKnowledge Foundation
Note

This research has been funded through the PROWESS EU project (Grant agreement no: 317820), the KARYON EU project (Grant agreement no: 288195) and through EISIGS (grants from the Knowledge Foundation).

Available from: 2015-04-27 Created: 2015-04-27 Last updated: 2018-11-22Bibliographically approved
4. Accurate positioning of bicycles for improved safety
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Accurate positioning of bicycles for improved safety
2018 (English)In: 2018 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics (ICCE) / [ed] Saraju P. Mohanty, Peter Corcoran & Hai (Helen) Li, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2018Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Cyclists are not well protected in accidents with other road users, and there are few active safety systems available for bicycles. In this study we have evaluated the use of inexpensive Real-Time Kinematic Satellite Navigation (RTK-SN) receivers with multiple satellite constellations together with dead reckoning for accurate positioning of bicycles to enable active safety functions such as collision warnings. This is a continuation of previous work were we concluded that RTK-SN alone is not sufficient in moderately dense urban areas as buildings and other obstructions degrade the performance of RTK-SN significantly. In this work we have added odometry to the positioning system as well as extending RTK-SN with multiple satellite constellations to deal with situations where the view of the sky is poor and thus fewer satellites are in view. To verify the performance of the positioning system we have used Ultra-Wideband radios as an independent positioning system to compare against while testing during poor conditions for RTK-SN. We were able to verify that adding dead reckoning and multiple satellite constellations improves the performance significantly under poor conditions and makes the positioning system more useful for active safety systems. © 2018 IEEE

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2018
Series
Proceedings of ... IEEE International Symposium on Consumer Electronics, E-ISSN 2158-4001
Keywords
RTK GPS, odometry, testbed, bicycle, positioning, ultra-wideband
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-35878 (URN)10.1109/ICCE.2018.8326237 (DOI)978-1-5386-3025-9 (ISBN)978-1-5386-3026-6 (ISBN)
Conference
36th IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics (ICCE), Las Vegas, NV, USA, Jan. 12-14, 2018
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Note

Funding: EISIGS (grants from the Knowledge Foundation) and through the Swedish Trafikverkets Skyltfond

Available from: 2017-12-14 Created: 2017-12-14 Last updated: 2018-11-22Bibliographically approved
5. A Low-Cost Model Vehicle Testbed with Accurate Positioning for Autonomous Driving
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Low-Cost Model Vehicle Testbed with Accurate Positioning for Autonomous Driving
2018 (English)In: Journal of Robotics, ISSN 1687-9600, E-ISSN 1687-9619, Vol. 2018, article id 4907536Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Accurate positioning is a requirement for many applications, including safety-critical autonomous vehicles. To reduce cost and at the same time improving accuracy for positioning of autonomous vehicles, new methods, tools and research platforms are needed. We have created a low-cost testbed consisting of electronics and software, that can be fitted on model vehicles allowing them to follow trajectories autonomously with a position accuracy of around 3 cm outdoors. The position of the vehicles is derived from sensor fusion between Real-Time Kinematic Satellite Navigation (RTK-SN), odometry and inertial measurement, and performs well within a 10 km radius from a base station. Trajectories to be followed can be edited with a custom GUI, where also several model vehicles can be controlled and visualized in real time. All software and Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) for our testbed are available as open source to make customization and development possible. Our testbed can be used for research within autonomous driving, for carrying test equipment, and other applications where low cost and accurate positioning and navigation is required. © 2018 Benjamin Vedder et al.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2018
Keywords
Autonomous, RTK GNSS, Odometry, Open Source, Testbed, Model car, Motor control, Pure pursuit algorithm, Sensor fusion
National Category
Robotics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-38402 (URN)10.1155/2018/4907536 (DOI)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, EISIGSVINNOVA, Chronos 1 and 2
Available from: 2018-11-22 Created: 2018-11-22 Last updated: 2018-11-23Bibliographically approved
6. Automated Testing of Ultra-Wideband Positioning for Autonomous Driving
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Automated Testing of Ultra-Wideband Positioning for Autonomous Driving
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Autonomous vehicles need accurate and dependable positioning, and these systems need to be tested extensively. We have evaluated positioning based on Ultra-Wide Band (UWB) ranging with our self-driving model car using a highly automated approach. Random drivable trajectories were generated, while the UWB position was compared against the Real-Time Kinematic Satellite Navigation (RTK-SN) positioning system that our model car also is equipped with. Fault injection was used to study the fault tolerance of the UWB positioning system. Addressed challenges are: automatically generating test cases for real-time hardware, restore the state between tests and to maintain safety by preventing collisions. We were able to automatically generate and carry out hundreds of experiments on the model car in real time, and re-run them consistently with and without fault injection enabled. Thereby we demonstrate one novel approach to perform automated testing on complex real-time hardware.

Keywords
RTK GNSS, odometry, testbed, positioning, ultra-wideband, automated testing, model-based testing, Fault Injection, Property-Based Testing, open source, sensor fusion
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-38408 (URN)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, EISIGSEU, Horizon 2020, PRoPART (776307)VINNOVA, Chronos 1 and 2
Note

Som manuskript i avhandling. / As manuscript in dissertation.

Available from: 2018-11-22 Created: 2018-11-22 Last updated: 2018-11-26Bibliographically approved

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