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A Simulation-Based Safety Analysis of CACC-Enabled Highway Platooning
Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES). The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Göteborg, Sweden.
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Description
Abstract [en]

Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (C-ITS) enable actors in the transport systems to interact and collaborate by exchanging information via wireless communication networks. There are several challenges to overcome before they can be implemented and deployed on public roads. Among the most important challenges are testing and evaluation in order to ensure the safety of C-ITS applications.

This thesis focuses on testing and evaluation of C-ITS applications with regard to their safety using simulation. The main focus is on one C-ITS application, namely platooning, that is enabled by the Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) function. Therefore, this thesis considers two main topics: i) what should be modelled and simulated for testing and evaluation of C-ITS applications? and ii) how should CACC functions be evaluated in order to ensure safety?

When C-ITS applications are deployed, we can expect traffic situations which consist of vehicles with different capabilities, in terms of automation and connectivity. We propose that involving human drivers in testing and evaluation is important in such mixed traffic situations. Considering important aspects of C-ITS including human drivers, we propose a simulation framework, which combines driving-, network-, and traffic simulators. The simulation framework has been validated by demonstrating several use cases in the scope of platooning. In particular, it is used to demonstrate and analyse the safety of platooning applications in cut-in situations, where a vehicle driven by a human driver cuts in between vehicles in platoon. To assess the situations, time-to-collision (TTC) and its extensions are used as safety indicators in the analyses.

The simulation framework permits future C-ITS research in other fields such as human factors by involving human drivers in a C-ITS context. Results from the safety analyses show that cut-in situations are not always hazardous, and two factors that are the most highly correlated to the collisions are relative speed and distance between vehicles at the moment of cutting in. Moreover, we suggest that to solely rely on CACC functions is not sufficient to handle cut-in situations. Therefore, guidelines and standards are required to address these situations properly.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Halmstad: Halmstad University Press, 2018. , p. 103
Series
Halmstad University Dissertations ; 51
Keywords [en]
simulation, driving simulator, traffic simulator, network simulator, C-ITS, cooperative intelligent transport systems, platooning
National Category
Computer Sciences Transport Systems and Logistics Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-38390ISBN: 978-91-88749-07-9 (print)ISBN: 978-91-88749-08-6 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hh-38390DiVA, id: diva2:1264677
Public defence
2018-12-12, Wigforssalen, Hus J (Visionen), Halmstad University, Kristian IV:s väg 3, Halmstad, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-11-26 Created: 2018-11-20 Last updated: 2018-11-26
List of papers
1. Dimensions of Cooperative Driving, ITS and Automation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dimensions of Cooperative Driving, ITS and Automation
2015 (English)In: 2015 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2015, p. 144-149Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Wireless technology supporting vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V), and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communication, allow vehicles and infrastructures to exchange information, and cooperate. Cooperation among the actors in an intelligent transport system (ITS) can introduce several benefits, for instance, increase safety, comfort, efficiency. Automation has also evolved in vehicle control and active safety functions. Combining cooperation and automation would enable more advanced functions such as automated highway merge and negotiating right-of-way in a cooperative intersection. However, the combination have influences on the structure of the overall transport systems as well as on its behaviour. In order to provide a common understanding of such systems, this paper presents an analysis of cooperative ITS (C-ITS) with regard to dimensions of cooperation. It also presents possible influence on driving behaviour and challenges in deployment and automation of C-ITS.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2015
National Category
Embedded Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-29191 (URN)10.1109/IVS.2015.7225677 (DOI)000380565800025 ()2-s2.0-84951010000 (Scopus ID)978-1-4673-7266-4 (ISBN)
Conference
2015 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, Seoul, South Korea, June 28 - July 1, 2015
Funder
Knowledge FoundationVINNOVA
Available from: 2015-08-14 Created: 2015-08-14 Last updated: 2018-11-20Bibliographically approved
2. A simulation framework for cooperative intelligent transport systems testing and evaluation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A simulation framework for cooperative intelligent transport systems testing and evaluation
2017 (English)In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517Article in journal (Refereed) In press
Abstract [en]

Connected and automated driving in the context of cooperative intelligent transport systems (C-ITS) is an emerging area in transport systems research. Interaction and cooperation between actors in transport systems are now enabled by the connectivity by means of vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2X) communication. To ensure the goals of C-ITS, which are safer and more efficient transport systems, testing and evaluation are required before deployment of C-ITS applications. Therefore, this paper presents a simulation framework—consisting of driving-, traffic-, and network-simulators—for testing and evaluation of C-ITS applications. Examples of cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) applications are presented, and are used as test cases for the simulation framework as well as to elaborate on potential use cases of it. Challenges from combining the simulators into one framework, and limitations are reported and discussed. Finally, the paper concludes with future development directions, and applications of the simulation framework in testing and evaluation of C-ITS. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Kidlington: Pergamon Press, 2017
Keywords
C-ITS, driving simulator, traffic simulator, network simulator, platooning
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-34870 (URN)10.1016/j.trf.2017.08.004 (DOI)2-s2.0-85028624553 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Vehicle ICT Innovation Methodology (VICTIg)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Note

This work is supported by SAFER – Vehicle and Traffic Safety Centre at Chalmers, as a part of Vehicle ICT Innovation Methodology (VICTIg) project.

Available from: 2017-09-04 Created: 2017-09-04 Last updated: 2018-11-20Bibliographically approved
3. Simulation of Cut-In by Manually Driven Vehicles in Platooning Scenarios
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simulation of Cut-In by Manually Driven Vehicles in Platooning Scenarios
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2017 (English)In: 2017 IEEE 20th International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC), 2017, p. 315-320Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In the near future, Cooperative Intelligent Transport System (C-ITS) applications are expected to be deployed. To support this, simulation is often used to design and evaluate the applications during the early development phases. Simulations of C-ITS scenarios often assume a fleet of homogeneous vehicles within the transportation system. In contrast, once C-ITS is deployed, the traffic scenarios will consist of a mixture of connected and non-connected vehicles, which, in addition, can be driven manually or automatically. Such mixed cases are rarely analysed, especially those where manually driven vehicles are involved. Therefore, this paper presents a C-ITS simulation framework, which incorporates a manually driven car through a driving simulator interacting with a traffic simulator, and a communication simulator, which together enable modelling and analysis of C-ITS applications and scenarios. Furthermore, example usages in the scenarios, where a manually driven vehicle cut-in to a platoon of Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) equipped vehicles are presented.

Keywords
Simulation, driving simulator, network simulator, traffic simulator, c-its, platooning, cooperative adaptive cruise control
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-35734 (URN)978-1-5386-1525-6 (ISBN)
Conference
2017 IEEE 20th International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC), Kanagawa, Japan, 16-19 October, 2017
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2017-12-04 Created: 2017-12-04 Last updated: 2018-11-20Bibliographically approved
4. Safety Analysis of Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control in Vehicle Cut-in Situations
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Safety Analysis of Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control in Vehicle Cut-in Situations
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2017 (English)In: Proceedings of 2017 4th International Symposium on Future Active Safety Technology towards Zero-Traffic-Accidents (FAST-zero), Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan , 2017, article id 20174621Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) is a cooperative intelligent transport systems (C-ITS) function, which especially when used in platooning applications, possess many expected benefits including efficient road space utilization and reduced fuel consumption. Cut-in manoeuvres in platoons can potentially reduce those benefits, and are not desired from a safety point of view. Unfortunately, in realistic traffic scenarios, cut-in manoeuvres can be expected, especially from non-connected vehicles. In this paper two different controllers for platooning are explored, aiming at maintaining the safety of the platoon while a vehicle is cutting in from the adjacent lane. A realistic scenario, where a human driver performs the cut-in manoeuvre is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the controllers. Safety analysis of CACC controllers using time to collision (TTC) under such situation is presented. The analysis using TTC indicate that, although potential risks are always high in CACC applications such as platooning due to the small inter-vehicular distances, dangerous TTC (TTC < 6 seconds) is not frequent. Future research directions are also discussed along with the results.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan, 2017
Keywords
cooperative adaptive cruise control, modelling and simulations
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-35681 (URN)
Conference
4th International Symposium on Future Active Safety Technology towards Zero-Traffic-Accidents (FAST-Zero’17), Nara, Japan, 18-22 September, 2017
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2017-12-01 Created: 2017-12-01 Last updated: 2018-11-20Bibliographically approved
5. Safety Evaluation of Highway Platooning Under a Cut-In Situation Using Simulation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Safety Evaluation of Highway Platooning Under a Cut-In Situation Using Simulation
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2018 (English)In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

Platooning refers to an application, where a group of connected and automated vehicles follow a lead vehicle autonomously, with short inter-vehicular distances. At merging points on highways such as on-ramp, platoons could encounter manually driven vehicles, which are merging on to the highways. In some situations, the manually driven vehicles could end up between the platooning vehicles. Such situations are expected and known as “cut-in” situations. This paper presents a simulation study of a cut-in situation, where a platoon of five vehicles encounter a manually driven vehicle at a merging point of a highway. The manually driven vehicle is driven by 37 test persons using a driving simulator. For the platooning vehicles, two longitudinal controllers with four gap settings between the platooning vehicles, i.e. 15 meters, 22.5 meters, 30 meters, and 42.5 meters, are evaluated. Results summarizing cut-in behaviours and how the participants perceived the situation are presented. Furthermore, the situation is assessed using safety indicators based on time-to-collision.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2018
Keywords
driving simulator, highway platooning, cut-in, cooperative adaptive cruise control, safety evaluation, time-to-collision
National Category
Computer Sciences Engineering and Technology Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-38389 (URN)
Available from: 2018-11-20 Created: 2018-11-20 Last updated: 2018-11-26

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Aramrattana, Maytheewat

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