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A Low-Cost Model Vehicle Testbed with Accurate Positioning for Autonomous Driving
Department of Electronics, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Gothenburg, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1713-3726
Department of Electronics, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Gothenburg, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6191-6253
Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6526-3931
2018 (English)In: Journal of Robotics, ISSN 1687-9600, E-ISSN 1687-9619, Vol. 2018, article id 4907536Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Accurate positioning is a requirement for many applications, including safety-critical autonomous vehicles. To reduce cost and at the same time improving accuracy for positioning of autonomous vehicles, new methods, tools and research platforms are needed. We have created a low-cost testbed consisting of electronics and software, that can be fitted on model vehicles allowing them to follow trajectories autonomously with a position accuracy of around 3 cm outdoors. The position of the vehicles is derived from sensor fusion between Real-Time Kinematic Satellite Navigation (RTK-SN), odometry and inertial measurement, and performs well within a 10 km radius from a base station. Trajectories to be followed can be edited with a custom GUI, where also several model vehicles can be controlled and visualized in real time. All software and Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) for our testbed are available as open source to make customization and development possible. Our testbed can be used for research within autonomous driving, for carrying test equipment, and other applications where low cost and accurate positioning and navigation is required. © 2018 Benjamin Vedder et al.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2018. Vol. 2018, article id 4907536
Keywords [en]
Autonomous, RTK GNSS, Odometry, Open Source, Testbed, Model car, Motor control, Pure pursuit algorithm, Sensor fusion
National Category
Robotics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-38402DOI: 10.1155/2018/4907536OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hh-38402DiVA, id: diva2:1265046
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, EISIGSVINNOVA, Chronos 1 and 2Available from: 2018-11-22 Created: 2018-11-22 Last updated: 2018-11-23Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. On the Design and Testing of Dependable Autonomous Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the Design and Testing of Dependable Autonomous Systems
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Designing software-intensive embedded systems for dependable autonomous applications is challenging. In addition to fulfilling complex functional requirements, the system must be safe under all operating conditions, even in the presence of faults. The key to achieving this is by simulating and testing the system enough, including possible faults that can be expected, to be confident that it reaches an acceptable level of performance with preserved safety. However, as the complexity of an autonomous system and its application grows, it becomes exponentially more difficult to perform exhaustive testing and explore the full state space, which makes the task a significant challenge.

Property-Based Testing (PBT) is a software testing technique where tests and input stimuli for a system are automatically generated based on specified properties of the system, and it is normally used for testing software libraries. PBT is not a formal proof that the system fulfills the specified properties, but an effective way to find deviations from them. Safety-critical systems that must be able to deal with hardware faults are often tested using Fault Injection (FI) at several abstraction levels. The purpose of FI is to inject faults into a system in order to exercise and evaluate fault handling mechanisms. In this thesis, we utilize techniques from PBT and FI, for automatically testing functional and safety requirements of autonomous system simultaneously. We have done this on both simulations of hardware, and on real-time hardware for autonomous systems. This has been done in the process of developing a quadcopter system with collision avoidance, as well as when developing a self-driving model car. With this work we explore how tests can be auto-generated with techniques from PBT and FI, and how this approach can be used at several abstraction levels during the development of these systems. We also explore which details and design choices have to be considered while developing our simulators and embedded software, to ease testing with our proposed methods.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Halmstad: Halmstad University Press, 2018. p. 171
Series
Halmstad University Dissertations ; 52
National Category
Computer Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-38403 (URN)978-91-88749-10-9 (ISBN)978-91-88749-11-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-12-19, Wigforssalen, Visionen, Kristian IV:s väg 3, Halmstad, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-11-26 Created: 2018-11-22 Last updated: 2018-11-26

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Vedder, BenjaminJonsson, Magnus

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2930313233343532 of 54
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