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Amador Molina, OscarORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-0887-5226
Publications (6 of 6) Show all publications
Amador Molina, O., Calderon, M., Urueña, M. & Soto, I. (2024). Evaluation of Greedy and CBF for ETSI non-area GeoNetworking: The impact of DCC. Computer Communications, 218, 114-130
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of Greedy and CBF for ETSI non-area GeoNetworking: The impact of DCC
2024 (English)In: Computer Communications, ISSN 0140-3664, E-ISSN 1873-703X, Vol. 218, p. 114-130Article in journal (Refereed) In press
Abstract [en]

This paper evaluates the performance of the two ETSI non-area forwarding algorithms in the GeoNetworking specification: Greedy Forwarding and Non-Area Contention-Based Forwarding (CBF). Non-area forwarding occurs when a packet is sent to a geographical Destination Area from a node located outside of this area, e.g., when a vehicle wants to alert of hazardous events to other vehicles located in a distant geographical area. The evaluation has been carried out both in urban and highway scenarios and takes into account the complete ETSI Architecture, including the interaction with the Decentralized Congestion Control (DCC) mechanism. We have also compared ETSI-defined mechanisms with optimizations found in the literature. Our main findings are that Greedy Forwarding, when combined with DCC, is extremely ineffective even with optimizations, and Non-Area CBFs (both ETSI CBF and an optimized version called S-FoT+) outperform Greedy Forwarding both in highway and urban scenarios.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2024
Keywords
ETSI Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS), Non-area GeoNetworking, Decentralized Environmental Notification Message (DENM), Cooperative Awareness Message (CAM), Greedy Forwarding, Contention-Based Forwarding (CBF), Duplicate Packet Detection (DPD), Decentralized Congestion Control (DCC)
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-52745 (URN)10.1016/j.comcom.2024.02.009 (DOI)2-s2.0-85185397826 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Safety of Connected Intelligent Vehicles in Smart Cities – SafeSmartACHILLES project
Funder
Knowledge FoundationELLIIT - The Linköping‐Lund Initiative on IT and Mobile Communications
Note

Funding: The Swedish Knowledge Foundation (KKS) “Safety of Connected Intelligent Vehicles in Smart Cities – SafeSmart” project (2019–2024), and the ELLIIT Strategic Research Network.This work was partially supported by the Agencia Estatal de Investigación (AEI, Spain) through the ACHILLES project (PID2019-104207RB-I00/AEI/10.13039/501100011033).

Available from: 2024-02-23 Created: 2024-02-23 Last updated: 2024-03-01Bibliographically approved
Amador Molina, O., Soto, I., Calderon, M. & Urueña, M. (2023). Studying and improving the performance of ETSI ITS contention-based forwarding (CBF) in urban and highway scenarios: S-FoT+. Computer Networks, 233, Article ID 109899.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Studying and improving the performance of ETSI ITS contention-based forwarding (CBF) in urban and highway scenarios: S-FoT+
2023 (English)In: Computer Networks, ISSN 1389-1286, E-ISSN 1872-7069, Vol. 233, article id 109899Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper evaluates the performance of ETSI ITS Contention-Based Forwarding (CBF) and ETSI Simple GeoBroadcast forwarding while disseminating warning messages over a Geographical Area in highway and urban scenarios. Our experimental evaluation considers the complete ETSI ITS architecture including the Decentralized Congestion Control (DCC) mechanism. We propose an enhanced CBF mechanism, named S-FOT+, which combines several improvements to the ETSI CBF algorithm. S-FoT+ has a similar or better performance than the ETSI forwarding algorithms regarding both reliability and end-to-end delay while requiring much fewer transmissions. The improvements are equally effective and efficient in both urban and highway scenarios with large Destination Areas. Finally, we evaluate the trade-offs that stem from using multi-hop broadcast mechanisms in urban settings with smaller Destination Areas when compared to single-hop broadcast. Results show that multi-hop mechanisms significantly improve coverage at the cost of an increased number of transmissions. © 2023 The Author(s)

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Contention-based forwarding (CBF), Cooperative awareness message (CAM), Decentralized congestion control (DCC), Decentralized environmental notification message (DENM), Duplicate packet detection (DPD), ETSI intelligent transport systems (ITS), Simple geoBroadcast forwarding
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Smart Cities and Communities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-51287 (URN)10.1016/j.comnet.2023.109899 (DOI)001039215600001 ()2-s2.0-85164220241 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Safety of Connected Intelligent Vehicles in Smart Cities – SafeSmartEmergency Vehicle Traffic Light Preemption in Cities – EPIC
Funder
Knowledge FoundationVinnovaELLIIT - The Linköping‐Lund Initiative on IT and Mobile Communications
Note

Funding: The Swedish Knowledge Foundation (KKS) ”Safety of Connected Intelligent Vehicles in Smart Cities – SafeSmart” project (2019–2024), the Swedish Innovation Agency (VINNOVA) ”Emergency Vehicle Traffic Light Preemption in Cities – EPIC, ref. No. 2020-02945” (2020–2022), and the ELLIIT Strategic Research Network .

Available from: 2023-07-18 Created: 2023-07-18 Last updated: 2023-08-16Bibliographically approved
Amador Molina, O., Aramrattana, M. & Vinel, A. (2022). A Survey on Remote Operation of Road Vehicles. IEEE Access, 10, 130135-130154
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Survey on Remote Operation of Road Vehicles
2022 (English)In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 10, p. 130135-130154Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In recent years, the use of remote operation has been proposed as a bridge towards driverless mobility by providing human assistance remotely when an automated driving system finds a situation that is ambiguous and requires input from a remote operator. The remote operation of road vehicles has also been proposed as a way to enable drivers to operate vehicles from safer and more comfortable locations. While commercial solutions for remote operation exist, remaining challenges are being tackled by the research community, who is continuously testing and validating the feasibility of deploying remote operation of road vehicles on public roads. These tests range from the technological scope to social aspects such as acceptability and usability that affect human performance. This survey presents a compilation of works that approach the remote operation of road vehicles. We start by describing the basic architecture of remote operation systems and classify their modes of operation depending on the level of human intervention. We use this classification to organize and present recent and relevant work on the field from industry and academia. Finally, we identify the challenges in the deployment of remote operation systems in the technological, regulatory, and commercial scopes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2022
Keywords
5G, automated mobility, connected vehicle, remote driving, teleoperation
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-48981 (URN)10.1109/access.2022.3229168 (DOI)000902004300001 ()2-s2.0-85144797263 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Safety of Connected Intelligent Vehicles in Smart Cities–SafeSmart
Funder
Vinnova, 2020-02945Vinnova, 2019-03068Knowledge FoundationELLIIT - The Linköping‐Lund Initiative on IT and Mobile Communications
Available from: 2022-12-21 Created: 2022-12-21 Last updated: 2023-02-01Bibliographically approved
Soto, I., Calderon, M., Amador Molina, O. & Urueña, M. (2022). A survey on road safety and traffic efficiency vehicular applications based on C-V2X technologies. Vehicular Communications, 33, Article ID 100428.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A survey on road safety and traffic efficiency vehicular applications based on C-V2X technologies
2022 (English)In: Vehicular Communications, ISSN 2214-2096, E-ISSN 2214-210X, Vol. 33, article id 100428Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In recent years, the use of cellular network technologies to provide communication-based applications to vehicles has received considerable attention. 3GPP, the standardization body responsible for cellular networks specifications, is developing technologies to meet the requirements of vehicular communication applications, and the research community is testing and validating the ability of those technologies to implement different applications. This survey presents the body of work dealing with the use of cellular technologies to implement communication-based applications for the connected vehicle. We focus on basic and advanced road safety and traffic efficiency applications, which are critically important for the future of vehicular networks. We start by describing the different cellular-related technologies that have a role to play in providing services to the connected vehicle, propose a classification of types of communication used in vehicular applications, and then apply this classification to organize and present recent research work on the topic. Finally, we identify the main challenges in the use of cellular technologies to develop applications for the connected vehicle. © 2021 Elsevier Inc.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2022
Keywords
5G, C-V2X, Connected vehicle, Safety and traffic efficiency applications
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-46095 (URN)10.1016/j.vehcom.2021.100428 (DOI)000750914700014 ()2-s2.0-85118864744 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding: This work was partially supported by the Agencia Estatal de Investigación (AEI, Spain) through the ACHILLES project (PID2019-104207RB-I00/AEI/10.13039/501100011033); and by the Madrid Government (Comunidad de Madrid-Spain) under the Multiannual Agreement with UC3M in the line of Excellence of University Professors (EPUC3M21), and in the context of the V PRICIT (Regional Programme of Research and Technological Innovation).

Available from: 2021-12-17 Created: 2021-12-17 Last updated: 2022-03-03Bibliographically approved
Amador, O., Urueña, M., Calderon, M. & Soto, I. (2022). Evaluation and improvement of ETSI ITS Contention-Based Forwarding (CBF) of warning messages in highway scenarios. Vehicular Communications, 34, Article ID 100454.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation and improvement of ETSI ITS Contention-Based Forwarding (CBF) of warning messages in highway scenarios
2022 (English)In: Vehicular Communications, ISSN 2214-2096, E-ISSN 2214-210X, Vol. 34, article id 100454Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper evaluates the performance of the ETSI Contention-Based Forwarding (CBF) GeoNetworking protocol for distributing warning messages in highway scenarios, including its interaction with the Decentralized Congestion Control (DCC) mechanism. Several shortcomings of the standard ETSI CBF algorithm are identified, and we propose different solutions to these problems, which are able to reduce the number of transmissions by an order of magnitude, while reducing the message end-to-end delay and providing a reliability close to 100% in a large area of interest. © 2022 Elsevier Inc.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2022
Keywords
Contention-Based Forwarding (CBF), Decentralized Congestion Control (DCC), Decentralized Environmental Notification Message (DENM), Duplicate Packet Detection (DPD), ETSI Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS)
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-46497 (URN)10.1016/j.vehcom.2022.100454 (DOI)000763711000005 ()2-s2.0-85123774233 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-03-21 Created: 2022-03-21 Last updated: 2022-05-09Bibliographically approved
Amador Molina, O., Ronelöv, E., Boustedt, K., Blidkvist, J. & Vinel, A. (2022). Protection of Vulnerable Road Users using Hybrid Vehicular Networks. In: 2022 IEEE International Conference on Vehicular Electronics and Safety (ICVES): . Paper presented at IEEE International Conference on Vehicular Electronics and Safety (ICVES), Bogotá, Colombia, 14-16 November, 2022. Piscataway: IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Protection of Vulnerable Road Users using Hybrid Vehicular Networks
Show others...
2022 (English)In: 2022 IEEE International Conference on Vehicular Electronics and Safety (ICVES), Piscataway: IEEE, 2022Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The use of reactive detection technologies such as passive and active sensors for avoiding car accidents involving pedestrians and other Vulnerable Road Users (VRU) is one of the cornerstones of Cooperative, Connected, and Automated Mobility (CCAM). However, CCAM systems are not yet present in all roads at all times. The use of currently available technologies that are embedded in smartphones, such as location services and Internet access, are enablers for the early detection of VRUs. This paper presents the proof-of-concept of a system that provides vehicles with enough information about the presence of VRUs by using public cellular networks, an MQTT broker, and IEEE 802.11p-enabled hardware (a roadside unit and an on-board unit). The system was tested in an urban environment and in a test track, where its feasibility was evaluated. Results were satisfactory, proving the system is reliable enough to alert of the sudden appearance of a VRU in time for the driver to react. © 2022 IEEE.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway: IEEE, 2022
Keywords
Intelligent Transport Systems, V2X, Vulnerable Road Users
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-49116 (URN)10.1109/icves56941.2022.9986886 (DOI)000947199300008 ()2-s2.0-85146415287 (Scopus ID)978-1-6654-7698-0 (ISBN)978-1-6654-7697-3 (ISBN)978-1-6654-7699-7 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE International Conference on Vehicular Electronics and Safety (ICVES), Bogotá, Colombia, 14-16 November, 2022
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 2020-02945Vinnova, 2019-05899ELLIIT - The Linköping‐Lund Initiative on IT and Mobile Communications
Note

Funding text: Karlsruhe Institute of Technology acknowledges the support from Helmholtz Association (FE.5167.0007.0012 – Cooperative Autonomous Systems).

Available from: 2023-01-05 Created: 2023-01-05 Last updated: 2023-08-21Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-0887-5226

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