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Safety Evaluation of Highway Platooning Under a Cut-In Situation Using Simulation
Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES). The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Göteborg, Sweden.
Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research. RISE Viktoria, Göteborg, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1043-8773
Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Sweden.
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2018 (English)In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

Platooning refers to an application, where a group of connected and automated vehicles follow a lead vehicle autonomously, with short inter-vehicular distances. At merging points on highways such as on-ramp, platoons could encounter manually driven vehicles, which are merging on to the highways. In some situations, the manually driven vehicles could end up between the platooning vehicles. Such situations are expected and known as “cut-in” situations. This paper presents a simulation study of a cut-in situation, where a platoon of five vehicles encounter a manually driven vehicle at a merging point of a highway. The manually driven vehicle is driven by 37 test persons using a driving simulator. For the platooning vehicles, two longitudinal controllers with four gap settings between the platooning vehicles, i.e. 15 meters, 22.5 meters, 30 meters, and 42.5 meters, are evaluated. Results summarizing cut-in behaviours and how the participants perceived the situation are presented. Furthermore, the situation is assessed using safety indicators based on time-to-collision.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2018.
Keywords [en]
driving simulator, highway platooning, cut-in, cooperative adaptive cruise control, safety evaluation, time-to-collision
National Category
Computer Sciences Engineering and Technology Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-38389OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hh-38389DiVA, id: diva2:1264675
Available from: 2018-11-20 Created: 2018-11-20 Last updated: 2018-11-26
In thesis
1. A Simulation-Based Safety Analysis of CACC-Enabled Highway Platooning
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Simulation-Based Safety Analysis of CACC-Enabled Highway Platooning
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (C-ITS) enable actors in the transport systems to interact and collaborate by exchanging information via wireless communication networks. There are several challenges to overcome before they can be implemented and deployed on public roads. Among the most important challenges are testing and evaluation in order to ensure the safety of C-ITS applications.

This thesis focuses on testing and evaluation of C-ITS applications with regard to their safety using simulation. The main focus is on one C-ITS application, namely platooning, that is enabled by the Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) function. Therefore, this thesis considers two main topics: i) what should be modelled and simulated for testing and evaluation of C-ITS applications? and ii) how should CACC functions be evaluated in order to ensure safety?

When C-ITS applications are deployed, we can expect traffic situations which consist of vehicles with different capabilities, in terms of automation and connectivity. We propose that involving human drivers in testing and evaluation is important in such mixed traffic situations. Considering important aspects of C-ITS including human drivers, we propose a simulation framework, which combines driving-, network-, and traffic simulators. The simulation framework has been validated by demonstrating several use cases in the scope of platooning. In particular, it is used to demonstrate and analyse the safety of platooning applications in cut-in situations, where a vehicle driven by a human driver cuts in between vehicles in platoon. To assess the situations, time-to-collision (TTC) and its extensions are used as safety indicators in the analyses.

The simulation framework permits future C-ITS research in other fields such as human factors by involving human drivers in a C-ITS context. Results from the safety analyses show that cut-in situations are not always hazardous, and two factors that are the most highly correlated to the collisions are relative speed and distance between vehicles at the moment of cutting in. Moreover, we suggest that to solely rely on CACC functions is not sufficient to handle cut-in situations. Therefore, guidelines and standards are required to address these situations properly.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Halmstad: Halmstad University Press, 2018. p. 103
Series
Halmstad University Dissertations ; 51
Keywords
simulation, driving simulator, traffic simulator, network simulator, C-ITS, cooperative intelligent transport systems, platooning
National Category
Computer Sciences Transport Systems and Logistics Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-38390 (URN)978-91-88749-07-9 (ISBN)978-91-88749-08-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-12-12, Wigforssalen, Hus J (Visionen), Halmstad University, Kristian IV:s väg 3, Halmstad, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-11-26 Created: 2018-11-20 Last updated: 2019-04-25Bibliographically approved

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