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Thunberg, J., Saeed, T., Sidorenko, G., Valle, F. & Vinel, A. (2023). Cooperative Vehicles versus Non-Cooperative Traffic Light: Safe and Efficient Passing. Computers, 12(8), Article ID 154.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cooperative Vehicles versus Non-Cooperative Traffic Light: Safe and Efficient Passing
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2023 (English)In: Computers, E-ISSN 2073-431X, Vol. 12, no 8, article id 154Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) will be a key component of future cooperative intelligent transportation systems (C-ITS). Since the adoption of C-ITS is not foreseen to happen instantly, not all of its elements are going to be connected at the early deployment stages. We consider a scenario where vehicles approaching a traffic light are connected to each other, but the traffic light itself is not cooperative. Information about indented trajectories such as decisions on how and when to accelerate, decelerate and stop, is communicated among the vehicles involved. We provide an optimization-based procedure for efficient and safe passing of traffic lights (or other temporary road blockage) using vehicle-to-vehicle communication (V2V). We locally optimize objectives that promote efficiency such as less deceleration and larger minimum velocity, while maintaining safety in terms of no collisions. The procedure is computationally efficient as it mainly involves a gradient decent algorithm for one single parameter. © 2023 by the authors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basel: , 2023
Keywords
C-ITS, connected vehicles, cooperative driving, CV2X, optimization, road safety, traffic light controller, vehicular networking
National Category
Control Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-51619 (URN)10.3390/computers12080154 (DOI)001055707800001 ()2-s2.0-85169007469 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge FoundationELLIIT - The Linköping‐Lund Initiative on IT and Mobile Communications
Note

This work was supported by the Swedish Knowledge Foundation (KKS) "Safety of Connected Intelligent Vehicles in Smart Cities-SafeSmart" project (2019-2024), the ELLIIT Strategic Research Network and the Helmholtz Program "Engineering Digital Futures".

Available from: 2023-11-13 Created: 2023-11-13 Last updated: 2023-11-13Bibliographically approved
Sidorenko, G., Thunberg, J. & Vinel, A. (2023). Ethical V2X: Cooperative Driving as the only Ethical Path to Multi-Vehicle Safety. In: 2023 IEEE 98th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC2023-Fall): . Paper presented at 98th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, VTC 2023-Fall, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, 10-13 October, 2023. IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ethical V2X: Cooperative Driving as the only Ethical Path to Multi-Vehicle Safety
2023 (English)In: 2023 IEEE 98th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC2023-Fall), IEEE, 2023Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We argue that an information exchange between vehicles via the vehicular communications is the foundation for ethical driving. In other words - autonomous vehicles must be cooperative to be able to resolve ethical dilemmas in a multi-vehicle scenario. We show this by exploring the minimal setting of a longitudinal driving in a formation of three vehicles. © 2023 IEEE.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2023
Series
IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, ISSN 1090-3038, E-ISSN 2577-2465
Keywords
automated driving, Cooperative vehicles, ethical dilemmas, V2X communications, vehicular safety
National Category
Embedded Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-52407 (URN)10.1109/VTC2023-Fall60731.2023.10333432 (DOI)2-s2.0-85181174004 (Scopus ID)9798350329285 (ISBN)9798350329292 (ISBN)
Conference
98th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, VTC 2023-Fall, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, 10-13 October, 2023
Projects
SafeSmart
Funder
Knowledge FoundationELLIIT - The Linköping‐Lund Initiative on IT and Mobile Communications
Note

Fuding: The Knowledge Foundation Project ”SafeSmart”, ELLIIT Strategic Research Net- work and Helmholtz Program “Engineering Digital Futures”

Available from: 2024-01-15 Created: 2024-01-15 Last updated: 2024-01-15Bibliographically approved
Winikoff, M. & Sidorenko, G. (2023). Evaluating a Mechanism for Explaining BDI Agent Behaviour. In: Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems, AAMAS: . Paper presented at 22nd International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems, AAMAS 2023, 29 May-2 June, 2023 (pp. 2283-2285). Richland, SC: The International Foundation for Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (IFAAMAS), 2023-May
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluating a Mechanism for Explaining BDI Agent Behaviour
2023 (English)In: Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems, AAMAS, Richland, SC: The International Foundation for Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (IFAAMAS), 2023, Vol. 2023-May, p. 2283-2285Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We conducted a survey to evaluate a previously proposed mechanism for explaining Belief-Desire-Intention (BDI) agents using folk psychological concepts (belief, desires, and valuings). We also consider the relationship between trust in the specific autonomous system, and general trust in technology. We find that explanations that include valuings are particularly likely to be preferred by the study participants. We also found evidence that single-factor explanations, as used in some previous work, are too short. © 2023 International Foundation for Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (www.ifaamas.org). All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Richland, SC: The International Foundation for Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (IFAAMAS), 2023
Keywords
Belief-Desire-Intention (BDI), Explainable Agency, Explanation
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-52042 (URN)2-s2.0-85171255666 (Scopus ID)978-1-4503-9432-1 (ISBN)
Conference
22nd International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems, AAMAS 2023, 29 May-2 June, 2023
Available from: 2023-11-17 Created: 2023-11-17 Last updated: 2023-11-17Bibliographically approved
Winikoff, M. & Sidorenko, G. (2023). Evaluating a Mechanism for Explaining BDI Agent Behaviour. In: Davide Calvaresi; Amro Najjar; Andrea Omicini; Reyhan Aydoğan; Rachele Carli; Giovanni Ciatto; Yazan Mualla; Kary Främling (Ed.), Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on EXTRAAMAS 2023: . Paper presented at The 5th International Workshop on EXplainable and TRAnsparent AI and Multi-Agent Systems (EXTRAAMAS 2023), London, United Kingdom, 29 May, 2023 (pp. 18-37). Heidelberg: Springer, 14127
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluating a Mechanism for Explaining BDI Agent Behaviour
2023 (English)In: Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on EXTRAAMAS 2023 / [ed] Davide Calvaresi; Amro Najjar; Andrea Omicini; Reyhan Aydoğan; Rachele Carli; Giovanni Ciatto; Yazan Mualla; Kary Främling, Heidelberg: Springer, 2023, Vol. 14127, p. 18-37Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Explainability of autonomous systems is important to supporting the development of appropriate levels of trust in the system, as well as supporting system predictability. Previous work has proposed an explanation mechanism for Belief-Desire-Intention (BDI) agents that uses folk psychological concepts, specifically beliefs, desires, and valuings. In this paper we evaluate this mechanism by conducting a survey. We consider a number of explanations, and assess to what extent they are considered believable, acceptable, and comprehensible, and which explanations are preferred. We also consider the relationship between trust in the specific autonomous system, and general trust in technology. We find that explanations that include valuings are particularly likely to be preferred by the study participants, whereas those explanations that include links are least likely to be preferred. We also found evidence that single-factor explanations, as used in some previous work, are too short. © 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Heidelberg: Springer, 2023
Series
Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence (LNAI) ; 14127
Keywords
Belief-Desire-Intention (BDI), Evaluation, Explainable Agency
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-51781 (URN)10.1007/978-3-031-40878-6_2 (DOI)2-s2.0-85172283127 (Scopus ID)9783031408779 (ISBN)
Conference
The 5th International Workshop on EXplainable and TRAnsparent AI and Multi-Agent Systems (EXTRAAMAS 2023), London, United Kingdom, 29 May, 2023
Available from: 2023-11-16 Created: 2023-11-16 Last updated: 2023-11-17Bibliographically approved
Sidorenko, G., Plöger, D., Thunberg, J. & Vinel, A. (2022). Emergency braking with ACC: how much does V2V communication help. IEEE Networking Letters, 4(3), 157-161
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Emergency braking with ACC: how much does V2V communication help
2022 (English)In: IEEE Networking Letters, E-ISSN 2576-3156, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 157-161Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper provides a safety analysis for emergency braking scenarios involving consecutive vehicles which utilize adaptive cruise control (ACC) with a constant-distance policy together with vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication. We identify analytically, how the minimum safe inter-vehicle distance(IVD) that allows avoiding rear-end collision can be shortened with the use of electronic emergency brake lights and derive the explicit dependency of such IVDs on V2V communication time delay. We further show how these results can be used to compute probabilities of safe braking in the presence of packet losses.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2022
Keywords
Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC), Cooperative Intelligent Transportation System (C-ITS), Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communication, emergency braking, road safety, ITS-G5, IEEE 802.11p
National Category
Control Engineering Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-46299 (URN)10.1109/LNET.2022.3190244 (DOI)
Projects
Safety of Connected Intelligent Vehicles in Smart Cities – SafeSmartEmergency Vehicle Traffic Light Preemption in Cities – EPIC
Funder
Knowledge FoundationVinnovaELLIIT - The Linköping‐Lund Initiative on IT and Mobile Communications
Note

Som manuskript i avhandling / As manuscript in thesis

Available from: 2022-02-08 Created: 2022-02-08 Last updated: 2022-10-24Bibliographically approved
Sidorenko, G., Thunberg, J., Sjöberg, K., Fedorov, A. & Vinel, A. (2022). Safety of Automatic Emergency Braking in Platooning. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 71(3), 2319-2332
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Safety of Automatic Emergency Braking in Platooning
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2022 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, ISSN 0018-9545, E-ISSN 1939-9359, Vol. 71, no 3, p. 2319-2332Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A platoon comprises a string of consecutive highly automated vehicles traveling together. Platooning allows for increased road utilization and reduced fuel consumption due to short inter-vehicular distances. Safety in terms of guaranteeing no rear-end collisions is of utmost importance for platooning systems to be deployed in practice. We compare how safely emergency braking can be handled by emerging V2V communications on the one hand and by radar-based measurements of existing AEBS on the other. We show that even under conservative assumptions on the V2V communications, such an approach significantly outperforms AEBS with an ideal radar sensor in terms of allowed inter-vehicle distances and response times. Furthermore, we design two emergency braking strategies for platooning based on V2V communications. The first braking strategy assumes centralized coordination by the leading vehicle and exploits necessary optimal conditions of a constrained optimization problem, whereas the second -- the more conservative solution -- assumes only local information and is distributed in nature. Both strategies are also compared with the AEBS.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2022
Keywords
platooning, safety, vehicle-to-vehicle communication (V2V), radar, automatic emergency braking systems
National Category
Communication Systems Telecommunications Control Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-46175 (URN)10.1109/tvt.2021.3138939 (DOI)000769985100012 ()2-s2.0-85122316213 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Safety of Connected Intelligent Vehicles in Smart Cities – SafeSmart
Funder
Knowledge FoundationVinnovaELLIIT - The Linköping‐Lund Initiative on IT and Mobile Communications
Available from: 2022-01-05 Created: 2022-01-05 Last updated: 2022-05-09Bibliographically approved
Sidorenko, G. (2022). Safety of Cooperative Automated Driving: Analysis and Optimization. (Licentiate dissertation). Halmstad: Halmstad University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Safety of Cooperative Automated Driving: Analysis and Optimization
2022 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

New cooperative intelligent transportation system (C-ITS) applications become enabled thanks to advances in communication technologies between vehicles(V2V) and with the infrastructure (V2I). Communicating vehicles share information with each other and cooperate, which results in improved safety, fuel economy, and traffic efficiency. An example of a C-ITS application is platooning, which comprises a string of vehicles that travel together with short inter-vehicle distances (IVDs).

Any solution related to C-ITS must comply with high safety requirements in order to pass standardization and be commercially deployed. Furthermore, trusted safety levels should be assured even for critical scenarios.

This thesis studies the conditions that guarantee safety in emergency braking scenarios for heterogeneous platooning, or string-like, formations of vehicles. In such scenarios, the vehicle at the head of the string emergency brakes and all following vehicles have to automatically react in time to avoid rear-end collisions. The reaction time can be significantly decreased with vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication usage since the leader can explicitly inform other platooning members about the critical braking.

The safety analysis conducted in the thesis yields computationally efficient methods and algorithms for calculating minimum inter-vehicle distances that allow avoiding rear-end collisions with a predefined high guarantee. These IVDs are theoretically obtained for an open-loop and a closed-loop configurations. The former implies that follower drives with a constant velocity until braking starts, whereas in the latter, an adaptive cruise control (ACC) with a constant-distance policy serves as a controller. In addition, further optimization of inter-vehicle distances in the platoon is carried out under an assumption of centralized control. Such an approach allows achieving better fuel consumption and road utilization.

The performed analytical comparison suggests that our proposed V2V communication based solution is superior to classical automated systems, such as automatic emergency braking system (AEBS), which utilizes only onboard sensors and no communication. Wireless communication, enabling to know the intentions of other vehicles almost immediately, allows for smaller IVDs whilst guaranteeing the same level of safety.

Overall, the presented thesis highlights the importance of C-ITS and, specifically, V2V in the prevention of rear-end collisions in emergency scenarios. Future work directions include an extension of the obtained results by considering more advanced models of vehicles, environment, and communication settings; and applying the proposed algorithms of safety guaranteeing to other controllers, such as ACC with a constant time headway policy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Halmstad: Halmstad University Press, 2022. p. 33
Series
Halmstad University Dissertations ; 83
Keywords
platooning, Cooperative Intelligent Transportation System (C-ITS), Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communication, emergency braking, road safety, ITS-G5, IEEE 802.11p, automated driving
National Category
Control Engineering Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-46288 (URN)978-91-88749-76-5 (ISBN)978-91-88749-75-8 (ISBN)
Presentation
2022-03-03, Wigforss, Kristian IV:s väg 3, Halmstad, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2022-02-09 Created: 2022-02-08 Last updated: 2022-02-09Bibliographically approved
Sidorenko, G., Fedorov, A., Thunberg, J. & Vinel, A. (2022). Towards a Complete Safety Framework for Longitudinal Driving. IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Vehicles, 7(4), 809-814
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards a Complete Safety Framework for Longitudinal Driving
2022 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Vehicles, ISSN 2379-8858, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 809-814Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Formal models for the safety validation of autonomous vehicles have become increasingly important. To this end, we present a safety framework for longitudinal automated driving. This framework allows calculating minimum safe inter-vehicular distances for arbitrary ego vehicle control policies. We use this framework to enhance the Responsibility-Sensitive Safety (RSS) model and models based on it, which fail to cover situations where the ego vehicle has a higher decelerating capacity than its preceding vehicle. For arbitrary ego vehicle control policies, we show how our framework can be applied by substituting real (possibly computationally intractable) controllers with upper bounding functions. This comprises a general approach for longitudinal safety, where safety guarantees for the upper-bounded system are equivalent to those for the original system but come at the expense of larger inter-vehicular distances. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2022
Keywords
Automated Driving, Brakes, Collision Avoidance, Responsibility-Sensitive Safety, Roads, Safety, Safety Validation, Switches, Time factors, Trajectory, Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communications, Vehicular ad hoc networks
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-48532 (URN)10.1109/TIV.2022.3209910 (DOI)000906805200003 ()2-s2.0-85139526718 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-10-28 Created: 2022-10-28 Last updated: 2023-08-21Bibliographically approved
Winikoff, M., Sidorenko, G., Dignum, V. & Dignum, F. (2022). Why Bad Coffee? Explaining BDI Agent Behaviour with Valuings (Extended Abstract). In: IJCAI International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence: . Paper presented at 31st International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI), Vienna, Austria, 23-29 July 2022 (pp. 5782-5786). Palo Alto, CA: AAAI Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Why Bad Coffee? Explaining BDI Agent Behaviour with Valuings (Extended Abstract)
2022 (English)In: IJCAI International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Palo Alto, CA: AAAI Press, 2022, p. 5782-5786Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

An important issue in deploying an autonomous system is how to enable human users and stakeholders to develop an appropriate level of trust in the system. It has been argued that a crucial mechanism to enable appropriate trust is the ability of a system to explain its behaviour. Obviously, such explanations need to be comprehensible to humans. Due to the perceived similarity in functioning between humans and autonomous systems, we argue that it makes sense to build on the results of extensive research in social sciences that explores how humans explain their behaviour. Using similar concepts for explanation is argued to help with comprehensibility, since the concepts are familiar. Following work in the social sciences, we propose the use of a folk-psychological model that utilises beliefs, desires, and “valuings”. We propose a formal framework for constructing explanations of the behaviour of an autonomous system, present an (implemented) algorithm for giving explanations, and present evaluation results. © 2022 International Joint Conferences on Artificial Intelligence. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Palo Alto, CA: AAAI Press, 2022
Series
International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence. Proceedings, ISSN 1045-0823
National Category
Social Sciences Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-48328 (URN)2-s2.0-85137932084 (Scopus ID)9781956792003 (ISBN)
Conference
31st International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI), Vienna, Austria, 23-29 July 2022
Available from: 2022-10-11 Created: 2022-10-11 Last updated: 2022-10-19Bibliographically approved
Thunberg, J., Sidorenko, G., Sjöberg, K. & Vinel, A. (2021). Efficiently Bounding the Probabilities of Vehicle Collision at Intelligent Intersections. IEEE Open Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems, 2, 47-59
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Efficiently Bounding the Probabilities of Vehicle Collision at Intelligent Intersections
2021 (English)In: IEEE Open Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems, E-ISSN 2687-7813, Vol. 2, p. 47-59Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Intelligent intersections have the potential to serve as an integral part of tomorrow’s traffic infrastructure. Wireless communication is key to enabling such technology. We consider a scenario where two flows of vehicles are to traverse an intelligent intersection. We investigate safety in emergency braking scenarios, where one of the vehicles in a flow suddenly decides to emergency brake and emergency braking messages are broadcast to affected vehicles. We provide a framework for computing lower bounds on probabilities for safe braking – collisions between vehicles are to be avoided. If we require that a crash or collision, for example, occurs at most once in a million scenarios, our approach allows for computation of lower bounds on the time-varying (or distance-varying) packet loss probabilities to ensure this. One of the benefits of the proposed framework is that the computational time is reduced; eliminating, for example, the need for time-consuming Monte Carlo simulations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York, NY: IEEE, 2021
Keywords
V2X, vehicular communications, collision, crash, safety, C-ITS, intelligent intersection, autonomous vehicles, ISO 21448
National Category
Communication Systems Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-43848 (URN)10.1109/OJITS.2021.3058449 (DOI)000710543200004 ()2-s2.0-85111610452 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge FoundationSwedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchEU, Horizon 2020The Research Council of NorwayVinnovaELLIIT - The Linköping‐Lund Initiative on IT and Mobile Communications
Note

Funding: This work was supported in part by the Knowledge Foundation (KKS) in the framework of “Safety of Connected Intelligent Vehicles in Smart Cities—SafeSmart” Project (2019–2023); in part by the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF) in the framework of Strategic Mobility Program (2019-2020); in part by the EU Horizon 2020 Program under in the framework of “ENabling SafE Multi-Brand pLatooning for Europe—ENSEMBLE” Project (2018-2021); in part by the Research Council of Norway (RCN) in the framework of “Finding a Critical Speed Function Ahead of a Road Section for Vehicles in Motion—CriSp” Project (2020-2022); in part by the Swedish Innovation Agency (VINNOVA) in the framework of “Emergency Vehicle Traffic Light Pre-Emption in Cities – EPIC” Project (2020–2022); and in part by ELLIIT Strategic Research Network.

Available from: 2021-02-11 Created: 2021-02-11 Last updated: 2023-06-08Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-8587-2251

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